6 Debian Desktops - Computer Networking for SMEs

General index of the series: Computer Networks for SMEs: Introduction

In this post we suggest one of the ways to enter the universe Debian: installing and configuring the Desktop.

It is aimed above all at the Initiates o Unew suarios, awaiting a more detailed explanation of how to get a Debian with a sleek and light desktop, starting from the first installation CD-ROM + the repositories.

At the end of reading this article, we will have a clear idea of ​​how to install the different Desktop Environments in Debian such as:

  • KDE
  • GNOME
  • Cinnamon
  • MATE
  • XFCE
  • LXDE

We know that we are in the middle of the Debian 8 "Jessie" era. However, I comment that some time ago, we published in FromLinux, And in humans, a series of articles dedicated to the desktop that, although they were written in the days of Debian 6 "Squeeze" and early Wheezy, are still valid today in the way of approaching how to make a desktop with Debian. These articles were:

  • That a tree does not prevent us from seeing the forest
  • That a tree does not prevent us from seeing the forest II
  • That a tree does not prevent us from seeing the forest III
  • Installing Debian with the Xfce desktop
  • Squeeze with Xfce at hand
  • The fast and elegant KDE

In all the articles dedicated to the Desktop or Desktop topic about Debian, what we wanted - and still want - to make clear is that, from the first installation CD-ROM + the repositories, whether local or published in our Enterprise LAN or on the Internet, we can get a desk but light, very stylish, or both at the same time depending on our learning, knowledge and skills.

We do not have the need to download several CDs or DVDs depending on the distribution in question, to obtain a desktop with Debian. Only the first one and access to the repositories.

We are of the opinion that Debian, The Universal Operating System, is one of the lightest distributions like employee - Workstation that we can find in the universe Linux.

Desktop Environments in Debian

We said in the previous article following:

  • If in the "Selection of programs" step we leave the option [X] Debian desktop environment checked, the program will install the GNOME 3.14 or higher graphical environment, depending on the repositories we have..

Specifically, we refer to the installation process from the 1st CD-ROM when it comes to the "Selecting programs" step.

If other Linux distributions offer us at least one DVD for the installation of their operating systems with a desktop environment, it is common sense to think that the installation of GNOME 3, from a single CD, will NOT be complete, far from it.

That is why we prefer to do the clean install of Debian, and then install the Desktop of our choice from repositories.

Minimal initial and common settings

With the express objective of facilitating the follow-up of the proposed procedure, we include here the Minimum Initial Configurations to follow, BEFORE to install any Desktop on Debian.

Initial Parameters

Domain Name: fromlinux.fan
Name of the team : sysadmin
FQDN: sysadmin.fromlinux.fan
IP adress : 192.168.10.3
SubNet: 192.168.10.0/24
Normal user: buzz
User full name: Debian First OS Buzz

From the server console and as the user root, we declare the necessary repositories, which in our case are local:

root @ sysadmin: ~ # nano /etc/apt/sources.list
deb file: / tera / repos / jessie / debian / jessie main contrib non-free deb file: / tera / repos / jessie / debian-security / jessie / updates main contrib non-free deb file: / tera / repos / jessie / debian-multimedia / jessie main non-free

We rebuilt the package warehouse and updated the system:

root @ sysadmin: ~ # aptitude update
root @ sysadmin: ~ # aptitude upgrade

If many packages were updated, especially the kernel or kernel, it is recommended to restart:

root @ sysadmin: ~ # reboot

We install some utilities

root @ sysadmin: ~ # aptitude install finger ssh ccze htop mc deborphan

Each Initiates We must know what they do and what are the main characteristics of the installed packages:

root @ sysadmin: ~ # man finger
root @ sysadmin: ~ # finger buzz
Login: buzz Name: Debian First OS Buzz Directory: / home / buzz Shell: / bin / bash On since Wed Nov 16 07:08 (EST) on pts / 0 from 192.168.10.1 3 seconds idle No mail. No Plan.

root @ sysadmin: ~ # htop
root @ sysadmin: ~ # tail -f -n 25 / var / log / syslog | ccze
root @ sysadmin: ~ # mc
root @ sysadmin: ~ # man orphaner
root @ sysadmin: ~ # orphaner

