Tukwici: Sama da umarni 400 don GNU / Linux waɗanda ya kamata ku sani: D.

Na tsinci kaina a cikin GUTL Wiki wannan cikakken jerin tare da fiye da umarnin 400 para GNU / Linux tare da bayaninsu, kuma ina so in raba su tare da ku don daidaitawa wannan kyakkyawan labarin cewa abokin aikina ya rubuta don koyon zama tare da na'ura mai kwakwalwa.

Bayanin tsarin

  1. baka: nuna ginin injin (1).
  2. sunan -m: nuna ginin injin (2).
  3. uname -r: nuna sigar kwayar da aka yi amfani da ita.
  4. dmidecode -q: nuna abubuwan da ke cikin tsarin.
  5. hdparm -i / dev / hda: nuna halaye na diski mai wuya.
  6. hdparm -tT / dev / sda: yi karatun gwaji a kan diski mai wuya.
  7. cat / proc / cpuinfo: nuna bayanin CPU.
  8. cat / proc / katsewa: nuna katsewa.
  9. cat / proc / meminfo: bincika amfani da ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya.
  10. cat / proc / swaps: nuna fayilolin musanya.
  11. cat / proc / sigar: nuna sigar kwaya.
  12. cat / proc / net / dev: nuna adaftan cibiyar sadarwa da ƙididdiga.
  13. cat / proc / firam: nuna fayilolin fayiloli.
  14. lspci -TV: nuna na'urorin PCI.
  15. lsusb-TV: nuna na'urorin USB.
  16. date: nuna kwanan watan tsarin.
  17. cal 2011: nuna almanac na 2011
  18. Litinin 07 2011: nuna almanac don watan Yuli 2011.
  19. rana 041217002011.00: saita (bayyana, saita) kwanan wata da lokaci.
  20. agogo -w: adana canje-canje na kwanan wata a cikin BIOS.

Kashewa (Sake yi System ko Fitawa)

  1. shutdown -h yanzu: kashe tsarin (1).
  2. shigar 0: kashe tsarin (2).
  3. nufi 0: kashe tsarin (3).
  4. dakatar: kashe tsarin (4).
  5. kashewa -h awanni: mintuna &- Shirye-shiryen tsarin kashewa.
  6. rufewa -c- Soke tsarin rufe tsarin da aka tsara.
  7. kashewa -r yanzu: sake kunnawa (1).
  8. sake yi: sake kunnawa (2).
  9. logout: Kammala.

Fayiloli da kuma kundayen adireshi

  1. cd / gida: shigar da adireshin "gida".
  2. cd ..: koma daya matakin.
  3. cd ../ ..: koma baya 2 matakan.
  4. CD: je tushen tushen.
  5. cd ~ mai amfani1: je zuwa mai amfani da adireshin1.
  6. cd -: je (dawo) zuwa kundin adireshin da ya gabata.
  7. pwd: nuna hanyar kundin aiki.
  8. ls: duba fayiloli a cikin kundin adireshi.
  9. ls-F: duba fayiloli a cikin kundin adireshi.
  10. ls -l: nuna bayanan fayiloli da manyan fayiloli a cikin kundin adireshi.
  11. ls -a: nuna fayilolin ɓoye
  12. ls * [0-9]*: nuna fayiloli da manyan fayiloli masu ɗauke da lambobi.
  13. itace: nuna fayiloli da manyan fayiloli azaman itace farawa daga tushe. (1)
  14. maras kyau: nuna fayiloli da manyan fayiloli azaman itace farawa daga tushe. (2)
  15. mkdir dir1: ƙirƙiri babban fayil ko shugabanci mai suna 'dir1'.
  16. mkdir dir1 dir2: ƙirƙiri manyan fayiloli guda biyu ko kundayen adireshi guda ɗaya (Kirkirar adireshi guda biyu lokaci ɗaya).
  17. mkdir -p / tmp / dir1 / dir2: ƙirƙirar itace.
  18. rm -f fayil1: share fayil din mai suna 'file1'.
  19. rmdir dir1: goge jakar mai suna 'dir1'.
  20. rm -rf dir1: share babban fayil mai suna 'dir1' tare da abinda ke ciki akai-akai. (Idan na goge shi akai-akai ina cewa yana tare da abinda yake ciki).
  21. rm -rf dir1 dir2: share manyan fayiloli biyu (kundayen adireshi) tare da abubuwan da suke ciki akai-akai.
  22. mv dir1 sabuwar_dir: sake suna ko matsar da fayil ko babban fayil (shugabanci).
  23. fayil cp1: kwafa fayil
  24. fayil cp1 fayil2: kwafa fayiloli guda biyu a tare.
  25. cp dir / *.: kwafa duk fayiloli daga kundin adireshi zuwa cikin kundin aiki na yanzu.
  26. cp -a / tmp / dir1.: kwafa shugabanci a cikin kundin aiki na yanzu.
  27. cp - da 1: kwafa shugabanci.
  28. cp -a dir1 dir2: kwafa kundin adireshi guda biyu a tare.
  29. ln -s fayil1 lnk1: createirƙiri alamar alama zuwa fayil ɗin ko kundin adireshi.
  30. ln fayil1 lnk1: ƙirƙiri hanyar haɗi ta zahiri zuwa fayil ko kundin adireshi.
  31. taba -t 0712250000 fayil1: gyara ainihin lokacin (lokacin ƙirƙira) na fayil ko kundin adireshi.
  32. fayil fayil1: fitarwa (juji akan allo) na nau'in mime na fayil ɗin rubutu.
  33. ikon -l: jerin sanannun ciphers.
  34. iconv -f dagaEncoding -t zuwaEncoding inputFile> outputFile: createirƙiri sabon nau'i na fayil ɗin shigarwa da aka ɗauka an shigar dashi dagaEncoding kuma juya shi zuwa ToEncoding.
  35. sami. -maxdepth 1-sunan * .jpg -print -exec convert ”{}” -gyara 80 × 60 “babban yatsu / {}” \;: rukuni ya daidaita girman fayiloli a cikin kundin adireshi na yanzu kuma aika su zuwa kundin adireshi a cikin ra'ayoyin thumbnail (yana buƙatar sauyawa daga ImagemagicK).

Nemo fayiloli

  1. sami / sunan fayil1: bincika fayil da kundin adireshi farawa daga tushen tsarin.
  2. sami / mai amfani1: bincika fayiloli da kundayen adireshi na mai amfani 'mai amfani1'.
  3. nemo / gida / mai amfani1-suna \ *. bin: bincika fayiloli tare da tsawo '. bin 'a cikin kundin adireshi' / gida / mai amfani1 '.
  4. nemo / usr / bin -ty-f f-lokaci +100: nemo fayilolin binary waɗanda ba a yi amfani da su ba a cikin kwanaki 100 da suka gabata.
  5. samu / usr / bin -type f -mtime -10: bincika fayilolin da aka ƙirƙira ko aka canza a cikin kwanaki 10 da suka gabata.
  6. nemo / -name \ *. rpm -exec chmod 755 '{}' \;: bincika fayiloli tare da '.rpm' ƙari kuma gyara izini.
  7. sami / -xdev-sunan \ *. rpm: Bincika fayiloli tare da '.rpm' ƙarin watsi da na'urori masu cirewa kamar cdrom, pen-drive, da sauransu.
  8. gano wuri \ *. ps: nemo fayiloli tare da tsawo '.ps' wanda aka fara aiwatarwa tare da umarnin 'updatedb'.
  9. wanne ya tsaya: nuna wurin binary, taimako ko fayil na tushe. A wannan yanayin yana tambaya inda umarnin 'dakatar' yake.
  10. wanda dakatar: nuna cikakkiyar hanya (duk hanyar) zuwa binary / executable.

Haɗa tsarin fayil

  1. hawa / dev / hda2 / mnt / hda2: hawa diski mai suna hda2. Da farko a bincika kasancewar kundin adireshin '/ mnt / hda2'; idan ba haka ba, dole ne ka ƙirƙiri shi.
  2. umount / dev / hda2: cire wani faifai mai suna hda2. Fitar farko daga aya '/ mnt / hda2.
  3. fuser -km / mnt / hda2- Fitar da karfi lokacin da na'urar ke aiki.
  4. umount -n / mnt / hda2: gudanar da saukarwa ba tare da karanta / etc / mtab ba. Amfani lokacin da aka karanta fayil ɗin kawai ko rumbun kwamfutarka ya cika.
  5. dutse / dev / fd0 / mnt / floppy: Dutsen floppy disk.
  6. dutse / dev / cdrom / mnt / cdrom: hau kan cdrom / dvdrom.
  7. hawa / dev / hdc / mnt / cdrecorder: Dutsen sake rubutawa cd ko dvdrom.
  8. hawa / dev / hdb / mnt / cdrecorder: Dutsen sake rubutawa cd / dvdrom (a dvd).
  9. Dutsen -o madauki fayil.iso / mnt / cdrom: hawa fayil ko iso hoto.
  10. hau -t vfat / dev / hda5 / mnt / hda5: hawa tsarin fayil na FAT32.
  11. hawa / dev / sda1 / mnt / usbdisk: hawa usb pen-drive ko ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya (ba tare da tantance nau'in tsarin fayil ba).
Labari mai dangantaka:
4 umarni don sanin bayanai daga HDD ko ɓangarorinmu

Sararin diski

  1. df -h: nuna jerin abubuwan da aka saka.
  2. ls -lSr | ƙari: nuna girman fayiloli da kundayen adireshi da aka tsara ta girman.
  3. du-sh dir1: Kimanta sararin da 'dir1' yayi amfani dashi.
  4. du -sk * | raba -rn: nuna girman fayiloli da kundayen adireshi da aka tsara ta girman.
  5. rpm -q -a –qf '% 10 {SIZE} t% {NAME} n' | raba -k1,1n: Nuna sararin da aka yi amfani da fakitin rpm ɗin da aka tsara ta girman (Fedora, Redhat da sauransu).
  6. dpkg-query -W -f = '$ {Girman Girman-girke; 10} t $ {Kunshin} n' | raba -k1,1n: nuna sararin da aka yi amfani da fakiti waɗanda aka girka, waɗanda girmansu ya tsara (Ubuntu, Debian da sauransu).

