Yadda zaka canza saitunan BIOS don kora Linux daga Live CD / USB

Daya daga cikin manyan matakai ya zama katsaya tsakanin ƙananan masu amfani da ƙwarewa kuma amfani da sauran tsarin aiki yawanci shine saitunan BIOS. Paso sauki amma m y da ake bukata para gwadawa e shigarwa kowane rarraba Linux.

Janar bayani

Da zarar an ƙirƙiri live-cd ko live-usb na distro ɗin da kuka fi so, kawai ya rage don daidaita BIOS don tsarin takalmin daga abin da ya dace.

A matsayin takaitaccen bayani, bari mu ce yayin fara kwamfuta, abin da aka fara lodawa shine BIOS (Basic Input / Output System), wanda babban manufar su shine aiwatar da ayyukan yau da kullun da ke tabbatar da ingantaccen aikin kayan aikin sannan daga baya sai a loda tsarin aiki. A takaice dai, wannan allo ne da kake gani kafin tsarin aiki ya fara loda (walau Windows ko waninsa).

Abin da dole ne mu yi don gwadawa da / ko shigar da Linux shine shigar da allon daidaitawa na BIOS kuma gaya masa cewa maimakon fara tsarin aiki wanda aka sanya a kan diski, fara wanda aka samo akan live-cd ko live-usb, kamar yadda lamarin yake.

Yadda ake shigar da allo na BIOS

Abun takaici, babu wata hanya ta duniya don aiwatar da wannan aikin kamar yadda kowane samfurin katako ya zo tare da takamaiman BIOS kuma zai zama ba zai yuwu a rubuta cikakken kewayon manajan daidaitawa ba. Koyaya, idan muka bari hankalinmu ya dauke mu, aikin yana da sauki.

Don yin wannan, lokacin da ka haɗa kayan aikin kuma da zarar saƙonnin farko sun fara bayyana, za ka iya danna maɓallin «Dakata» don dakatar da aikin taya kuma ga abin da ya bayyana akan allon cikin sauƙi. Wannan dole ne ayi shi da sauri tunda saƙonnin da aka ambata suna bayyane kawai secondsan daƙiƙu kaɗan.

Idan ba zaku iya dakatar da aikin farawa ba, kawai ku duba a hankali akan allon farko. A ƙasan wannan allon galibi akwai layi irin wannan: «Latsa F2 don shiga SETUP». Tabbas, maɓallin na iya zama wani. Mafi shahara sune: [DEL] ko [Del], [Saka], [Esc], [F2], [F1], [F10] ko kowane maɓallin aiki.

Wasu sababbi BIOS kuma suna ba ku damar zaɓar na'urar taya ta amfani da wani maɓalli, ba tare da samun damar saitin BIOS ba. Wannan saboda galibi kowa ya canza waɗannan saitunan kuma saboda wannan yana hana mai amfani yin wani gyare-gyare bisa kuskure. Idan BIOS yana da wannan "gajeriyar hanyar", kawai yi amfani da kibiyoyi akan maballin kuma zaɓi na'urar taya daidai.

Wannan "gajerar hanya", kodayake, tana aiki ne don farawa 1; lokaci na gaba da tsarin aikin da aka sanya akan diski zai fara aiki. Don haka, sake sake sanyawa, don sauya canjin "na dindindin", ko kuma yayin da BIOS ba shi da "gajeriyar hanyar" da aka ambata, dole ne ku latsa madannin da ya dace don shigar da allon sanyi na BIOS, wanda mai yiwuwa ne wani fanni daban daban ga wanda aka nuna anan, amma tare da halaye da fa'idodi iri ɗaya.

Sanya faifan taya

Anan ne kawai zamu iya ba da jagororin gaba ɗaya, tunda allon saitin BIOS ya bambanta daga jirgi zuwa jirgi. Koyaya, a cikin ƙa'idodi gabaɗaya, dole ne ku nemo shafi mai kama da «Boot» ko shigarwa da ake kira «Boot jerin» ko «fifikon Boot» a cikin ƙarin shafin “gaba ɗaya” na salon «Manyan fasali na BIOS».