We edit some configuration files

root @ sysadmin: ~ # nano / etc / network / interfaces
# This file describes the network interfaces available on your system # and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces (5). source /etc/network/interfaces.d/* # The loopback network interface auto lo iface lo inet loopback # The primary network interface allow-hotplug eth0 iface eth0 inet static address 192.168.10.3 netmask 255.255.255.0 network 192.168.10.0 broadcast 192.168.10.255. 192.168.10.1 gateway 127.0.0.1 # dns- * options are implemented by the resolvconf package, if installed dns-nameservers XNUMX dns-search from linux.fan
# End file / etc / network / interfaces

root @ sysadmin: ~ # nano / etc / hosts 127.0.0.1 localhost 192.168.10.3 sysadmin.fromlinux.fan sysadmin
# The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts :: 1 localhost ip6-localhost ip6-loopback ff02 :: 1 ip6-allnodes ff02 :: 2 ip6-allrouters
# End / etc / hosts file

root @ sysadmin: ~ # nano / etc / hostname
sysadmin

root @ sysadmin: ~ # nano / etc / mailname
sysadmin.fromlinux.fan

root @ sysadmin: ~ # nano /etc/resolv.conf
search from linux.fan nameserver 127.0.0.1

root @ sysadmin: ~ # reboot
    
Debian GNU / Linux 8 sysadmin tty1
sysadmin login: root Password:
    Last login: Wed Nov 16 07:08:54 2016 from 192.168.10.1 Linux sysadmin 3.16.0-4-amd64 # 1 SMP Debian 3.16.7-ckt11-1 + deb8u2 (2015-07-17) x86_64 
    The programs included with the Debian GNU / Linux system are free software; the exact distribution terms for each program are described in the individual files in / usr / share / doc / * / copyright. Debian GNU / Linux comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by applicable law.

root @sysadmin: ~ # hostname
sysadmin

root @ sysadmin: ~ # hostname -fqdn
sysadmin.fromlinux.fan

root @ sysadmin: ~ # ifconfig
eth0 Link encap: Ethernet HWaddr 70: 54: d2: 19: ad: 65 inet addr: 192.168.10.3 Bcast: 192.168.10.255 Mask: 255.255.255.0 ....

We clean unnecessary dependencies and orphaned packages -if they exist- in general

root @ sysadmin: ~ # aptitude install -f
root @ sysadmin: ~ # aptitude purge ~ c
root @ sysadmin: ~ # orphaner
root @ sysadmin: ~ # aptitude clean
root @ sysadmin: ~ # aptitude autoclean

Optional: We change the MTA «Exim4» for the «Postfix»

root @ sysadmin: ~ # aptitude install postfix

postfix-configuration-1

 

postfix-configuration-2

We check Postfix

root @ sysadmin: ~ # telnet localhost 25
Trying :: 1 ... Connected to localhost. Escape character is '^]'. 220 sysadmin.desdelinux.fan ESMTP Postfix (Debian / GNU) ehlo sysadmin.desdelinux.fan 250-sysadmin.desdelinux.fan 250-PIPELINING 250-SIZE 10240000 250-VRFY 250-ETRN 250-STARTTLS 250-ENHANCEDSTATUSCODES 250-ENHANCEDSTATUSCODES 8-ENHANCEDSTATUSCODES 250 quit 221 2.0.0 Bye
Connection closed by foreign host.

We grant the normal user "buzz" administration permissions

lizard @ gandalf: ~ $ ssh buzz@192.168.10.3
buzz@192.168.10.3's password: The programs included with the Debian GNU / Linux system are free software; the exact distribution terms for each program are described in the individual files in / usr / share / doc / * / copyright. Debian GNU / Linux comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by applicable law. Last login: Wed Nov 16 07:49:25 2016 from 192.168.10.1

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ your password: 

root @ sysadmin: / home / buzz # adduser buzz sudo
Adding user `buzz 'to group` sudo' ... Adding user buzz to group sudo Done.

root @ sysadmin: / home / buzz # aptitude install sudo root @ sysadmin: / home / buzz # visudo
.... # User privilege specification root ALL = (ALL: ALL) ALL buzz ALL = (ALL: ALL) ALL ....

root @ sysadmin: / home / buzz # exit

We check the correct operation of sudo:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ ls -la / root /
ls: cannot open / root / directory: Permission denied

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo ls -la / root /
[sudo] password for buzz: total 44 drwx ------ 6 root root 4096 Nov 16 07:40. drwxr-xr-x 22 root root 4096 Nov 12 11:17 .. drwx ------ 2 root root 4096 Nov 16 09:09 .aptitude -rw ------- 1 root root 2038 Nov 16 08 : 00 .bash_history -rw-r - r-- 1 root root 570 Jan 31 2010 .bashrc .....

For computers with a good amount of RAM (4 gigs or more)

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo nano /etc/sysctl.conf
# Add vm.swappiness = 10 to the end

We apply changes immediately:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo sysctl -p
vm.swappiness = 10

We suggest carefully read the final paragraph of the file /etc/sysctl.conf, which contains a series of recommendations to improve the security of the workstation's network connection.

# # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # ## # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # ######## # Additional settings - these settings can improve the network # security of the host and prevent against some network attacks # including spoofing attacks and man in the middle attacks through # redirection. Some network environments, however, require that these # settings are disabled so review and enable them as needed. # # Do not accept ICMP redirects (prevent MITM attacks) # net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects = 0 # net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_redirects = 0 # _or_ # Accept ICMP redirects only for gateways listed in our default # gateway list (enabled by default) # net.ipv4.conf.all.secure_redirects = 1 # # Do not send ICMP redirects (we are not a router) # net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects = 0 # # Do not accept IP source route packets (we are not a router) # net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route = 0 # net.ipv6.conf.all.accept_source_route = 0 # # Log Martian Packets # net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians = 1 # 

So far we have made the minimum initial settings to be able to select and install any of the desktop environments that our old Debian offers us. 😉

KDE, the fast and elegant

The repository we have, Debian 8.1, has the KDE Desktop version 4.14.2-5, according to the version of its main libraries. To install it we run on a console:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ aptitude search kde-desktop | grep task
........ p task-kde-desktop - KDE p task-spanish-kde-desktop - Spanish KDE desktop ........

In passing, let's look at the large number of languages ​​that we can use with KDE. To know the difference between the two packages selected from the long list, we execute:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ aptitude show task-kde-desktop
Package: task-kde-desktop New: yes Status: not installed Version: 3.31 + deb8u1 Priority: optional Section: tasks Developer: Debian Install System Team Architecture: all Uncompressed size: 21.5 k Depends on: tasksel (= 3.31 + deb8u1), task-desktop, kde-standard, kdm Recommends: kdeaccessibility, libqtgui4-perl, libqtcore4-perl, k3b, k3b-i18n, plasma-widget -networkmanagement, kdesudo, libreoffice-kde, apper, gimp, iceweasel, libreoffice, libreoffice-help-en-us, mythes-en-us, hunspell-en-us, hyphen-en-us, system-config-printer Description: KDE This task package is used to install the Debian desktop, featuring the KDE desktop environment, and with other packages that Debian users expect to have available on the desktop.

The last paragraph tells us, in a free translation:

  • This task package is used to install the Debian Desktop, characterized by the GNOME desktop environment, and with other packages that Debian users hope to have available on their desktop..
buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ aptitude show task-spanish-kde-desktop
Package: task-spanish-kde-desktop New: yes Status: not installed Version: 3.31 + deb8u1 Priority: optional Section: tasks Developer: Debian Install System Team Architecture: all Uncompressed size: 21.5 k Depends on: tasksel (= 3.31 + deb8u1) Recommends: kde-l10n-en Description: Spanish KDE desktop This task localises the KDE desktop in Spanish.

The last line reads approximately:

  • This task locates the KDE Desktop in Spanish.

To install Fast and Elegant KDE, we run:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo aptitude install task-kde-desktop task-spanish-kde-desktop
[sudo] password for buzz: The following NEW packages will be installed: adwaita-icon-theme {a} akonadi-backend-mysql {a} akonadi-server {a} ........ 0 updated packages, 1079 new ones installed, 0 to remove and 0 not updated. I need to download 782 MB of files. After unpacking, 2,275 MB will be used. Do you want to continue? [Y / n /?]

To which we answer that "Y". Yes aptitude it returns a message similar to this:

NOTICE: Unsigned versions of the following packages will be installed! Unsigned packets can compromise system security. You should only proceed with the installation if you are completely sure what you want ............ (Package List) ............... ignore this notice and continue anyway? To continue, enter "Yes"; to abort, enter "No":

We respond by writing "Yes" without fear.

After finishing the installation process of all the packages, if we want to have a "preview" or "look" of the new desktop, we execute:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ startx

And we wait for the KDE desktop to load. When we finish our initial walk we restart the equipment through the graphical interface itself.

KDE install the package by default KDM «KDE Display Manager for X11«. KDM it manages a whole series of X servers or "Xservers", running on the local machine or on remote machines. Allows different users to easily log into the Desktop Environment of their choice, connect to a remote server XDMCP «X Display Manager Control Protocol«, Or turn off the system.

KDM supports custom themes and can display the list of users with their icons. For more information run in a console aptitude show KDM o man KDM after installed.

KDE Full

Up to this point we have a facility estándard, to call it in some way, from KDE Desktop. However, for KDE lovers, we recommend that you investigate further, as shown below:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ aptitude show kde-full
Package: kde-full New: yes Status: not installed Version: 5:84 Priority: optional Section: metapackages Developer: Debian Qt / KDE Maintainers Architecture: all Uncompressed size: 36.9k Depends on: kde-plasma-desktop (> = 5:84), kde-plasma-netbook (> = 5:84), kdeadmin (> = 4: 4.11.3), kdeartwork (> = 4: 4.11.3), kdegraphics (> = 4: 4.11.3), kdeedu (> = 4: 4.11.3), kdegames (> = 4: 4.11.3), kdemultimedia (> = 4: 4.11.3 .4), kdenetwork (> = 4.11.3: 4), kdeutils (> = 4.11.3: 4), kdepim (> = 4.11.3: 4), kdeplasma-addons (> = 4.11.3: 5) Recommend : kde-standard (> = 84:4), kdeaccessibility (> = 4.11.3: 4), kdesdk (> = 4.11.3: 4), kdetoys (> = 4.11.3: 4), kdewebdev (> = 4.11.3 : 10) Suggest: kde-l4n (> = 4.11.3: 1), calligra (> = 2.6.4: 5), xorg Break: kde-minimal (<57:XNUMX) Provide: kde-software-compilation Description: complete KDE Software Compilation for end users KDE is the powerful, integrated, and easy-to-use Free Software desktop platform and suite of applications. This metapackage includes all the official modules released with KDE Sotware Compilation that are not specific to development and as well other KDE applications that are useful for a desktop user. This includes multimedia, networking, graphics, education, games, system administration tools, and other artwork and utilities. Main page: http://www.kde.org Brands: role :: metapackage, suite :: kde