Masu amfani da Kungiyoyi

  1. rukuni na rukuni: ƙirƙiri sabon rukuni.
  2. sunan rukuni-rukuni: share rukuni.
  3. groupmod -n sabon_gungun_ sunan tsohon_gungun_: sake suna wani rukuni
  4. useradd -c “Sunan mahaifi” -g admin -d / gida / mai amfani1 -s / bin / bash user1: Createirƙiri sabon mai amfani na ƙungiyar "admin".
  5. mai amfani da amfani 1: ƙirƙiri sabon mai amfani.
  6. mai amfani -r mai amfani1: share mai amfani ('-r' yana cire kundin adireshin Gida).
  7. usermod -c "Mai amfani FTP”-G tsarin -d / ftp / mai amfani1 -s / bin / nologin mai amfani1: canza halayen mai amfani.
  8. passwd: canza kalmar shiga.
  9. mai amfani passwd 1: canza kalmar shiga ta mai amfani (tushen kawai).
  10. chage -E 2011-12-31 mai amfani1: sanya kalma don kalmar sirri ta mai amfani. A wannan yanayin ya ce maɓallin ya ƙare a ranar 31 ga Disamba, 2011.
  11. pwck: bincika daidaitaccen rubutun tsarin fayil na '/ etc / passwd' da kasancewar masu amfani.
  12. tsakar gida: duba daidaitaccen tsari da tsarin fayil '/ etc / rukuni' da wanzuwar ƙungiyoyi.
  13. newgrp kungiyar_ suna: Yi rijistar sabon rukuni don canza tsoffin rukunin sabbin fayiloli da aka kirkira.

Izini a cikin Fayiloli (Yi amfani da "+" don sanya izini da "-" don cirewa)

  1. ls -lh: Nuna izini.
  2. ls / tmp | pr -T5 -W $ KYAUTATA: raba tashar zuwa ginshikan 5.
  3. chmod ugo + rwx kundin adireshi1: sanya karanta ®, rubuta (w) sannan aiwatar da (x) izini ga mai (u), rukuni (g) da sauransu (o) a kan kundin adireshi 'directory1'.
  4. chmod tafi-rwx kundin adireshi1: cire izinin karantawa ®, rubuta (w) da (x) aiwatarwa ga rukuni (g) da sauransu (o) a kan kundin adireshi 'directory1'.
  5. mai amfani mai amfani1 fayil1: canza mai fayil.
  6. chown -R mai amfani1 directory1: canza mai kundin adireshi da na dukkan fayiloli da kundayen adireshi da ke ciki.
  7. chungiyar chgrp1 fayil1: canza ƙungiyar fayiloli.
  8. mai amfani1: rukunin rukuni1: canza mai amfani da rukuni wanda ke da fayil.
  9. nemo / -perm -u + s: duba duk fayiloli akan tsarin tare da SUID da aka saita.
  10. chmod u + s / bin / fayil1: sanya SUID bit a cikin fayil ɗin binary. Mai amfani da ke aiki da wannan fayil ɗin yana samun gata kamar na mai shi.
  11. chmod mu / bin / fayil1: musaki SUID bit a cikin fayil ɗin binary.
  12. chmod g + s / gida / jama'a: sanya bit SGID a cikin kundin adireshi –ka yi daidai da SUID amma ta directory.
  13. chmod gs / gida / jama'a: musaki wani SGID bit a cikin kundin adireshi.
  14. chmod o + t / gida / jama'a: sanya wani ɗan STIKY a cikin kundin adireshi. Ba da izinin share fayil ga masu mallakar halal kawai.
  15. chmod ot / gida / jama'a: musaki wani STIKY bit a cikin kundin adireshi.

Halaye na musamman a cikin fayiloli (Yi amfani da "+" don saita izini da "-" don cirewa)

  1. chattr + zuwa fayil1: yana bada damar rubutawa ta hanyar buɗe file kawai yanayin append.
  2. Fayil din chattr + c1: yana bawa fayil damar matsawa / raguwa kai tsaye.
  3. Fayel din chattr + d1: yana tabbatar da cewa shirin yayi watsi da share fayiloli yayin adanawa.
  4. Faɗakarwa + na fayil1: yana sa fayil ɗin canzawa, saboda haka baza'a iya share shi ba, canza shi, sake masa suna, ko haɗa shi.
  5. Fayel din chattr + s1: yana bawa fayil damar share shi cikin aminci
  6. Fayel + S fayil1: yana tabbatar da cewa fayil ɗin ya gyaru, an rubuta canje-canje a cikin yanayin aiki kamar yadda yake tare da aiki tare.
  7. chattr + u fayil1: yana baka damar dawo da abubuwan cikin fayil koda kuwa an soke su.
  8. lsattr: nuna halaye na musamman.
Labari mai dangantaka:
Tare da Terminal: Girma da Umurnin Sararin Samaniya

Rumbun adana bayanai da fayilolin matsawa

  1. bunzip2 fayil1.bz2: kwancewa fayil mai suna 'file1.bz2'.
  2. fayil bzip2: damfara fayil mai suna 'file1'.
  3. gunzip fayil1.gz: kwancewa fayil mai suna 'file1.gz'.
  4. gzip fayil1: damfara fayil mai suna 'file1'.
  5. gzip -9 fayil1: compresses tare da matsakaicin matsakaici.
  6. rar zuwa file1.rar test_file: ƙirƙiri fayil rar da ake kira 'file1.rar'.
  7. rar zuwa file1.rar file1 file2 dir1: damfara 'file1', 'file2' da 'dir1' lokaci guda.
  8. rar x file1.rar: kasa kwancewa rar fayil.
  9. unrar x file1.rar: kasa kwancewa rar fayil.
  10. tar -cvf archive.tar fayil1: createirƙiri ƙwallan ƙwallon da ba a ɓoye ba.
  11. tar -cvf archive.tar fayil1 fayil2 dir1: ƙirƙiri fayil mai ɗauke da 'file1', 'file2' da 'dir1'.
  12. tar -tf archive.tar: Nuna abin cikin fayil.
  13. tar -xvf archive.tar: cire kwando.
  14. tar -xvf archive.tar -C / tmp: cire kwando a cikin / tmp.
  15. tar -cvfj archive.tar.bz2 dir1: ƙirƙirar ƙwallon kwalba a cikin bzip2.
  16. tar -xvfj tarihin.tar.bz2: decompress wani tarihin tar wanda ya matse cikin bzip2
  17. tar -cvfz archive.tar.gz dir1: createirƙira ƙwallon ƙwallon gzipped
  18. tar -xvfz tarihin.tar.gz- Zazzage tarin kayan tarihin da aka toka.
  19. zip file1.zip fayil1: ƙirƙiri fayil ɗin zip mai matsi
  20. zip -r fayil1.zip fayil1 fayil2 dir1: damfara, a cikin zip, fayiloli da dama da kundin adireshi a lokaci guda.
  21. kasa kwancewa fayil .zip: kwancewa fayil din zip.

