Fesoʻotaʻiga ma Pulega Pulega - SME Networks

Talofa uo ma uo!

Faʻasino lautele o le faʻasologa: Fesootaiga komepiuta mo SMEs: Faatomuaga

Matou te leʻi faʻapaʻiaina se tusitusiga i le mataupu e amata ai le ulutala o lenei. E matou te leʻi faitau foi i se manatu e tusi mai ai. Na matou manatu māmā i ai na lauiloa e tagata uma ma atonu o le mafuaʻaga na matou le amanaʻia ai seʻia oʻo mai i le aso. Peitaʻi, o le a matou tusia se faʻamatalaga puʻupuʻu mo i latou e manaʻomia le toe faʻafouina poʻo le aʻoaʻoina e uiga i le mataupu.

Fesoʻotaʻiga: faʻamatalaina uiga

Mo mea aoga, tasi Upega - Network E aofia ai ni masini fesoʻotaʻiga e lua pe sili atu e pei o komipiuta, server, masini lolomi, telefoni feʻaveaʻi, poʻo isi fesoʻotaʻiga fesoʻotaʻiga, e fesoʻotaʻi i uaea tino poʻo uaealesi sootaga mo le faʻamoemoe o le faʻasoaina ma le tufatufaina faʻamatalaga i le va o fesoʻotaʻiga masini.

Mo nisi faʻamatalaga asiasi i:

Manatua o fesoʻotaʻiga e avatua ma le faʻamoemoe atoa ae le mo le fiafia. 😉

Faʻasinomaga faʻasologa

  • Ou te fautuaina i latou o loʻo faʻaaogaina polokalama faʻagaioia CentOS y tatalaSUSE, taialaina e le tusitusiga Suʻesuʻega a le aufaigaluega ma le GNU / Linux, saunia e le tusitala o Joel Barrios Dueñas. E faigata ia te aʻu ona tusi mataupu o le a matou feutanaʻi i lalo mo le tufatufaina atu o Debian, CentOS ma openSUSE i le tusitusiga lava e tasi, talu ai o mea mulimuli e lua e ese mai le muamua ae maise lava i igoa, nofoaga o faʻalapotopotoga faila, a latou mataupu, ma isi vaega. filosofia fesoʻotaʻi ma le autu.

O le faʻagaioiga faiga matou te faʻaaogaina i lenei faasologa o loʻo iai mea faigaluega faʻafanua mo le faʻavasegaina o masini eseese fesoʻotaʻiga. Ae ui i lea, o lenei pou o le a taulaʻi atu i le faʻaaogaina o le command console poʻo le terminal.

E pei ona matou vaʻaia i tala muamua, i le tele o tulaga matou te configure le fesoʻotaʻiga fesoʻotaʻiga poʻo le interfaces- i le taimi o le faʻapipiʻiina faʻagasologa ia mautinoa ai, o le taimi lava e faʻavae ai le faʻavae faʻavae polokalama, o le komepiuta ei ai se fesoʻotaʻiga lelei o upega

O le saʻo faʻatulagaina a itiiti mai o le muamua network interface -main- e taua mo le isi galuega o le Desktop, Fale faigaluegapoʻo Tagata faigaluega o loʻo tatou faʻatinoina.

Matou te le faʻaaogaina le NetworkManager

Ina ia faʻafaigofie tusitusiga o lenei tusitusiga, taulaʻi le mafaufau i le faʻavasega server, ma faʻafaigofie ona faitau, matou te manatu ai leai le tautua na saunia e le afifi o loʻo faʻaaogaina fesootaiga-pule. A leai e tatau ona tatou faʻatinoina gaioiga nei:

I Debian

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo systemctl taofi network-manager.service
buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo systemctl tulaga network-manager.service
buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo systemctl faʻaleaoga le network-manager.service
buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo ifconfig

Afai o le faʻatulagaina o le network cards na faʻamoemoe i luga o le tautua fesootaiga-pule e saʻo, ona mafai lea ona tatou faʻaauau ona galulue. Peitai, e maloloina le faʻatinoina:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo ifdown eth0 && sudo ifup eth0

e faʻalua siaki o mea uma e lelei.