And if you want to have the full desktop environment:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo aptitude install kde-full
[sudo] password for buzz: The following NEW packages will be installed: advancecomp {a} akonadiconsole {a} amor {a} analitza-common {a} autopoint {a} ........ 0 updated packages, 333 new ones installed, 0 to remove and 0 not updated. I need to download 466 MB of files. After unpacking, 1,238 MB will be used. Do you want to continue? [Y / n /?]

And after finishing the installation, we restart the computer and browse through all the options that this Great KDE Desktop has ... despite the fact that it consumes more resources compared to other desktop environments, and despite the fact that I have personally used it quite a bit little bit.

Suggestion: DO NOT stop consulting the KDE Help Center

Sometimes I use English names, because they better identify the original name of the package or program. Translating them is not easy for me. kdm where kde-help

GNOME, the classic

The repository we have, Debian 8.1, has the GNOME Desktop version 3.14.1-1, according to the version of its main libraries. To install it we run on a console:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ aptitude search gnome-desktop | grep task
p task-gnome-desktop - GNOME ........

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ aptitude show task-gnome-desktop
Package: task-gnome-desktop New: yes Status: not installed Version: 3.31 + deb8u1 Priority: optional Section: tasks Developer: Debian Install System Team Architecture: all Uncompressed size: 21.5 k Depends on: tasksel (= 3.31 + deb8u1), task-desktop, gnome-core Recommends: gnome, libreoffice-gnome, libreoffice-evolution, gimp, synaptic, iceweasel, libreoffice, libreoffice-help -en-us, mythes-en-us, hunspell-en-us, hyphen-en-us, network-manager-gnome Description: GNOME This task package is used to install the Debian desktop, featuring the GNOME desktop environment, and with other packages that Debian users expect to have available on the desktop.

The last paragraph tells us, in a free translation:

  • This task package is used to install the Debian Desktop, characterized by the GNOME desktop environment, and with other packages that Debian users hope to have available on their desktop..

So if we listen to Debian like we always try to do, we run:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo aptitude install task-gnome-desktop
[sudo] password for buzz: The following NEW packages will be installed: accountsservice {a} adwaita-icon-theme {a} aisleriot {a} alacarte {a} ..........
0 updated packages, 1210 new ones installed, 0 to remove and 0 not updated.
I need to download 877 MB of files. After unpacking 2,689 MB will be used. Do you want to continue? [Y / n /?]

To which we answer that "Y". Yes aptitude it returns a message similar to this:

NOTICE: Unsigned versions of the following packages will be installed! Unsigned packets can compromise system security. You should only proceed with the installation if you are completely sure what you want ............ (Package List) ............... ignore this notice and continue anyway? To continue, enter "Yes"; to abort, enter "No":

Of course we answer "Yes."

After finishing the installation process of all the packages, if we want to have a "preview" or "look" of the new desktop, we execute:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ startx

And we wait for the GNOME-Desktop to load. At the end of the initial review and through the graphical interface itself, we restart the computer.

GNOME installs the package by default gdm3 «GNOME Display Manager«. Provides the equivalent of the console prompt "login:" for the "X Windows System«. Besides asking for the authentication credentials - username and password - it starts the graphical session. For more information, try the console commands «aptitude show gdm3«, And after installed «man gdm3«.

We clarify that when installing the package task-gnome-desktop, the package is installed gnome, and if we execute aptitude show gnome in a console, we will realize that it is a meta-package that depends on the standard distribution of the GNOME Desktop environment, plus the complete assortment of plugins and applications that are integrated into GNOME and Debian, and provides the best possible environment to date… The latest in italics and bold, not me. It says so GNOME. 😉

Sometimes I use names in English, because they better identify the original name of the package or program. Translating them is not easy for me.

gdm3

Note that gdm3 identifies the user by their full name.
After entering the password and pressing Enter or clicking the mouse pointer on the "Login" button, we arrive at the GNOME Desktop.

gnome3

It only remains for us to customize the GNOME Desktop according to our needs and tastes. Enjoy and enrich this other Grande Desktop!