Kunshin RPM (Red Hat, Fedora da makamantansu)

  1. Rpm -ivh kunshin.rpm: shigar da kunshin rpm
  2. Rpm -ivh -nodeeps kunshin.rpm: shigar da kunshin rpm yana watsi da buƙatun dogaro.
  3. rpm -U kunshin.rpm: sabunta ɗawainiyar rpm ba tare da canza tsarin fayilolin ba.
  4. Rpm -F kunshin.rpm: sabunta ɗawainiyar rpm kawai idan an girka shi.
  5. rpm -e kunshin_name.rpm: cire kunshin rpm
  6. rpm -ku: nuna duk kunshin rpm da aka sanya akan tsarin.
  7. rpm -qa | gaishe httpd: Nuna duk fakitin rpm tare da sunan "httpd".
  8. rpm -qi kunshin_ sunan- Samo bayani akan takamaiman kunshin da aka sanya.
  9. rpm -qg "Tsarin Yanayi / Daemons": nuna alamun rpm na rukunin software.
  10. rpm -ql kunshin_ sunan: jerin jerin fayilolin da aka bayar ta kunshin rpm da aka girka.
  11. rpm -qc kunshin_name: nuna jerin fayilolin sanyi da aka bayar ta kunshin rpm da aka girka.
  12. rpm -q kunshin_ sunan -abin nema: nuna jerin masu dogaro da aka nema don kunshin rpm.
  13. rpm -q kunshin_ sunan -abinda yake bayarwa: nuna damar da aka bayar ta kunshin rpm.
  14. rpm -q kunshin_ suna -script: nuna rubutun da aka fara yayin shigarwa / cirewa.
  15. rpm -q kunshin_ sunan – musanya: nuna tarihin bita na kunshin rpm.
  16. rpm -qf /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf: bincika wane kunshin rpm ne na fayil ɗin da aka bayar.
  17. Rpm -qp kunshin.rpm -l: nuna jerin fayilolin da aka bayar ta kunshin rpm wanda ba'a riga an girka ba.
  18. rpm –import / media / cdrom / RPM-GPG-KEY: shigo da sa hannun dijital na maɓallin jama'a.
  19. Rpm - duba kunshin.rpm: tabbatar da amincin kunshin rpm.
  20. rpm -qa gpg -mashaya- Bincika amincin duk abubuwan fakitin rpm.
  21. rpm -V sunan kunshin: bincika girman fayil, lasisi, iri, mai shi, rukuni, MD5 taƙaitaccen bincike da gyara na ƙarshe.
  22. rpm - ba: bincika duk fakitin rpm da aka sanya akan tsarin. Yi amfani da hankali.
  23. Rpm -Vp kunshin.rpm: Binciki kunshin rpm ba a saka ba tukuna.
  24. kunshin rpm2cpio.rpm | cpio –a cire - sanya-kundayen adireshi * bin*: Cire fayil mai aiwatarwa daga kunshin rpm
  25. rpm -ivh /usr/src/redhat/RPMS/`arch`/package.rpm: shigar da kunshin da aka gina daga asalin rpm.
  26. rpm ginawa-sake gina kunshin_name.src.rpm: gina kunshin rpm daga tushen rpm.

YUM ageaukaka Updaukakawa (Red Hat, Fedora, da makamantansu)

  1. yum shigar da sunan kunshin: zazzage kuma shigar da kunshin rpm.
  2. Yum localinstall package_name.rpm: wannan zai girka RPM kuma yayi ƙoƙarin warware duk abubuwan dogaro da kai, ta amfani da rumbunan ajiyar ka.
  3. yum sabunta kunshin_name.rpm: sabunta duk abubuwan fakitin rpm da aka sanya akan tsarin.
  4. yum sabunta kunshin_name: sabuntawa / sabunta kunshin rpm.
  5. yum cire sunan kunshin: cire kunshin rpm
  6. jerin yum: lissafa duk fakitin da aka sanya akan tsarin.
  7. yum binciken sunan_: Nemi fakiti a cikin rpm mangaza.
  8. yum masu tsabta: share rpm cache ta hanyar share fakitin da aka zazzage.
  9. Yum masu tsabta kai: cire duk fayilolin rubutun kai da tsarin ke amfani dasu don warware dogaro.
  10. yum tsaftace duka: cire daga fakitin cache da fayilolin kai tsaye.

Kunshin bashi (Debian, Ubuntu da abubuwan banbanci)

  1. kunshin dpkg -i.deb: shigar / sabunta kunshin bashi.
  2. dpkg -r kunshin_name: cire cire fakitin daga tsarin.
  3. dpkg -l: nuna duk fakitin bashi da aka sanya akan tsarin.
  4. dpkg -l | gaishe httpd: Nuna duk fakitin bashi da sunan "httpd"
  5. dpkg -s kunshin_ suna- Samu bayanai akan takamaiman kunshin da aka sanya akan tsarin.
  6. sunan dpkg -L: nuna jerin fayilolin da aka bayar ta hanyar kunshin da aka sanya akan tsarin.
  7. dpkg –abubuwan kunshi.deb: jerin jerin fayilolin da aka bayar ta hanyar kunshin da ba'a sanya su ba tukuna.
  8. dpkg -S / bin / ping: bincika wane kunshin na fayil ɗin da aka bayar.

APT Package Updater (Debian, Ubuntu da Kalam)

  1. dace-samun shigar kunshin_name: shigar / sabunta kunshin bashi.
  2. apt-cdrom shigar da kunshin_name: girka / sabunta kunshin bashi daga cdrom.
  3. dace-samun update: sabunta jerin kunshin.
  4. dace-samun inganci: sabunta duk abubuwanda aka sanya.
  5. dace-samu cire package_name: cire cire fakitin daga tsarin.
  6. samin dubawa: tabbatar da madaidaicin ƙuduri na dogaro.
  7. m-samun tsabta: share cache daga saukakkun fakitoci.
  8. binciken apt-cache-bincike-kunshin: yana dawo da jerin fakitin da suka dace da jerin "abubuwan bincike".

Duba abun cikin fayil

  1. fayil cat: duba abubuwan cikin fayil wanda ya fara daga layin farko.
  2. tac fayil1: duba abubuwan da ke cikin fayil wanda ya fara daga layin ƙarshe.
  3. karin fayil1: duba abubuwan cikin duk fayil.
  4. fileasa fayil1: yayi kama da 'ƙarin' umarnin amma yana ba da damar adana motsi a cikin fayil ɗin da ma motsi baya.
  5. shugaban -2 fayil1: duba layuka biyu na farko na fayil.
  6. wutsiya -2 fayil1: duba layuka biyu na ƙarshe na fayil.
  7. wutsiya -f / var / log / saƙonni: duba a ainihin lokacin abin da aka ƙara cikin fayil ɗin.

Maganganun rubutu

  1. kyanwa file1 file2 .. | umarni <> file1_in.txt_or_file1_out.txt: tsarin daidaitawa gaba ɗaya don sarrafa rubutu ta amfani da PIPE, STDIN da STDOUT.
  2. kyanwa file1 | umarni (sed, grep, awk, grep, da sauransu ...)> result.txt: janar gaba ɗaya don sarrafa rubutu a cikin fayil kuma rubuta sakamakon a cikin sabon fayil.
  3. kyanwa file1 | umarni (sed, grep, awk, grep, da sauransu ...) »result.txt: janar gaba ɗaya don sarrafa rubutu a cikin fayil kuma ƙara sakamakon zuwa fayil ɗin da yake.
  4. grep Aug / var / log / saƙonnin: bincika kalmomin “Aug” a cikin fayil ɗin '/ var / log / saƙonnin'.
  5. grep ^ Aug / var / log / saƙonnin: nemo kalmomin da suka fara da “Aug” a cikin fayil '/ var / log / saƙonnin'
  6. grep [0-9] / var / log / saƙonni: zaɓi duk layi a cikin fayil '/ var / log / saƙonni' waɗanda ke ƙunshe da lambobi.
  7. shafa mai Aug -R / var / log /*: Nemi zaren “Aug” a cikin kundin adireshin '/ var / log' da ƙasa.
  8. sed 's / stringa1 / stringa2 / g' misali.txt: matsar da "string1" tare da "string2" a cikin misali.txt
  9. misali '' ^ $ / d '. txt: cire duk layin layi daga misali.txt
  10. sed '/ * # / d; / ^ $ / d 'misali. txt: cire tsokaci da layin wofi daga example.txt
  11. amsa kuwwa 'esempio' | tr '[: ƙananan:]' '[: babba:]': maida ƙaramin baƙaƙe zuwa babban abu.
  12. sakamakon '1d' sakamako. txt: cire layin farko na file example.txt
  13. sed -n '/ stringa1 / p': Nuna kawai layukan da ke ɗauke da kalmar "string1".

Saita hali da canza fayil

  1. dos2unix fileos.txt fileunix.txt: maida tsarin fayil ɗin rubutu daga MSDOS zuwa UNIX.
  2. unix2dos fileunix.txt fayilos.txt: maida tsarin fayil ɗin rubutu daga UNIX zuwa MSDOS.
  3. sake gyarawa ..HTML <shafi.txt> shafi.html: maida fayil din rubutu zuwa html.
  4. sake sake -l | Kara- Nuna duk wadatattun fasalin da aka samu.