I luga ole CentOS

I le tusi i le PDF format «Suʻesuʻega a le aufaigaluega ma le GNU / Linux«, Iulai 2016 Lomiga, mataupu 48.2.2 ua tuuto i le autu o le tautua NetworkManager. Ou te iloa o le tusitala o Joel Barrios Dueñas e le fiafia tele i ai - na ia manatu e valea - le faʻaaogaina o NetworkManager i Servers.

Ethernet fesoʻotaʻiga

O se tulafono aoao, pe a tatou galulue ma masini tafailagi luga Qemu-KVM, o le faʻagaioiga faʻailo e iloa ai Ethernet Interfaces ma igoa pei o ethX, o fea le X fai ma sui numera. O le muamua Ethernet interface ua faʻailoa mai o le eth0, o le lona lua o le eth1, ma isi.

A faʻapea e faʻatatau i le Debian operating system - ma mea e maua mai - faʻasolosolo i masini tino, e moni foʻi le faʻamatalaga ua taʻua i luga.

Afai tatou te galulue i masini faʻaletino ma le faʻagaioiga sisitema CentOS y tatalaSUSE, o le faʻagaioiga faiga e faʻailoa ai latou enoX. Tele mea tutusa e mafai ona tupu i masini tafaʻilagi - ma nei operating system- i hypervisors o le VMware.

I masini tafailagi na fausia mai le faʻagaioiga FreeBSD -o le a foi Free Polokalama Komepiuta- e masani ona faʻaigoaina o emX o vtnetX faʻalagolago pe o latou i luga o Qemu-KVM poʻo luga VMware faʻatulagaina. Afai e faʻaletino latou e masani ona faʻailoa mai latou emX.

Faʻailoa Ethernet Interfaces

E faʻailoa uma avanoa avanoa fesoʻotaʻiga luga o laʻu komepiuta sysadmin.fromlinux.fan, matou te faʻatinoina:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo ifconfig -a
eth0 Link encap: Ethernet HWaddr 70: 54: d2: 19: ad: 65 inet addr: 10.10.10.1 Bcast: 10.10.10.255 Mask: 255.255.255.0 inet6 addr: fe80 :: 7254: d2ff: fe19: ad65 / 64 Aotelega: Link ... lo Link encap: Local Loopback inet addr: 127.0.0.1 Mask: 255.0.0.0 inet6 addr: :: 1/128 Scope: Host ... virbr0 Link encap: Ethernet HWaddr 52: 54: 00: c8: 35 : 5e inet addr: 192.168.10.1 Bcast: 192.168.10.255 Mask: 255.255.255.0 inet6 addr: fe80 :: 5054: ff: fec8: 355e / 64 Scope: Link ... virbr0-nic Link encap: Ethernet HWaddr 52:54 : 00: c8: 35: 5e BROADCAST MULTICAST MTU: 1500 Metric: 1 ... vmnet8 Link encap: Ethernet HWaddr 00: 50: 56: c0: 00: 08 inet addr: 192.168.20.1 Bcast: 192.168.20.255 Mask: 255.255.255.0 .6 inet80 addr: fe250 :: 56: 0ff: fec8: 64/XNUMX Aotelega: Link ...
  • O le tolu ellipsis i galuega na muamua atu o lona uiga o le tele o faʻamatalaga na toe faʻafoʻi mai matou te leʻo faʻaalia e sefe ai avanoa.

E pei ona ou faapipiiina i luga o le Debian 8 faʻagaioiga polokalama "Jessie" lua masini masini lagolago polokalama, o lona uiga, Qemu-KVM y VMware Workstation Server 10.0.6, O le faʻatonuga e toe faʻafoʻi uma mai ai fesoʻotaʻiga.

  • Mo le faʻamaumauga: o le polokalama tumaoti VMware Workstation Server 10.0.6 o se kopi faʻatulafonoina na tuʻuina mai e laʻu uo ma laʻu paaga o El NeoZelandes, o le na mauaina mai i luga o le Initaneti i lona atunuʻu atunuʻu ma sa agalelei lava e lafo mai ia te aʻu.