Cinnamon, the cinnamon

The repository we have, Debian 8.1, has the Cinnamon version 2.16-5. To install it we run on a console:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ aptitude search cinnamon-desktop | grep task
p task-cinnamon-desktop - Cinnamon                                 

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ aptitude show task-cinnamon-desktop
Package: task-cinnamon-desktop New: yes Status: not installed Version: 3.31 + deb8u1 Priority: optional Section: tasks Developer: Debian Install System Team Architecture: all Uncompressed size: 21.5 k Depends on: tasksel (= 3.31 + deb8u1), task-desktop, cinnamon-desktop-environment Description: Cinnamon This task package is used to install the Debian desktop, featuring the Cinnamon desktop environment, and with other packages that Debian users expect to have available on the desktop.

The last paragraph tells us, in a free translation:

  • This task package is used to install the Debian Desktop, characterized by the Cinnamon desktop environment, and with other packages that Debian users hope to have available on their desktop..

To have it installed, we execute:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo aptitude install task-cinnamon-desktop
[sudo] password for buzz: The following NEW packages will be installed: accountsservice {a} adwaita-icon-theme {a} aisleriot {a} alsa-base {a} ..........
0 updated packages, 1137 new ones installed, 0 to remove and 0 not updated. I need to download 701 MB of files. After unpacking, 2,328 MB will be used. Do you want to continue? [Y / n /?]

To which we answer that "Y". Yes aptitude it returns a message similar to this:

NOTICE: Unsigned versions of the following packages will be installed! Unsigned packets can compromise system security. You should only proceed with the installation if you are completely sure what you want ............ (Package List) ............... ignore this notice and continue anyway? To continue, enter "Yes"; to abort, enter "No":

We answer "Yes", no more.

After finishing the installation process of all the packages, if we want to have a "preview" or "look" of the new desktop, we execute:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ startx

And we wait for the Cinnamon Desktop. When we finish the first review and through the graphical interface itself, we restart the computer.

Cinnamon install the package by default lightdm  «Simple Display Manager» developed by the group «Debian Xfce Maintainers«. lightdm provides an X11 Screen Manager, whose main features are:

  • Have a lightweight codebase
  • It complies with the standards of PAM, ConsoleKit, etc.
  • It has a very well defined interface between the Xserver-Xorg server and the user interface.
  • It can be fully configured through Themes or "Themes".

For more information we run in a console aptitude show lightdm o man lightdm after installed.

lightdm

Cinnamon requires for its correct operation, the Hardware Video Acceleration. If we run it in a virtual machine, on a Host or «Host» with a video card that does not support hardware acceleration, as is our case in particular, when entering the desktop environment itself, we may receive the following message:

cinnamon

We click on it and it will disappear. He Classic Cinnamon Menu, it will be shown to us in all its splendor:

cinnamon-menu

What have we learned so far?

It is not idle that we ask ourselves, what have we learned so far? From the process seen above for the three most used desktops. In all cases, when we run aptitude show task- -desktop, Debian returns us via aptitude, the following final message:

  • This task package is used to install the Debian desktop, featuring the kde, gnome, or cinnamon> desktop environment, and with other packages that Debian users expect to have available on the desktop.

The previous message teaches us a lot. The first thing we can infer according to common sense - I think the least common of the senses in humans - is that Debian allows you to install and configure the desktop environment or "Desktop Environment" that you prefer..

Identical final paragraph we get when we execute:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ aptitude show task-mate-desktop
ó
buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ aptitude show task-xfce-desktop
ó
buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ aptitude show task-lxde-desktop

MATE, the green

By far, this is our preferred desk for a Sysadmin Workstation, both for your daily work and for your laboratory at home. We selected it due to its high ease of configuration, lightness, and relatively low memory and processor consumption. It does not require hardware acceleration, or high performance from the computer.

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ aptitude show task-mate-desktop
Package: task-mate-desktop New: yes Status: not installed Version: 3.31 + deb8u1 Priority: optional Section: tasks Developer: Debian Install System Team Architecture: all Uncompressed size: 21.5k Depends on: tasksel (= 3.31 + deb8u1), task-desktop, mate-desktop-environment, lightdm Recommends: gimp, synaptic, iceweasel, libreoffice, libreoffice-help-en-us, mythes -en-us, hunspell-en-us, hyphen-en-us, network-manager-gnome, gnome-orca, libreoffice-gtk Description: MATE This task package is used to install the Debian desktop, featuring the MATE desktop environment, and with other packages that Debian users expect to have available on the desktop.

Note that the developer of the "task- ..." packages is the Debian Install System Team, and NOT the developer of the package or group of packages you install. At the end we read the same paragraph we mentioned earlier about the "Debian desktop".

In other words, the "Debian Install System Team" only cares that You make Your "Debian desktop", and be in the best possible way to start using it. Later, you must customize it according to your needs and tastes.