Binciken tsarin fayil

  1. badblocks -v / dev / hda1: Duba mummunan tubalan akan diski hda1.
  2. fsck / dev / hda1: gyara / bincika mutuncin fayil ɗin Linux akan disk hda1.
  3. fsck.ext2 / dev / hda1: gyara / duba mutuncin ext 2 fayil din fayil akan disk hda1.
  4. e2fsck / dev / hda1: gyara / duba mutuncin ext 2 fayil din fayil akan disk hda1.
  5. e2fsck -j / dev / hda1: gyara / duba mutuncin ext 3 fayil din fayil akan disk hda1.
  6. fsck.ext3 / dev / hda1: gyara / duba mutuncin ext 3 fayil din fayil akan disk hda1.
  7. fsck.vfat / dev / hda1: gyara / bincika mutuncin fayil ɗin kitso akan diski hda1.
  8. fsck.msdos / dev / hda1: gyara / bincika mutuncin fayil akan tsarin kan disk hda1.
  9. dosfsck / dev / hda1: gyara / bincika mutuncin fayil akan tsarin kan disk hda1.

Tsara tsarin fayil

  1. mkfs / dev / hda1: createirƙiri fayil ɗin kwatankwacin Linux a kan bangare hda1.
  2. mke2fs / dev / hda1: ƙirƙiri fayil ɗin Linux ext 2 akan hda1.
  3. mke2fs -j / dev / hda1: ƙirƙiri fayil ɗin Linux ext3 (na lokaci-lokaci) akan bangare hda1.
  4. mkfs -t vfat 32 -F / dev / hda1: ƙirƙiri fayil din tsarin FAT32 akan hda1.
  5. fdformat -n / dev / fd0: tsara faifan flooply.
  6. mkswap / dev / hda3: ƙirƙiri fayil ɗin canzawa.

Ina aiki tare da SWAP

  1. mkswap / dev / hda3: ƙirƙiri fayil ɗin canzawa.
  2. swapon / dev / hda3: kunna sabon swap bangare.
  3. swapon / dev / hda2 / dev / hdb3: kunna bangarorin musayar biyu.

Salvas (Ajiyayyen)

  1. juji -0aj -f /tmp/home0.bak / gida: yi cikakken adana cikin kundin adireshin '/ gida'.
  2. juji -1aj -f /tmp/home0.bak / gida: yi ƙari kari na '/ home' directory.
  3. dawo da -if /tmp/home0.bak: maido da salvo mai hulɗa.
  4. rsync -rogpav –delete / gida / tmp: aiki tare tsakanin kundayen adireshi.
  5. rsync -rogpav -e ssh –delete / home ip_address: / tmp: rsync ta rami SSH.
  6. rsync -az -e ssh –delete ip_addr: / gida / jama'a / gida / gida: Yi aiki tare da kundin adireshi na gida tare da jagorar nesa ta hanyar ssh da matsawa.
  7. rsync -az -e ssh –delete / gida / gida ip_addr: / gida / jama'a- Yi aiki tare da kundin adireshi na nesa tare da kundin adireshi na gida ta hanyar ssh da matsawa.
  8. dd bs = 1M idan = / dev / hda | gzip | mai amfani ssh @ ip_addr 'dd na = hda.gz': adana rumbun kwamfutarka akan mai masaukin nesa ta hanyar ssh.
  9. dd idan = / dev / sda na = / tmp / file1: adana abubuwan da ke cikin diski mai wuya zuwa fayil. (A wannan yanayin Hard disk ɗin shine "sda" kuma fayil ɗin "file1" ne).
  10. tar -Puf backup.tar / gida / mai amfani: yi ƙari a cikin adreshin '/ gida / mai amfani'.
  11. (cd / tmp / na gida / && tar c.) | ssh -C mai amfani @ ip_addr 'cd / home / share / && tar x -p': kwafa abubuwan da ke cikin kundin adireshi zuwa babban adireshin ta hanyar ssh.
  12. (tar c / gida) | ssh -C mai amfani @ ip_addr 'cd / gida / madadin-gida && tar x -p': kwafa kundin adireshi na gida zuwa adireshin nesa ta hanyar ssh.
  13. kwalta cf -. | (cd / tmp / madadin; tar xf -): kwafin gida na adana lasisi da hanyoyin haɗi daga wannan kundin adireshin zuwa wani.
  14. sami / gida / mai amfani1-sunan '* .txt' | xargs cp -av –target-directory = / gida / madadin / –masoya: nemo da kwafe duk fayiloli tare da tsawo '.txt' daga wannan shugabanci zuwa wani.
  15. nemo / var / log -name '* .log' | tar cv –files-daga = - | bzip2> log.tar.bz2: nemo duk fayiloli tare da tsawo '.log' kuma sanya rumbun ajiya na bzip.
  16. dd idan = / dev / hda na = / dev / fd0 bs = ƙidaya 512 = 1: yi kwafin MRB (Master Boot Record) zuwa floppy disk.
  17. dd idan = / dev / fd0 na = / dev / hda bs = ƙidaya 512 = 1: mayar da kwafin MBR (Master Boot Record) wanda aka ajiye akan floppy.

CD-ROM

  1. cdrecord -v gracetime = 2 dev = / dev / cdrom -eject blank = sauri -force: tsaftace ko goge cd.
  2. mkisofs / dev / cdrom> cd.iso: ƙirƙiri hoton iso na cdrom akan faifai.
  3. mkisofs / dev / cdrom | gzip> cd_iso.gz: createirƙiri hoto mai banƙyama na cdrom akan faifai.
  4. mkisofs -J-ya yarda-jagora-dige -R -V “Label CD” -iso-matakin 4 -o ./cd.iso data_cd: ƙirƙiri hoton iso na kundin adireshi.
  5. cdrecord -v dev = / dev / cdrom cd.iso: ƙone hoton iso.
  6. gzip -dc cd_iso.gz | cdrecord dev = / dev / cdrom - Dankwairo: ƙone hoton iso mai matsawa.
  7. hawa -o madauki cd.iso / mnt / iso: hawa hoton iso.
  8. cd -paranoia -B: ɗauki wakoki daga cd zuwa fayilolin wav.
  9. cd-paranoia - "-3": canja wurin farkon waƙoƙi 3 daga cd zuwa fayilolin WAV.
  10. cdrecord-scanbus: scan motar don gano tashar scsi.
  11. dd idan = / dev / hdc | md5sum: gudanar da md5sum akan na'urar, kamar CD.

Ina aiki tare da NETWORK ( LAN da Wi-Fi)

  1. ifconfig dabi'a0: nuna sanyi na katin sadarwar Ethernet.
  2. idan eth0: kunna mahaɗan 'eth0'.
  3. Ifdown eth0: kashe musanya 'eth0'
  4. ifconfig eth0 192.168.1.1 netmask 255.255.255.0: saita adireshin IP.
  5. ifconfig eth0 promisc: saita 'eth0' a yanayin gama gari don samun fakiti (shaƙawa).
  6. dhclient mai ladabi0: kunna interface 'eth0' a cikin yanayin dhcp.
  7. hanya -n: nuna tebur yawon shakatawa.
  8. hanyar ƙara -net 0/0 gw IP_Gateway: saita shigar da tsoho.
  9. hanya add -net 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.0.0 gw 192.168.1.1: saita madaidaiciyar hanya don bincika cibiyar sadarwar '192.168.0.0/16'.
  10. hanya del 0/0 gw IP_gateway: cire hanya madaidaiciya.
  11. amsa kuwwa "1"> / proc / sys / net / ipv4 / ip_forward: kunna ip yawon shakatawa.
  12. sunan mai masauki: nuna sunan mai masauki na tsarin.
  13. rundunar www.example.com: sami sunan mai masauki don warware sunan zuwa adireshin IP (1).
  14. nslookup www.example.com: nemi sunan mai gida don warware sunan zuwa adireshin IP kuma akasin haka (2).
  15. ip link show: nuna matsayin hanyar haɗi na duk musaya.
  16. mii-kayan aiki eth0: nuna matsayin mahada na 'eth0'.
  17. akidar ethtool: nuna ƙididdigar katin sadarwar 'eth0'.
  18. netstat-tup- Nuna duk haɗin sadarwar da ke aiki da PIDs ɗin su.
  19. netstat-tupl- Nuna duk masu sauraron cibiyar sadarwa akan tsarin da PIDs dinsu.
  20. tashar tcpdump tcp 80: nuna duk zirga-zirga HTTP.
  21. iwlist scan: nuna hanyoyin sadarwa mara waya.
  22. iwconfig eth1: nuna sanyi na katin sadarwar mara waya.
  23. whois www.example.com: bincika bayanan Whois.

Microsoft Windows Networks (SAMBA)

  1. nbtscan ip_addr: ƙudurin cibiyar sadarwar halittu.
  2. nmblookup -A ip_addr: ƙudurin cibiyar sadarwar halittu.
  3. smbclient -L ip_addr / sunan mai masauki: nuna ayyukan nesa na mai gida a cikin windows.