Seʻi o tatou vaʻai poʻo a faʻamatalaga e mafai ona tatou maua mai le galuega muamua:

  • eth0: Fesoʻotaʻiga fesoʻotaʻiga autu ma IPv4 tuatusi 10.10.10.1. O loʻo faʻaalia foi le tuatusi IPv6.
  • lo: Loopback poʻo i le lotoifale ma le IPv4 127.0.0.1 ma le IPv6 -e masani ai i nei fesoʻotaʻiga uma- :: 1/128.
  • taupou0: Alalaupapa-ituaiga fesoʻotaʻiga fesoʻotaʻiga -  Btumutumu ma le IPv4 192.168.10.1 ma le tuatusi MAC 52:54:00:c8:35:5e. Lenei vaʻaiga vaʻaia o le mea tatou te fausiaina ma faʻavasega e ala i le Pule-Mama o Qemu-KVM o se fesoʻotaʻiga «Leai se totogi»O le NAT ituaiga.
  • virbr0-nic: Fesoʻotaʻiga faʻatasi fesoʻotaʻiga e fausia ai le Qemu-KVM, o le ituaiga Anonymous Bridge- lē faʻaigoaina ala laupapa ma le tuatusi lava e tasi MAC 52:54:00:c8:35:5e que taupou0. E leai se tuatusi IP atofaina.
  • vmnet8: Fesoʻotaʻiga faʻafesoʻotaʻi ituaiga NAT configured i le VMware Fa'atonu Feso'ota'iga Va'aia.

El VMware WorkstationServer ala i lana Fa'atonu Feso'ota'iga Va'aia, configure le Alalaupapa na e fausiaina ma faʻafanua eseese taʻitasi o le Host 'eseʻese - matai. E faaaoga e le jargon i tala muamua?.

O leisi tusi apalai - e le naʻo le pau foʻi lea - e maua mai ai faʻamatalaga e uiga i le network interface lshw - Lisi Meafaigaluega. lshw o se mea faigaluega e aumaia faʻamatalaga auiliili e uiga i le faʻatulagaina o le masini. Afai tatou te tamoʻe i se faʻamafanafanaga:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ aptitude search lshw
p lshw - faʻamatalaga e uiga i le faʻatulagaina o masini  
p lshw-gtk - faʻamatalaga faʻapitoa e uiga i le faʻatulagaina o masini

Matou te maitauina o loʻo iai foʻi lana ata faʻafanua matou te tuʻuina mo oe e suʻe. Sei o tatou faʻatuina le faʻamalologa mode ma tamoʻe i le isi:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo lshw -class network
[sudo] upu faʻamau mo le buzz:
  * -fausiaina               
       Faʻamatalaga: Ethernet interface product: 82579V Gigabit Network Connection tagata faʻatau: Intel Corporation physical id: 19 bus info: pci @ 0000: 00: 19.0 logical igoa: eth0 version: 05 serial: 70: 54: d2: 19: ad: 65 size: 100Mbit / s mafai: 1Gbit / s lautele: 32 uati uati: 33MHz agavaʻa: pm msi bus_master ...
  * -fausiaina masini
       faamatalaga: Ethernet interface tino id: 1 igoa fetaui lelei: virbr0-nic serial: 52: 54: 00: c8: 35: 5e tele: 10Mbit / s agavaʻa: ethernet faaletino

Sei o tatou faʻatonutonu igoa talafeagai o fesoʻotaʻiga

I nisi taimi, aemaise pe a matou suia se tino network card mo soʻo se mafuaʻaga, matou te maitauina le numera X lea e faʻamaonia ai le faʻafesoʻotaʻiga faʻateleina e le 1 ma e naʻo le maitauina pe a tatou tamoe ifconfig -a, i le va la tulaga o le a le mea na tupu ina ua uma le suiga. E mafai foi ona tupu pe a tatou aveʻeseina se fesoʻotaʻiga tafailagi tafailagi mo soʻo se mafuaʻaga, ona toe faʻaopopo lea o leisi.