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo aptitude install task-mate-desktop
[sudo] password for buzz: The following NEW packages will be installed: adwaita-icon-theme {a} alsa-base {a} alsa-utils {a} anacron {a} aspell {a} ........
0 updated packages, 731 new ones installed, 0 to remove and 0 not updated.
I need to download 537 MB of files. After unpacking, 1,698 MB will be used.
Do you want to continue? [Y / n /?]

After answering affirmatively the questions you ask us aptitude, we try to visualize the installed desktop and then restart the computer as in the previous cases.

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ startx

We restart from the same graphic environment through the upper menu System -> Shut down… -> Restart.

As we will see after restarting, MATE installs the package by default lightdm  Simple Display Manager.

Additional packages for MATE Desktop

We suggest the following packages are installed:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo aptitude install mate-desktop-environment-extras
The following NEW packages will be installed: apache2-bin {a} apache2.2-bin box-extensions-common {a} box-gksu {a} box-image-converter {a} box-open-terminal {a} box- sendto {a} box-share {a} dconf-editor {a} gksu {a} gnome-user-guide {a} hddtemp {a} imagemagick {a} imagemagick-6.q16 {a} imagemagick-common {a} libapache2-mod-dnssd {a} libapr1 {a} libaprutil1 {a} libaprutil1-dbd-sqlite3 {a} libaprutil1-ldap {a} libfftw3-double3 {a} libgssdp-1.0-3 {a} libgupnp-1.0-4 { a} libiw30 {a} liblqr-1-0 {a} liblua5.1-0 {a} libmagickcore-6.q16-2 {a} libmagickcore-6.q16-2-extra {a} libmagickwand-6.q16- 2 {a} libmate-sensors-applet-plugin0 {a} libnetpbm10 {a} libopenobex1 {a} libsensors4 {a} libyelp0 {a} mate-desktop-environment-extras mate-gnome-main-menu-applet {a} mate -netspeed {a} mate-sensors-applet {a} mate-user-share {a} mozo {a} netpbm {a} obex-data-server {a} python-crypto {a} python-ldb {a} python -mate-menu {a} python-ntdb {a} python-samba {a} python-tdb {a} samba-common {a} samba-common-bin {a} yelp {a} yelp-xsl {a} 0 updated packages os, 52 new installed, 0 to remove and 0 not updated. I need to download 23.5 MB of files. After unpacking, 87.9 MB will be used. Do you want to continue? [Y / n /?]

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo aptitude install libreoffice-l10n-en libreoffice-help-en buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo aptitude install icedove icedove-l10n-en-en icedove-l10n-en-ar
buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo aptitude install gparted vlc

To personalize, enrich and enjoy the MATE Desktop! mate1 mate2

XFCE, the fast and light mouse

Debian brings the version 4.10.1 of XFCE4, characterized by being a light desktop environment, with a pleasant appearance, and very fast for the descendant UNIX® operating systems. Designed to be productive, it loads and runs applications quickly while conserving system resources. XFCE is very configurable, and it has a window manager that supports transparency and other effects.

Those who decide on the XFCE4 will find its customization a lot of fun. Good worth it. Very good results can be obtained!

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ aptitude show task-xfce-desktop
Package: task-xfce-desktop New: yes Status: not installed Version: 3.31 + deb8u1 Priority: optional Section: tasks Developer: Debian Install System Team Architecture: all Uncompressed size: 21.5k Depends on: tasksel (= 3.31 + deb8u1), task-desktop, xfce4, lightdm Recommends: xfce4-goodies, xfce4-power-manager, xfce4-mixer, xfce4-terminal, mousepad, orage , libreoffice-gtk, dbus-x11, xsane, vlc, quodlibet, evince-gtk | evince, tango-icon-theme, network-manager-gnome, synaptic, iceweasel, libreoffice, libreoffice-help-en-us, mythes-en-us, hunspell-en-us, hyphen-en-us, system-config- printer, gnome-orca Description: Xfce This task package is used to install the Debian desktop, featuring the Xfce desktop environment, and with other packages that Debian users expect to have available on the desktop.

We install most of what is necessary:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo aptitude install task-xfce-desktop \
libreoffice-l10n-en libreoffice-help-en iceweasel-l10n-en-en \
iceweasel-l10n-es-us iceweasel-l10n-es-ar icedove icedove-l10n-es-ar \
icedove-l10n-en-es gparted

We visualize:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ startx

And then we restart through the graphical interface itself. Enjoy and enrich the XFCE desktop! xfce

LXDE, the lightest

If XFCE is light and fast, LXDE it is a little more. LXDE stands for Lightweight X11 Desktop Environment. Highly recommended for servers that require a graphical interface, or that we simply need to provide them with a Desktop.