IP tebur (FIREWALL)

  1. iptables -t tace -L: nuna dukkan kirtani a teburin tacewa.
  2. iptables -t na -L: Nuna dukkan kirtani daga teburin nat.
  3. iptables -t tace -F: share dukkan dokoki daga tebur mai tacewa.
  4. iptables -t nat -F: share dukkan dokoki daga nat table.
  5. iptables -t tace -X: goge kowane layin da mai amfani ya kirkira.
  6. iptables -t tace -A INPUT -p tcp –dport telnet -j ACCEPT: bawa mahaɗan haɗin waya damar shiga.
  7. iptables -t tace -AUTUWAR -p tcp –dadin tashar http -j DROP: toshe hanyoyin HTTP fita.
  8. iptables -t tace -GABAN gaba -p tcp –dport pop3 -j ACCEPT: ba da damar haɗi POP zuwa sarkar gaba.
  9. iptables -t tace -A INPUT -j LOG –log -prefix “DROP INPUT”: rijistar zaren shigar da abubuwa.
  10. iptables -t nat -A GABATARWA -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE: saita PAT (Port Translation Translation Port) akan eth0, ɓoye fakitoci masu ƙarfi.
  11. iptables -t nat-PREROUTING -d 192.168.0.1 -p tcp -m tcp –dport 22 -j DNAT –to-makoma 10.0.0.2:22: tura fakiti mai jagora daga mai masauki zuwa wani.

Kulawa da gyarawa

  1. top: nuna ayyukan Linux ta amfani da mafi yawan cpu.
  2. ps -afita: yana nuna ayyukan Linux.
  3. ps -e -o pid, args - daji- Nuna ayyukan Linux a cikin tsarin fasali.
  4. maras kyau: nuna bishiyar tsari.
  5. kashe -9 Tsari_ID- Forcearfafa aiki da kuma dakatar da shi.
  6. kashe -1 Tsari_ID: tilasta aiwatar don sake shigar da sanyi.
  7. lsof -p $ $: nuna jerin fayilolin da aka buɗe ta matakai.
  8. lsof / gida / mai amfani1: yana nuna jerin fayilolin buɗewa a cikin hanyar da aka bayar na tsarin.
  9. madauri -c ls> / dev / null: nuna tsarin kiran da aka yi da karɓa ta hanyar aiwatarwa.
  10. madauri - -f bude ls> / dev / null: nuna kira zuwa laburari.
  11. agogon -n1 'cat / proc / katsewa': nuna katsewa a ainihin lokacin.
  12. karshe sake yi: nuna sake yi tarihi.
  13. ssamara: nuna kwaya da aka ɗora
  14. kyauta -m- Nuna matsayin RAM a cikin megabytes.
  15. smartctl -A / dev / hda- Kula da amincin rumbun kwamfutarka ta hanyar SMART.
  16. smartctl -i / dev / hda: bincika idan an kunna SMART a kan diski mai wuya.
  17. wutsiya / var / log / dmesg: nuna abubuwan da ke tattare da tsarin shigar kwaya.
  18. wutsiya / var / log / saƙonni: nuna abubuwan da suka faru a tsarin.

Sauran umarni masu amfani

  1. apropos ... keyword: nuna jerin umarnin da suke cikin maɓallin kewayawa na shirin; Suna da amfani lokacin da kuka san abin da shirin ku yake yi, amma ba ku san sunan umarnin ba.
  2. mutum ping: nuna shafukan yanar gizo a kan layi; misali, a cikin umarnin ping, yi amfani da zaɓin '-k' don nemo kowane umarni mai alaƙa.
  3. menene keyword: yana nuna bayanin abin da shirin ke yi.
  4. mkbootdisk –device / dev / fd0 `uname -r`: createirƙiri abun shaye shaye
  5. gpg -c fayil1: sanya fayil tare da mai tsaron GNU.
  6. fayil gpg1.gpg: yanke fayil tare da GNU Security Guard.
  7. wget -r ba www.example.com: sauke cikakken shafin yanar gizo.
  8. wget -c ku www.example.com/file.iso: zazzage fayil tare da yiwuwar dakatar da saukarwa da sake dawowa daga baya.
  9. amsa kuwwa 'wget -c www.example.com/files.iso'| da karfe 09:00: Fara saukarwa a kowane lokaci. A wannan yanayin zai fara ne da ƙarfe 9.
  10. ldd / usr / bin / ssh: nuna gidajen dakunan karatu da shirin ssh ya bukata.
  11. wanda aka ce masa hh = 'tarihi': sanya sunan laƙabi don umarni –hh = Tarihi.
  12. chsh: canza umarnin Shell.
  13. chsh –list-bawo: umarni ne mai dacewa don sanin idan yakamata kayi nesa a wani tashar.
  14. wanene -a: nuna wanda aka yi rijista, da lokacin bugawa na tsarin shigowa na ƙarshe, matakan da suka mutu, tsarin rajista na tsarin, matakan aiki waɗanda aka samar ta init, aiki na yanzu da canje-canje na ƙarshe na agogon tsarin.

Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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  1. Mai alhakin bayanan: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Dalilin bayanan: Gudanar da SPAM, gudanar da sharhi.
  3. Halacci: Yarda da yarda
  4. Sadarwar bayanan: Ba za a sanar da wasu bayanan ga wasu kamfanoni ba sai ta hanyar wajibcin doka.
  5. Ajiye bayanai: Bayanin yanar gizo wanda Occentus Networks (EU) suka dauki nauyi
  6. Hakkoki: A kowane lokaci zaka iyakance, dawo da share bayanan ka.

  1.   syeda m

    kyakkyawar gudummawa ... na gode ...

  2.   diazepam m

    Kai tsaye ga waɗanda aka fi so kamar yadda suke faɗa.

  3.   Jamin samuel m

    Allah mai tsarki: Ko yanzu shine abinda nake bukatar koya 😀 na gode da wannan gudummawar contribution

    1.    bawanmu m

      Tabbas yawancin umarni ne.
      Babu wani abu da ba zai yiwu ba tare da aiki.

  4.   kik1n ku m

    Godiya ga gudummawar 😀

  5.   Gaba m

    Excelente !!

    1.    Luis Cáceres ne adam wata m

      Linux mai wahala amma mafi kyau

  6.   kunun 92 m

    A yanzu haka ina ajiye su a cikin babbar ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya ta XD

  7.   Mauricio m

    Babban matsayi !! kai tsaye zuwa masu so.

  8.   ren434 m

    Godiya ga gudummawar, zan aika zuwa ga aboki wanda ke ɗokin koyo. Kuma zan kiyaye wa kaina tabbas nima.

  9.   maras wuya m

    Kai, kai tsaye ga waɗanda aka fi so, na gode sosai.

    Ofayan shirye-shiryen wasan bidiyo da na fi so shine ncdu yana nuna sararin da kowane babban fayil yake ciki, yana da kyau sosai lokacin da kuke son share rumbun kwamfutarka kaɗan. Ni kuma ina son mai tsaro, mai sauƙin amfani da mai sarrafa fayil.

  10.   Hugo m

    Elav, Na lura cewa jerin lambobi sun sake saitawa bayan 9, amma wannan baya faruwa akan Wiki. Shin da gangan ne, ko kuwa kun sami wata matsala wajen jigilar bayanan?

    Af, na ƙara wasu commandsan umarni a cikin jerin kuma na tsara fasalin labarin a kan Wiki ɗin kaɗan.

    1.    elav <° Linux m

      Kash Ban ma fahimci hakan ba. Bari in duba lambar HTML ta post don ganin me ke faruwa da wannan. Ba zan iya gaskanta cewa WordPress kawai yana karɓar abubuwa 9 a cikin jerin ba ...

    2.    elav <° Linux m

      Wannan ya hade ni. Tare da kyakkyawan dalili ban lura ba, saboda a cikin editan WordPress, lambar tana aiki sosai. O_O

      1.    Hugo m

        Hmm… a wancan yanayin matsalar a fili take ta salon ce. Bari in gani…

        Yayi, a cikin fayil ɗin "jigogi / arr / css / base.css" nemi wannan layin:

        .entry-content ul, .entry-content ol { margin: 0 20px; padding: 0 0 1.5em; }

        Kuma gyara shi don ya zama kamar wannan:

        .entry-content ul, .entry-content ol { margin: 0 20px; padding: 0 0 1.5em 0.5em; }

        Wannan zai magance matsalar (aƙalla don jerin lambobi biyu), amma a bayyane ba zan iya ba ku tabbacin nasarar ba.

        1.    elav <° Linux m

          Na gode, aboki. Gobe ​​na gwada hakan 😀

          1.    Hugo m

            Babu buƙata, da fatan yana aiki.

            Gobe ​​zan kasance a Univ har zuwa kusan tsakar rana, amma idan kuna da wata matsala ku rubuto min a gmx.

          2.    Hugo m

            Da kyau, a ƙarshe za ku iya yin gwajin?

            1.    elav <° Linux m

              Ba da gaske ba. A yanzu haka zan yi shi da Arras din da nake da shi na gida 😀


            2.    elav <° Linux m

              Na dai gwada kuma bai yi tasiri ba 🙁


  11.   kannabix m

    Ya kamata ku ga dutsen da na fi so Rosetta, Ba zan iya rayuwa ba tare da shi ba:

    http://cb.vu/unixtoolbox.xhtml

  12.   rodolfo Alejandro m

    Fayil a ƙarshen tare da duk umarnin don saukarwa ba zai zama mara kyau ba, kyakkyawan matsayi. Wannan yana hanzarta komai 🙂

  13.   Samano m

    Na gode, gudummawa mai kyau

  14.   Keopety m

    Na gode sosai, aboki, kyakkyawar gudummawa

  15.   Gabriel m

    Na gode da taimakon.