A wannan lokacin yana da mahimmanci a tuna cewa a nan ne jerin na taya Wannan yana nufin cewa zamu kafa jerin abubuwan fifiko: na farko, yana ƙoƙari ya ɗora daga cd ko usb (gwargwadon yadda muke son gwada distro ɗinmu); idan hakan ta gaza, to a gwada tayashi daga tsarin aikin da aka sanya a rumbun kwamfutar, da sauransu.

Hanyar da za a zabi shafuka ko canza saitunan ta sha bamban. Wani lokacin abu ne na kawai amfani da kibiyar, wasu lokuta kuma sai kayi amfani da makullin PgUp da PgDn, da sauransu. Koyaya, a cikin shafi a hannun dama koyaushe zaku sami tebur mai bayani wanda ke nuna matakan da za a bi. A ƙasan, a ɓangarensa, bayyana maɓallan don latsawa don yin ayyukan da suka fi yawan gaske. Ingantaccen ilimin Ingilishi ya isa ya fahimci abin da za a yi.

Arshe amma ba mafi ƙaranci ba, adana canje-canjen ku kuma fita daga shirin saiti. Don yin wannan, dole ne ku danna maɓallin da ya dace (a cikin yanayin hoton da ya gabata, F10).

Tsohon BIOS

Wasu tsofaffin BIOS ba sa zuwa tare da tallafi don farawa daga kebul na USB. A wannan yanayin, mafi kyawun zaɓi shine yawanci don amfani da CD mai rai don gwada abin da kuka fi so na Linux. Koyaya, yana yiwuwa kuma a tilasta taya daga USB (ba tare da daidaitowar BIOS ba don wannan) ta amfani Manajan Boot na PLOP.

Sauran, tsoffin BIOS ba ma sun haɗa da tallafi don farawa daga mashin CD-ROM. A wannan yanayin, madadin na halitta zai kasance amfani da takalmin taya, wanda yan kadan ne Linux mini-distros da akwai. Abin farin ciki, idan na'urar tana da mai karanta CD, yana yiwuwa a taya daga live-cd, koda kuwa BIOS baya goyan baya, ta amfani da Smart Boot Manajan o Manajan Boot na PLOP.

UEFI da Amintaccen Boot

Wannan sashin kawai ya hada da wadancan sabbin kwmfutocin wadanda suka zo tare da shigar da UEFI maimakon BIOS ta "ta zamani". Don tunani, mai yiwuwa duk waɗanda suka zo tare da Windows 8 ko sama da hakan suna da UEFI da Secure Boot ta tsohuwa, tunda wannan shine nema ta Microsoft domin a tabbatar da kayan aikin.

Hadadden Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) ƙayyadadden bayani ne wanda ke neman maye gurbin tsohuwar hanyar BIOS, wanda da yawa sun yi "tamanin" kuma tare da kamanceceniya da tsohuwar DOS. Bugu da kari, ya hada abubuwa da yawa da yawa, wadanda ba manufar wannan labarin ba, daga cikinsu abin da ake kira "amintaccen takalmin" ko "amintaccen takalmin" ya yi fice.

Amintaccen Boot ya hana kwamfutar fara aiki idan mai taya boot ba shi da takaddar takaddar dijital mai inganci, sakamakon sauyin tsarin canji na ƙeta code. Ta wannan hanyar, duk wani nau'in kayan kwalliya irin na bootkit ba zai iya yin aiki yadda ya kamata ba.

Koyaya, gaskiyar cewa Microsoft ya tilasta masana'antun su rarraba kwamfutocin su tare da wannan zaɓin don a sami takaddun shaida na Windows 8 wanda ya haifar da kyau dama. Musamman, yana da damuwa cewa wannan fasalin yana amfani da manufar kawai don hana masu amfani fara tsarin aiki banda Windows. A wannan yanayin, abin da ake buƙata ya fi zama ƙuntatawa ga masu amfani, ba fasalin tsaro ba.

A cewar Microsoft, akwai "garanti" guda biyu cewa wannan ba zai faru ba. A gefe guda, zaka iya musanya duka UEFI (ta hanyar taya ta amfani da "yanayin BIOS mai dacewa", wanda aka fi sani da "Legacy Boot") da Secure Boot. A gefe guda kuma, izini na Tsaron Tsaro yana buƙatar sa hannu na dijital ana bayar da shi daga hukuma mai zaman kanta, wacce ba masana'anta ko Microsoft ba.