The packages "speak" for themselves, and is better than any writing on our part:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ aptitude search lxde
p education-desktop-lxde - Debian Edu LXDE desktop applications p live-image-lxde-desktop - Live System Image Components (LXDE desktop p lxde - Metapackage for LXDE p lxde-common - LXDE configuration data p lxde-core - Metapackage for the LXDE core p lxde-icon-theme - LXDE standard icon theme v lxde-settings-daemon - p task-lxde-desktop - LXDE

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ aptitude show lxde
Package: lxde New: yes Status: not installed Version: 6 Priority: optional Section: metapackages Developer: Debian LXDE Maintainers Architecture: all Uncompressed size: 27.6k Depends on: galculator, gpicview, leafpad, lxappearance, lxappearance-obconf, lxde-core, lxde-icon-theme, lxinput, lxrandr, lxsession-edit, lxterminal, xarchiver Recommend: alsamixergui, clipit , deluge | transmission-gtk, evince-gtk | pdf-viewer, gnome-disk-utility, gnome-mplayer, gnome-system-tools, gucharmap, iceweasel | www-browser, lightdm | x-display-manager, lxmusic | audacious, lxpolkit, menu-xdg, usermode, wicd | network-manager-gnome, xserver-xorg Suggests: gimp, libreoffice, lxlauncher, lxtask, pidgin, update-notifier, xfce4-power-manager Description: Metapackage for LXDE The Lightweight X11 Desktop Environment (LXDE) is a project aimed to provide a desktop environment which is lightweight and fast. This package is a metapackage depends on the core components and recommended components of the LXDE. It includes lxde-core, lxappearance, lxinput, lxsession-edit, gpicview, lxterminal, lxrandr, galculator, leafpad and xarchiver. If you just want to pick and choose the core components then feel free to remove this package. Main page: http://www.lxde.org/ Brands: interface :: x11, role :: metapackage, scope :: suite, suite :: TODO, uitoolkit :: gtk

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ aptitude show task-lxde-desktop
Package: task-lxde-desktop New: yes Status: not installed Version: 3.31 + deb8u1 Priority: optional Section: tasks Developer: Debian Install System Team Architecture: all Uncompressed size: 21.5k Depends on: tasksel (= 3.31 + deb8u1), task-desktop, lightdm, lxde Recommends: lxtask, lxlauncher, xsane, libreoffice-gtk, synaptic, iceweasel, libreoffice, libreoffice-help-en -us, mythes-en-us, hunspell-en-us, hyphen-en-us, system-config-printer, gnome-orca Description: LXDE This task package is used to install the Debian desktop, featuring the LXDE desktop environment, and with other packages that Debian users expect to have available on the desktop.

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo aptitude install task-lxde-desktop
[sudo] password for buzz: The following NEW packages will be installed: adwaita-icon-theme {a} alsa-base {a} alsa-utils {a} alsamixergui {a} ........
0 updated packages, 774 new ones installed, 0 to remove and 0 not updated.
I need to download 499 MB of files. After unpacking, 1,568 MB will be used.
Do you want to continue? [Y / n /?]

And we continue the same procedure as with the previous desks. Don't be shy. Customize this extremely lightweight desktop environment and then tell us how it went. lxde

Your Order

As we've seen, getting a Debian desktop is fun. At least it is for us. It has been described the procedure with 6 -six- of them. In all cases, a clean virtual machine has been made and the Desktop Environment subsequently installed.

The ease of «next - next","Security for Darkness","All drivers work OK«, And other details«positives»Which some are used to with other operating systems, are elements that can become a boomerang or« boomerang », which threatens the security of our Workstation, especially if we are directly connected to the WWW Village or the Internet.

I think we must be able to choose our own alternatives. Be owners of our decisions. There is to choose. May each one be Very Happy with His Own Choice.

The next installment?

Qemu-KVM

Remember that this will be a series of articles by Computer Networks for SMEs. We will be waiting for you!


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  1.   Louise. said

    Debian is the best!

  2.   Juan said

    Excellent contributions are being made! Thank you

  3.   Luigys toro said

    What a nice contribution, lately I am using cinnamon, but in general, I have always installed KDE for users

  4.   denis said

    Hello Federico, very good post, keep going so thanks to you I have achieved many things.

  5.   federico said

    Thank you all for commenting and praising this article, which I hope will be useful to many, since it is summarized in a single publication, the 6 possibilities of achieving a good Desktop in Debian 8 "Jessie". On the other hand, I think it makes it very clear, the inherent flexibility that this great has among the operating systems of the GNU / Linux world. We will continue to publish for all readers who visit FromLinux

  6.   dhunter said

    Desktops on Debian look very upstream without many customizations but the stability it offers is priceless. Very good Fico desktop guide. Cheers!