  16.   Oscar m

    Wasu dalilai na musamman da yasa ba ku haɗa da umarnin "ƙwarewa" ba. Kyakkyawan shawarwari masu amfani, ingantattun kayan tunani.

    1.    Hugo m

      Mahaliccin labarin asali akan GUTL Wiki mai yiwuwa bai haɗa da wannan umarnin ba, la'akari da cewa ba shi da yawa dangane da apt-get (abubuwan dana cire, ban tambaya ba). Ni ma na fi so aptitude, Na ga ya fi amfani. Wataƙila ɗayan kwanakin nan zan sami lokaci don ƙara wasu misalai tare aptitude. Na fi so shine:

      aptitude -RvW install paquete

      Ya rage gare ku don gano abin da waɗannan sigogi suke yi, hehe 😉

      1.    Oscar m

        Godiya ga bayani, Ni kuma ina amfani da iyawa, da kaina na ga ya fi tasiri, Ina son sanin misalin da kuka bayar, tabbas zan bincika.

  17.   aurezx m

    -Wai! Banyi tsammanin kun kasance da gaske OO Gaskiya ita ce akwai umarni da yawa, ina ƙara post ɗin zuwa waɗanda aka fi so don karanta shi a hankali daga baya ...

  18.   TDE m

    Elav, idan wannan Taringa ne, da ba zan yi jinkiri ba in bar maku maki goma
    Kyakkyawan matsayi!

    1.    elav <° Linux m

      Na gode TDE duk da cewa cancantar ba tawa ba ce, kawai na kawo abubuwan da ke ciki GUTL Wiki. Ƙari

  19.   Yoyo Fernandez m

    Mai burgewa, Zan raba shi duk inda zan tafi 🙂

    1.    KZKG ^ Gaara m

      Godiya 😀

  20.   girki m

    madaidaicin matsayi kuma yana da matukar taimako..na gode da yawa .. !!!

  21.   mdrvro m

    Na gode. Abu ne mai mahimmanci.

  22.   Simon m

    Shin akwai wanda ya san umarnin rufe zaman na Gnome Shell lokacin da gnome-session-sallama ba ya aiki?

    1.    Hugo m

      Ba na amfani da Gnome Shell, amma gwada wannan:

      sudo killall gnome-shell

      Ko wataƙila wannan wata hanya:

      sudo killall -SIGHUP gnome-shell

    2.    Diego m

      logout

  23.   fatalwa m

    gagarumar taimako. godiya

  24.   wararan m

    Nasara

  25.   lV m

    sudo echo 3> / proc / sys / vm / drop_caches: bayyananniyar ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar jiki.
    ko wannan:
    sudo sync && sudo sysctl vm.drop_caches = 3: tsaftace ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar jiki a lokacin aiki.

  26.   gaba m

    Haɗin sosai, tare da izininka zan kwafe shi don raba shi akan shafina tare da darajar ku.

  27.   Diavolo m

    Anan ga 'wasu' ƙarin umarni don koyo =)

  28.   Eugenia bahit m

    Yaya kauri Elav !!! Kamar koyaushe, abin al'ajabi
    YAKE KA !!!!!

    1.    elav <° Linux m

      Godiya a gare ku don dakatar da Eugenia 😀

    2.    KZKG ^ Gaara m

      Zuwa gare ku 😀

  29.   DiegoRR m

    Hakan yayi kyau sosai !!! Zan buga shi kuma in tafi da shi. Godiya ga shigarwar.

    1.    KZKG ^ Gaara m

      Jin daɗin taimakawa 🙂

  30.   Rariya @rariyajarida m

    Muy bueno!

  31.   Mika_G3 m

    Ina son shi, labarin yana da ban sha'awa sosai, na gode sosai

  32.   msx m

    KYAUTA, na gode da sanya shi!

  33.   mala'ikan m

    Na gode !!

  34.   Alrep m

    Babban godiya sosai!

  35.   maxjedrum m

    Kyakkyawan taimako!

    Na gode sosai.

  36.   Alex m

    Mai girma, na gode sosai, wani kuma wanda aka fi so ...

  37.   Jose Alejandro Vazquez m

    Shine mafi kyawun taƙaitawa da na gani game da umarnin Linux, Ina taya ku murna da cewa kyakkyawar gudummawa!

  38.   Icungiyar Siliconhosting m

    Ya ƙaunataccen Elav,

    Mun ɗauki labarinku don ƙirƙirar labarin a cikin tushen iliminmu, wanda a cikin shakka mun kawo ku a matsayin tushe.

    Kuna iya nazarin labarin a mahaɗin mai zuwa:

    https://siliconhosting.com/kb/questions/241/

    Babbar gudummawa, na gode sosai.

    1.    kari m

      Muddin akwai hanyar haɗi zuwa asalin labarin, zaku iya yin duk abin da kuke so da shi.Mun gode da sanarwarku. 😉

      1.    Icungiyar Siliconhosting m

        Tabbas Elav, zaku iya bincika hanyar haɗin yanar gizon a ƙarshen labarin.

        Idan kuna son ɗaukar ɗayan labaranmu, kuna da cikakken 'yanci don yin bita, sake fitarwa gaba ɗaya ko ɓangare na su.

        Godiya sake.

        1.    kari m

          Haka ne, na riga na bincika kuma ta hanyar da nake ɗan gani game da ayyukan da suke bayarwa, saboda ban san su ba .. Na gode da ba ni labarinku, wanda ni ma na bita kuma suna da ban sha'awa 😉

          gaisuwa

  39.   Jeyzee m

    Godiya sosai! Zan buga su idan wata rana ba ni da intanet!
    Godiya da Salu2

  40.   abun ciki m

    Matsayi mai ban sha'awa, ee sir. Kuma tambaya, kun san littafi, koyawa ko wani abu don koyon yadda ake amfani da tashar? Ina amfani da Linux tun daga Ubuntu 9.04 amma na san kayan yau da kullun, Ina so in kara sani game da shi. Godiya da fatan alheri.

  41.   PITUCALEYA m

    Madalla !!!!!

    Shin akwai wata hanyar da za a samu hakan a tsarin rubutu (kalma, txt, PDF)?

  42.   fernan yi m

    Na gode da taimakon.

  43.   anon m

    Kai godiya ga menu na gudummawa 🙂

  44.   Toleko m

    Duniyar Linux tana burge ni, wannan kayan zinare ne, gaisuwa daga Tijuana Mx.
    a yanzu haka ina sake girkawa Linux minit 14, lokacin da na sake saka xp zabin zabar tsarin kafin na fara an share shi ,,,,, gaisuwa kuma

  45.   pianist m

    Mun gode da kyakkyawan rubutun da muka tara ...

    gaisuwa

  46.   bako m

    Kyakkyawan bayani

  47.   band-AIDS m

    Godiya ga edita. Wannan za a iya canza shi zuwa pdf. Na bugawa ne. Na gode jama'a.

  48.   zulantay m

    Gudummawa mai yawa, Na gode.
    Shafin yana da kyau, mafi kyawun ɗayan batun.

    1.    KZKG ^ Gaara m

      Na gode sosai da kuka tsaya.
      gaisuwa

  49.   Luis m

    Ina so in samo fayil ɗin da ya fi dacewa da sarari

  50.   Rashin hankali m

    Tabbatar da gudummawar ...

  51.   Rashin hankali m

    Ina so in sami damar jera fayilolin kowane mai amfani, kuma wanda na yi kawai yana nuna min lambar folda ba wadanda ke ciki ba

  52.   daniel c. m

    woowww grandeee .. na gode !!!

  53.   Antonio m

    wanda zai iya amsa min ma'anar wannan umarnin rpm -Uvh?
    Ta yaya zan iya amfani da shi

  54.   patodx m

    Babban ELAV …… !!! Ban taba ganin wannan sakon ba ... na gode sosai ..

  55.   Armando Sanchez mai sanya hoto m

    Da alama a gare ni kyakkyawan tari, zan same shi a kusa.

    Gracias de el aporte

  56.   Douglas milano m

    Ina taya ku murna, kyakkyawan bayani, mai fa'ida sosai.

  57.   Roger ceballos m

    Tabbas grax ya fi so tafi

  58.   guadahorce m

    Kyakkyawan taimako. Na gamsu da ƙoƙari da tattarawar da GTL tayi, tare da gabatarwa da masauki, da sauransu, na ELAV.
    Na kwafa su kuma nayi amfani da su a cikin kayan aiki, don ƙarin koyo.
    Na gode ku duka saboda gudummawar da kuka bayar wa al'ummar Linux da karimcin ku.
    A gaisuwa.

  59.   lucasmatias m

    Grosso!

  60.   zunko m

    Madalla, kwarai, na gode sosai.