Gaskiyar ita ce a halin yanzu rarraba Linux kawai suna ba da su matakai na farko don aiki akan na'urori masu amfani da UEFI da Secure Boot.

A halin da ake ciki yanzu, ya fi kyau a kashe Secure Boot kafin girka Linux. Taimako don UEFI, a gefe guda, ya fi haɓaka, kodayake har yanzu yana da wasu lahani. Idan akwai kuskure, ba za a sami wani zaɓi ba sai don zaɓar "Legacy Boot" kuma a kashe UEFI.

Shigar da Linux sau biyu tare da Windows 8, wanda ke buƙatar amfani da duka UEFI da Secure Boot, ba a ba da shawarar a wannan lokacin ba. A halin yanzu, yana yiwuwa ne kawai - ba tare da wasu ciwon kai ba - ta amfani da sabbin sifofin da aka fi rarrabawa - karanta Ubuntu 12.10, Fedora 18, da dai sauransu. gaba.

Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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  6. Hakkoki: A kowane lokaci zaka iyakance, dawo da share bayanan ka.

  1.   Leo m

    Na gode sosai da karatun, cikakke. Dayawa zasuyi kyau.

    Bayani, don ganin idan wanda ya san abubuwa da yawa yana ƙarfafawa kuma yana yin koyawa game da zaɓuɓɓukan da muka fi dacewa waɗanda za mu iya nemowa tare da su a cikin bios, da kuma abin da kowannensu yake.

    1.    suus m

      Ina daya daga cikin wadanda suka dace da kai. Na shiga odar !!!

  2.   sabarggotano23 m

    wacce irin gudummawa mai kyau ta kasance babban taimako

  3.   Luis m

    Ina kwana..

    kuma idan imac ne yaya za'a saita shi don farawa daga cd?

    1.    bari muyi amfani da Linux m

      Gaskiyar ita ce ban san komai ba amma ina tsammanin hakan zai baku damar shiga cikin bios ɗin ku canza wannan, dama?
      Rungume! Bulus.

  4.   Nebukadnezzar m

    OOOOOHHHHH !!!!!

  5.   juan m

    Ba zan iya kusantar boot din Linux mai zaman kansa a windows 8 pc ba
    Ban san abin da zan yi ba, taimake ni don Allah 🙁

    1.    bari muyi amfani da Linux m

      Sannu John!
      Lura cewa an ba da cikakkun bayanai kan yadda ake yin shi a cikin labarin.
      Da zarar an saita BIOS (kamar yadda aka bayyana a cikin labarin) kawai kuna buƙatar kwafin Linux distro zuwa pendrive (ta amfani da unetbootin ko makamancin haka) kuma taya na'urar tare da pendrive ɗin a wurin.
      Rungume! Bulus.

  6.   horo m

    Yawancin "bayani" marasa amfani - da alama yana son nuna kansa "nawa ya sani" da kuma kadan bayanai da cikakkun bayanai don fara cd kai tsaye, kamar yadda yayi alkawari kuma yana da sha'awar koyo ... za mu ci gaba da neman rukunin yanar gizo waɗanda suke da ɗan sauƙi ga masu amfani na yau ..

    1.    bari muyi amfani da Linux m

      Me kuke tsammani ya ɓace? Shin za ku iya zama ɗan takamaiman bayani?
      Magana ce wacce za'a iya ma'amala da ita ta hanyar gama-gari saboda kowane BIOS ya banbanta.

      1.    Guku m

        Gaisuwa, godiya ga gudummawar, kawai cewa yana da gaggawa a gare ni in sanya Win da Canaima, tunda dole ne in yi aiki tare da aikace-aikacen da har yanzu ba su bar Canaima ba, cikakken bayanin shi ne lokacin da na yi kokarin shiga mai saka Win, Canaima ya sake farawa, an gaya min Dole ne in canza wani zaɓi a cikin bios, SATA iko ... amma bai bayyana ba! Me zan iya yi ??

  7.   Oscar m

    Godiya mai yawa !!!!