  7.   Rodrigo said

    First of all, thanks a million for the tremendous contribution! second I ask for a suggestion. I want to install Virtualbox on "Jessie" but I would like to manage virtualized machines through a desktop. Which of them do you recommend? that is, which one gets along better with VirtualBox? (Especially considering the comments about the Cinnamon? Thank you very much in advance

  8.   Ismael Alvarez Wong said

    Very good article since the usual thing is to install the Desktop from .ISO installation; It is very useful to know the HowTo of what happens behind when a Desktop is installed in the traditional way.
    Great tip that the ultralight LXDE is recommended for servers that may require a graphical interface; Until now I believed that it was only useful for user equipment with very low performance.
    I agree with Federico 100% that the manual installation of a Desktop demonstrates the great flexibility of Linux OS.

    1.    federico said

      Thank you very much for commenting, friend Wong !.

  9.   federico said

    Thank you friend Dhunter for your comment always well received.

    Rodrigo: you put it in China, as we say here. The package that offers the VirtualBox graphical interface is the "virtualbox-qt". Qt is a Framewrok for C ++ application development. It is multiplatform. The KDE Desktop is developed with Qt. Also check what Synaptic says about the "kdevelop" package. If it is only a graphical interface, I think, I think, that the VirtualBox is more compatible with the KDE. I have used the VirtualBox little and will soon write about Qemu-KVM as an announcement at the end of this article.

    I used VirtualBOX on GNOME and MATE, but little. I think you should think more about the hardware resources you have on hand than about the compatibility of a virtualization package with the desktop. In the end, you must answer your question yourself according to the results you obtain in daily practice. The best criterion of truth is practice.

  10.   Elcarter said

    hi, i need help i'm new to debian and i want to change the style of the bar i don't know how to tell if it's a theme or something like that
    here is the style that I want to place on my debian
    http://muyseguridad.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/GNOME-Classic-en-Tails-2.0.png
    I would appreciate a lot if you could help me put that color on the bars

  11.   Elcarter said

    Hi, I have the debian GNOME installed but I want to put the white color on the bars and I wanted to know if you can help me how to do to place it in this way:

    http://muyseguridad.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/GNOME-Classic-en-Tails-2.0.png

  12.   federico said

    Hello Elcarter: The time I worked with GNOME3 on Wheezy. I got used to customizing it using the GNOME-Control-Center and the GNOME-Tweak-tool. If I wanted to make an adjustment outside of what they offered me, I would forget it and settle for what they gave me. KDE is the king of customization.

  13.   doc said

    I join in the applause for the professionalism of this exhibition but… have I read correctly that this is an article 'for newbies'…? because my first thought is that if a newbie reads this ... they will not want to enter the Debian world. And forgive my sincerity, of course.

    1.    federico said

      Newbies to the Debian world. Readers who have already assembled their desk easily with another layout. And above all, try to make it understood that it is necessary to read, study and practice a little, if you really want to enter the Debian universe. I know there are distributions, including Debian itself, that with a DVD, you get a decent Desktop, and sometimes more than decent. With Debian you get security, stability, speed, little resource consumption that you can allocate to applications and not to the operating system as such, and a few more positive factors. If above the above, it allows me to easily choose and install the Desktop of my preference ... Let everyone draw their own conclusions.

      To the Initiates or Newbies, at least you have to tell more than what is published in this post, so that they are aware.

  14.   crespo88 said

    Hello colleagues, good morning everyone.
    Let's ask rhetorically. Who provides such detailed knowledge in this increasingly competitive world?
    In order not to be absolute, let's say that very few and among them is Fico, thank you colleague. After reading this MAGNIFICENT article I have been very satisfied.
    I have to set up a laboratory and I can even choose with a single repo, without criticizing Ubuntu; I don't need, Xubuntu, or Kubuntu, or the… Ubuntu, Debian is still special.

    1.    federico said

      Thank you @ crepo88 for your meaningful comment. I try to make my articles as didactic as possible, always suggesting that the reader dig deeper and learn for himself. I try to convey how to learn. Thanks again and don't stop following DesdeLinux.

      1.    crespo88 said

        How to stop following from linux Fico, your proposals are great, continue so despite the fact that the linux world is practically free and very well documented, there are always things that are not very clear for those of us who administer and for end users as well.
        Your goal as it is being fulfilled each time with firmer steps. Thank you.

  15.   Ismael Alvarez Wong said

    My words go through this article on the different types of desktops and the previous two on the «Workstation Installation»; great everything, well argued the differences between all of them (I did not know that the Cinnamon requires hardware Video Acceleration).
    Personally, because of my sysadmin profile, I always install the servers without a graphical environment from the CD version of the ISO and when I install my workstation and / or my home pc I have to kill myself looking for who has the DVD version (which by the way are three DVDs although in honestly with the DVD1 is enough) of the ISO;
    I REALLY LEARNED THAT I CAN PREPARE MY workstation WITHOUT A GRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT AND THEN "DUMP" IT WITH MY PREFERRED DESKTOP WHICH IS LXDE or MATE.
    I will continue the series as I am extremely interested in KVM virtualization.

  16.   fico said

    My respects Wong, for your comment, more knowing that it comes from a colleague with many servers under his administration. Thanks for commenting, friend.