  61.   Gabriel m

    mutum me kyau post Ina amfani dashi a kowace rana tunda na fara da wannan, Na gode don raba mana.

  62.   Felix m

    Ina son shi da yawa amma yana da wahala a gare ni in koya Ban san komai ba game da Linux Ina fara wani kwas a makarantar kimiyya ta software kyauta.

  63.   Marcos m

    Barka dai, komai ya kammala sosai, amma ban sami yadda zan gyara tsarin farawa ba.
    Ina amfani da Fedora kuma bayan kunna tebur na Gnome baya farawa sai dai idan na shiga na buga Bot a farkon.
    Ina son tsarin ya shiga tebur na Gnome kai tsaye ba tare da sa baki na ba.
    Duk wani umarni da za ayi amfani da shi ko fayil don gyarawa ??
    Godiya mai yawa !!

  64.   Ramon Zambrano m

    Na gode kwarai da gudummawa

  65.   david joas arias m

    Kyakkyawan bayani, masu amfani sosai…. 🙂

  66.   Fabio Vera m

    kyakkyawan bayani kuma cikakke sosai godiya

  67.   Jose Dauda m

    Na gode na yi aikin gida na XD

  68.   Fer m

    Godiya kawai ko menene nake nema 😀

    Ina karanta littafi daga windows zuwa Linux kuma ina bata lokaci kadan xD

    Ina fata zan iya mallakar wannan duniyar 😛

  69.   luzma m

    Kai tsaye zuwa abubuwan da aka fi so, rubutu mai motsi, bayanin kula, onenote, bugawa, da sauransu da sauransu don koyaushe suna hannun. Godiya mai yawa !!

  70.   cristanwp m

    Gracias de el aporte

  71.   Jean Hernandez m

    Akwai hanyar haɗi, aƙalla ta wayar salula kuskuren 404 ya bayyana inda kuka danganta zuwa "wannan kyakkyawar labarin"

  72.   Leo m

    Yana da kyau sosai!
    gracias!

  73.   Freya m

    Gaskiya da kyau kwarai da gaske, na gode sosai.

  74.   Cikakke m

    Kyakkyawan gudummawar blogger kai tsaye zuwa waɗanda akafi so

    GODIYA!

  75.   Javi m

    Babban taimako. Godiya 😀

  76.   ligator m

    Madalla! Zan baku maki 10! 😀

  77.   zayder m

    Matsayi mai kyau Ina matukar so

  78.   kogin_ad m

    Ina tunanin lokacin da zai iya cetona idan na ga wannan labarin 'yan shekarun da suka gabata yana da kyau sosai, na gode sosai

  79.   rainerhg m

    Kuma umarnin poweroff?
    Na yi amfani da shi lokacin da na fara sanin Linux (ta amfani da Slax akan USB), don lokacin da yanayin zai daskare kuma ba zan buɗe kowane menu ko maɓalli ba, to, zan kashe shi da wannan umarnin.

  80.   dj marainiya m

    Abin al'ajabi !! Wannan shafin tuni ya fitar da ni daga matsaloli da yawa. Kyakkyawan aiki.

  81.   Matthias m

    na ban mamaki. Shin baku da shi a cikin fayil ɗin PDF ko wani abu makamancin haka don zazzage shi? ba ku da umarnin editan VI?

  82.   Antonio m

    Jerin kyawawan abubuwa, godiya ga gudummawar. Na raba ɗaya wanda na gano a can wani lokaci da suka wuce.
    http://ss64.com/
    Na gode!
    ar

  83.   Abel Elias Ledo Amachi m

    Kyakkyawan blog, Ina neman sa. na gode

  84.   daniel luke m

    Madalla !!! Gudummawar ku ga kayan aikin kyauta yana da kyau

  85.   Matiyu m

    na gode yana da matukar taimako

  86.   Juan Carlos m

    Godiya ga rabawa, kyakkyawar shigarwar IT

  87.   Omar m

    Da gaske yana da matukar amfani, musamman ga sababbin sababbin abubuwa na Linux da tsofaffin masu ƙidayar lokaci. godiya

  88.   Daniyel Pérez m

    Kyakkyawan taimako

  89.   kumala m

    Yayi kyau. Ina bukatar in gwada wasu haƙarƙari

  90.   Carlos m

    godiya !!!

  91.   Pablo m

    Gracias!

  92.   Carlos m

    tambaya kamar yadda ake kira a windows a cikin abin da ake amfani da mai gudanarwa a matsayin kuma wani
    dokokin ma suna aiki don windows ?? godiya.

    1.    nogi m

      1-an bude akwatin umarnin windows ta hanyar sanya "cmd" a cikin injin binciken a farkon farawa
      2- Waɗannan dokokin, yawancinsu basa aiki don windows, akwai waɗansu da suka zo daidai da na «cd» amma ina baka shawara ka nemi wani shafin yanar gizo inda suke magana musamman na umarnin windows

  93.   Alexander m

    [CTRL + D]

  94.   klaudio m

    Gudummawa mai yawa… na gode… !!! an adana ...

  95.   wifi don abubuwan da suka faru m

    Godiya ga raba alamar shafi ga blog don samun damar tuntuɓar ƙarin labarai

  96.   Giovani m

    Godiya ga shigarwar

  97.   Cristian m

    Aboki, na gode da wannan gagarumar gudummawar, gudummawa mai kyau, kuma na gode da raba shi.

  98.   Arturo m

    Komai yana da ban sha’awa, lokaci yayi da za ayi atisaye ..

  99.   kuna son siyan shi !! m

    -h Wannan rubutun taimako.
    –No-gui Kar ayi amfani da hanyar GTK duk da cewa akwai shi.
    -s Yayi kwaikwayon ayyukan, amma baya aiwatar dasu.
    -d kawai zazzage fakitoci, baya girkawa ko cire komai.
    -p Koyaushe nemi tabbaci na ayyuka.
    -y Ya ɗauka cewa amsar sauki a / a'a itace 'e'.
    -F tsari Yana ƙayyade tsari don nuna sakamakon
    bincike, karanta littafin.
    -On oda Yana bayyana yadda ya kamata a yi odan sakamakon bincike,
    karanta littafin.
    -w nisa Yana bayyana faɗin mai kallo don tsara sakamakon
    na bincike.
    -f Tashin hankali yayi ƙoƙari don gyara ɓoyayyun fakiti.
    -V Yana nuna sigar fakitin don girkawa.
    -D Nuna masu dogaro don kunshin da aka canza ta atomatik.
    -Z Nuna canjin girman girman shigar kowane kunshin.
    -v Nuna ƙarin bayani (na iya faruwa sama da sau ɗaya).
    -t [rarraba] Ya sanya rarraba daga inda aka sanya fakiti.
    -q Baya nuna alamun ci gaba na cigaba
    a cikin layin layin umarni.
    -o opconf = val Kai tsaye saita zaɓi na daidaitawa mai suna "opconf".
    –Tare da (waje) -ya bada shawarar, Yana ƙayyade ko
    shawarwari kamar masu dogaro da ƙarfi.
    -S sunan barkwanci: yana karanta ƙwarewar fadada bayanan matsayi daga sunan suna.
    -u: Zazzage sabon jerin kunshin akan taya.
    (m ke dubawa kawai)
    -i: Yi aikin shigarwa akan but.
    (m ke dubawa kawai)

  100.   Fernando m

    Kai, godiya ga gudummawar, da gaske zai yi amfani sosai. Yanzu matsalata zata kasance ta koyon yadda ake amfani dasu, xD godiya.

  101.   Yesu SEQUEIROS ARONE m

    Kyakkyawan tari.

  102.   Marian velarde m

    Godiya ga aboki, gagarumar gudummawa! 😀

  103.   ninoshka m

    Menene wane umarni ne?

    1.    barnarasta m

      Abin kamar # wuri ne

      # mutum wanda

  104.   Gonzalo m

    To aboki, na gode sosai, yana da matukar taimako ga waɗanda muke aiki a wannan yanayin
    gaisuwa

  105.   Nicolás m

    Wannan shine ainihin abin da nake nema kwanaki 3 da suka gabata!
    Na gode kwarai, wannan ba shi da kima 😀

  106.   zan m

    gudummawa mai kyau, mai matukar amfani

  107.   Carlos Mafi Kyawu m

    Duk lokacin da na manta umarni, sai na koma ga wannan labarin.
    gaisuwa

  108.   ALPHONSO VILLEGAS m

    Na gode sosai
    Littafin ya yi amfani sosai
    Caracas Venezuela

  109.   Alejandro m

    yayi bayani sosai akan kowane umarni, yana da matuqar ishara idan kun kasance mai gudanar da tsarin bisa unix

  110.   Tavita Padilla m

    godiya Na san zan bukace ku

  111.   Dauda yusti m

    Taimaka sosai godiya

  112.   Maris Quispe Huaman m

    Gaisuwa, kyakkyawan blog, na gode sosai da wannan gudummawar ga jama'ar GNU / linux. Cordially Martial.