  8.   Miguel m

    Neman bayani akan Live CD a cikin GNU / Linux Na sami bayanin da na ga yana da ban sha'awa sosai don share shubuhohi (musamman ga sababbi kamar ni). Yana cikin mahaɗin mai zuwa:
    http://www.linux-es.org/livecd
    Na gode sosai da labarin.

  9.   Nona m

    Barka dai! Na gode sosai da bayanin, na same shi cikakke kuma mai fahimta. ….
    Sai anjima ku gaisa!

  10.   CentOS7 m

    Na gode sosai! Na yi aiki tare da Legacy Bios kuma na dakatar da UEFI. Kwanciya tare da CentOS7.

  11.   kwaci m

    Wani ya riga ya sanya Linux akan dell inspiron tare da Bios A05

  12.   Martin m

    Tambaya ɗaya, don shigar da Linux a kan faifai, daga kebul, dole ne ku canza disk ɗin boot (usb a maimakon rumbun diski) daga bios ko a halin da nake ciki daga UEFI, na riga na yi duk canje-canjen da ake buƙata kuma na sanya shirya Linux Safe SafeI wanda aka tsara shi ta yadda boot boot din shi ne usb ko kuma za a canza shi a taya shi da disk din, saboda ni ma na ci 8 daga kamfanin, kuma zan iya shiga UEFI ne daga windows sai inyi dukkan gyare-gyaren. , kuma, ban san shi Linux iso (wanda zan girka shine ubuntu 16.4.1) zai zo tare da mai farawa da yawa, don zaɓar ko don fara taga ko ubuntu

  13.   Enrique Romero ne adam wata m

    Duba… Ina kokarin girka windows 7 daga kebul a kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka tare da UEFI. Na shiga ciki kuma saita na'urar taya bugu da kari kan katse boot din UEFI da kuma kunna Legacy boot. Yana da cikakkiyar fahimtar ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya cewa tsarin aiki yana ƙunshe amma baya ɗaga daga gare ta a kowane lokaci. A cikin taga zabin boot na zabi memorin sai ya tsaya na wani lokaci tare da bakin allon sannan kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka ta sake farawa kuma ban sami damar fara shirin shigarwa ba ... Na kuma gwada rarraba Linux, wanda ba zan iya cewa menene shi ba amma a cikin sunan zamu iya samun wani abu kamar Debia da 4.1 wanda nayi amfani dasu a baya kuma na girka ba tare da matsala ba a kan wasu kwamfutocin ba. Gaskiyar ita ce, a cikin wannan samfurin kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka da na riga na ci karo da dama bai bar ni in fara daga cd da na warware ba ta hanyar shigar da tsarin aiki a cikin wani makamancinsa sannan in mika faifan zuwa na asali amma ina so in san ko akwai wata hanyar da za a iya magance wannan kadan Ina da matsala ... idan wani ya san yadda za a warware wannan kuma ya ɗauki matsala don karanta tsokacina, zan yi godiya sosai

    "Bios" ya faɗi a sama Phoenix amintacce

  14.   Ana m

    Barka dai, na sayi satshiite na toshiba NB10t-AF tare da tagogi 8. Garanti ya kare kuma nayi kokarin girkawa ubuntu. Ba shi yiwuwa. Na cire amintaccen takalmin ... Na sanya ubuntu daga alƙalami tare da rabe-raben da nake so .. Sakamakon. lokacin kammala girkawa, sake yi da kyau, ubuntu yana aiki. Na kashe Ina kunna wuta kuma ba ta ƙara tafiya.
    duba kafofin watsa labarai- ...
    babu kafofin watsa labarai ...
    (sannan kuma) sake yi kuma zaɓi na'urar taya mai kyau ko saka media a cikin zaɓaɓɓun kayan taya kuma latsa maɓalli
    kuma ba shi yiwuwa a fita daga can.
    idan ta fahimci alkalami, zan iya amfani da tsarin aiki daga bakin alkalami, amma kamar ba ta gane shi a kan diski ba. wani ra'ayi?

  15.   samir m

    Shin wani na iya taimaka min.Na yi ƙoƙarin girkawa canaima na linux a pc dina tare da win 7 kuma yayin shigar da canaima ya bayyana «fara canaima» kuma na bayar a can kuma bayan secondsan dakikoki pc ya sake farawa? wasu bayani don Allah….