  113.   Alex m

    An yaba da gagarumar gudummawar
    muchas gracias
    gaisuwa daga Chile
    alex

  114.   Armando Hutu m

    tattara kyawawan umarni, masu fa'ida sosai.

  115.   Paulo m

    Na gode da wannan kyakkyawar gudummawar.

  116.   waniki m

    babban godiya ga gudummawar amma ina tunanin akwai miliyoyin umarni ko a'a

  117.   Paco Garcia m

    Barka da Sallah !!!
    3 shekaru daga baya har yanzu babbar gudummawa ce don amfanin kowa!

    Gode.

  118.   Felipe Cardona ne adam wata m

    Na gode sosai, babban taimako ne ga karatuna.

  119.   Lola m

    Ina son su! Wannan sakon yana da kyau 😀

  120.   mutane m

    Wuce, muy bueno

  121.   Tsarin Yanayi m

    cikakken jagora godiya don rabawa

  122.   Jorge m

    Barka dai abokai, ni sabuwar shiga ce, tambayar da nake son yi muku ita ce idan Debian da Ubuntu sun dace sosai, abin da nake so in nuna idan na kasance tare da Ubuntu tsawon shekara 1 kuma yanzu ina so in canza zuwa Debian, zan iya yi tsari iri daya a girka abubuwan dogaro, sanyi da dai sauransu, to yaya ake yi a ubuntu ana yin shi da debian haka nan ????????… taimako na gode.

  123.   Katherine m

    Barka dai. Ina da tambaya lokacin da na saka cd .. ba ya min aiki, yana gaya min cewa bata gano wannan umarnin ba, abu daya ne yake faruwa dani lokacin da na sanya itace. Shin akwai wanda zai iya taimaka min, na gode

    1.    Jorge m

      Dole ne ku sanya umarnin cd ya rabu da .. tare da sarari, kamar cd ..
      Mayila ba za a shigar da umarnin itacen a cikin harsashin ku ba, za ku iya bincika umarnin da kuka sanya a cikin harsashin ku a cikin babban fayil / bin

  124.   Jorge m

    Dole ne ku sanya umarnin cd ya rabu da .. tare da sarari, kamar cd ..
    Mayila ba za a shigar da umarnin itacen a cikin harsashin ku ba, za ku iya bincika umarnin da kuka sanya a cikin harsashin ku a cikin babban fayil / bin

  125.   Ivan m

    Barka dai, ina so in sani ko kun bani izini in sanya wannan rubutun a shafin yanar gizina, don rikodin cewa a cikin rubutun da aka faɗi zan sanya tushen shi

  126.   Lisette De Los Santos Cabrera m

    Shafi sosai!

  127.   Mauricio m

    Na gode sosai.
    Kyakkyawan bayani !!

  128.   Wallafar P. m

    Shin zaku iya taimaka min kamar yadda nake girka direbobin bidiyo AMD / ATI TRINITY RADEON HD7660D Na sanya Fedora 24

    Gracias

  129.   Delia garcia m

    Abin mamaki wannan post. Ba makawa ga wadanda muke koyo, Na gode !!!

  130.   aljanna m

    Kuna da kyau !!
    godiya mutane =)

  131.   rosemary m

    Na gode! A ƙarshe babban taƙaitaccen bayani don samun matsayin kanun labarai.

  132.   x-mutum m

    Na ga Linuxero da yawa a tsawon rayuwata, amma ban taɓa samun cikakken abu da tsari ba.
    Na ja shi zuwa ƙasashen Chameleon (Forosuse.org), kuma ina yi muku godiya a madadin Forumungiyar da ni kaina don irin wannan gagarumin aikin.

    Yi farin ciki da yawa !!

  133.   Tomeu m

    Sannu,

    Shin ana iya kwafin labarin zuwa fayil ɗin rubutu?

    Mai kirki, na gode,
    Tomeu.

    1.    Jaime m

      Zaɓi shi tare da linzamin kwamfuta, sannan Ctrl-V a lokaci guda, buɗe fayil ɗin kalma, danna maɓallin linzamin dama, a cikin menu na mahallin, zaɓi gunkin tare da harafin A (kawai rubutu ne kawai).

  134.   mary m

    Shin ɗayan wannan ya canza don sifofin na yanzu kamar Kali 2016.2 ko Ubuntu 16? Esq Ina koyo ne kawai kuma na gwada wasu umarni da wasu kundayen adireshi cewa bayan shafe kwanaki ina nema sai ya zamana cewa babu su yanzu ko kuma suna motsawa yayin da sigar ta wuce, kuma ga kwasa-kwasan ko pdf da na samo daga shekarar 2012 2010 wani kwas wanda ake kira lpic1 Ina tsammanin wannan game da duk wannan ne kuma ya tsufa, Ina fatan wannan ya taimaka min, gaisuwa

    1.    Pepe m

      yakamata kuyi rajista don LPIC1 kuma kuyi karatu tunda halin yanzu yana aiki kuma taɓa kuma karanta game da tsari tunda kun fara latti sosai

  135.   Daniel Alanis m

    Abokan shafin, Ina so ku taimaka min game da matsalar da nake da karfi sosai, sun yiwa uwar garken na su kutse kuma sun canza mai amfani da ita kuma ba zan iya samun damar samun komai ba, sun kwace gata daga komai, wasu daga cikin ku na sami mafita wanda zai iya taimaka min game da wannan batun? Zan yi matukar godiya da shi.

  136.   Pedro m

    da kyau sosai

  137.   Yesu Romero m

    Buenisimo

  138.   Wilmer lopez m

    Kyakkyawan matsayi, babban tattara umarnin, a gaskiya mafi mahimmanci suna da mahimmanci a duniyar aiki. Na gode!!!

  139.   jony m

    kyakkyawan taimako aboki na gode da kwazo

  140.   Tsakar Gida 36 m

    Kyakkyawan aiki, na gode.

  141.   Sergio m

    Na gode da kun damu da yin wannan gudummawar.

  142.   twiggy.garcia m

    Na gode sosai Elav, tuni na kwafe shi a cikin fayil ɗin rubutu don samun saukakke lokacin da kuke buƙatar tuntuɓar ku.
    Kyakkyawan taimako !!!!

  143.   Dauda Abreu m

    Godiya ga ƙungiyar DesdeLinux don gudummawar da ma na GUTL a can a Cuba, lokaci-lokaci ziyarci shafin su, yana da kyau ƙwarai, na faɗi shi daga gogewa: gutl.jovenclub.cu

  144.   Daniel Perez m

    Aboki, gudummawar ka abin birgewa ne, na gode, godiya gare ka, kayyadadden kanikanci da kwayar lissafi, ya fi sauƙi a shirya program barka da rana….

  145.   windows m

    jerin umarni masu ban mamaki, kyakkyawan yanayi yana zuwa yana haɗuwa tare da Linux! Zan sami ƙarin ƙwarewa, Ina son Linux da ƙari, samun iko shi ne mafi kyau, godiya ga labarin, Zan gaya muku yadda yake gudana, Ina fatan yana da kyau.

  146.   Marcelo m

    Taya murna da godiya sosai saboda wannan gudummawar, umarninku da na mai amfani waɗanda suka ambaci «rosetta dutse» suna da kyau! Godiya ga mutane, chapó.

  147.   Willy m

    Kyakkyawan gudummawa. amma ƙwaƙwalwata tana da ma'ana don adana waɗannan dokokin

  148.   Marcos m

    Sannu ni daga Lima ne - Ate Vitarte Ina so in koya a wasu azuzuwan yadda ake koyan sani daga farko Wani abu game da Linux, Aku, jujjuyawa daga NETBOOK na kuma cewa suna ba da shawara da taimako don GANEWA DA GANIN Masu Amfani da kalmomin shiga da ke kewaye da ni .

  149.   Kike 83 m

    Barka dai, babban labarin. An cika sosai.

    Na so yin magana a cikin umurni na huɗu a cikin Fayilolin da Kundin adireshi (cd: je zuwa tushen shugabanci). Wannan umarnin kamar yadda yake, ba tare da jayayya ba, a zahiri yana ɗaukar mu zuwa kundin adireshin gidanmu. Zuwa gidan mai amfani da mu, ba ga asalin kundin adireshi ba (/).

    Gaisuwa da taya murna ga labarin saboda yana da kyau sosai. 😉

  150.   ELWEONDELVALLIN m

    Wayyo dadi na! Ina tsammanin ita ce mafi kyawun taimako. Ana ajiye VALLIN a wannan shekara !!

  151.   erika m

    NA GODE!

  152.   JUSTICE m

    wao, Na san kawai kaɗan, amma godiya ga wannan shafin, Na koyi ƙarin lambobin da yawa don Linux. Ina ma da blog dina, na bar ku. gaisuwa https://tapicerodemadrid.com/

  153.   Juan Mejia m

    Kyakkyawan taimako!

  154.   Drums m

    Ina kawai buƙatar koyarwar Linux.
    Yanar gizo:https://baquetasteson.com/