O loʻo taua i luga e mafai ona faʻasoesa pe a tatou faʻatulagaina ma fesoʻotaʻi - fusifusia i se tasi pe sili atu tautua, o se mautinoa fetaui igoa igoa, ia eth0, eno1 o em0. O le mea sili ona le talafeagai e masani ona tupu i se taimi umi i tua atu - tausaga masalo - mai le amataga faʻatulagaina. Ona aliali mai ai lea o ni fesoʻotaʻiga fou ma igoa pei eth1,eth2, eno2, em1, ma isi, ma nisi auaunaga taofia le galulue lelei. O i latou na uia mea faapena tulaga E te iloa le mea ou te fai atu ai 😉

O igoa fetaui lelei o fesoʻotaʻiga i Debian - ma nisi o latou mafuaʻaga - e mafai ona maua i le faila /etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules. I le CentOS 7 o loʻo i totonu o le faila /etc/udev/rules.d/90-eno-fix.rules, a o ana faʻamatalaga muamua, o le faila lava e tasi e pei ona iai i le Debian.

I DebianAfai e te manaʻo e suia le talafeagai igoa o se faʻapitoa fesoʻotaʻiga faʻafesoʻotaʻiga, saili le laina e fetaui ma lona tuatusi Mac ma suia le tau Igoa = ethX poʻo le a lava le aoga igoa taua e te manaʻomia. Ina ia manuia suiga, e tatau ona toe amata lau komepiuta.

Mo le CentOS 7, vaʻai i le galuega «Suʻesuʻega a le aufaigaluega ma le GNU / Linux»Saunia e Joel Barrios Dueñas, o loo auiliili mai ai le faiga.

  • Taua: I soo se tulaga,Vaʻavaʻai! Ma le tautua NetworkManager i le tulaga o loʻo e tagofiaina fesoʻotaʻiga.

Fesuiaʻi ia tapulaʻa o fesoʻotaʻiga fesoʻotaʻiga

I Debian, afai tatou te mananaʻo e suia fesuiaiga o le network card tumau, e tatau ona tatou faʻasaʻo le faila / etc / network / interfaces pei ona talanoaina i lalo.

Ia iloa auiliili - ma sili atu- uma filifiliga e mafai ona e faʻaaogaina faufautua tamaloa interfaces. Matou te fautuaina foʻi le faitauina o faʻamaumauga i le faila.

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ ls -l / usr / share / doc / ifupdown /
aofaʻi 44 drwxr-xr-x 2 aʻa aʻa 4096 Aug 7 2016 meaʻai
drwxr-xr-x 2 aʻa aʻa 4096 Aug 7 2016 faataitaiga
-rw-r - r-- 1 aʻa aʻa 976 Jun 21 2012 puletaofia -rw-r - r-- 1 aʻa aʻa 18243 13 Mar 2015 1 changelog.gz -rw-r - r-- 297 aʻa aʻa 21 Jun 2012 1 FUAFUAGA.Debian.gz -rw-r - r-- 454 aʻa aʻa 29 Nov 2014 1 README -rw-r - r-- 946 aʻa aʻa 21 Jun 2012 XNUMX UMA

Polokalama ethtool

E ala i le polokalama ethtool E mafai ona matou fefaʻasoaaʻi, lisi ma fesuiaʻi ia fuataga o le network card e pei o le saosaoa o fesoʻotaʻiga, feutanaiga otometi, aofaʻi siaki mai le avega - siaki aofaʻi offload, ma isi E avanoa i fale teuoloa toeititi lava tufatufa uma.

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo aptitude faʻapipiʻi le ethtool
[sudo] upu faʻamau mo le buzz:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo ethtool eth0
Seti mo le eth0: Lagolago taulaga: [TP] Lagolago fesoʻotaʻiga auala: 10baseT / Half 10baseT / Atoa 100baseT / Half 100baseT / Atoa 1000baseT / Atoa Lagolago taofi taofi faʻaaogaina: Leai Lagolagoina feutanaiga: Ioe Faʻalauiloa fesoʻotaʻiga auala: 10baseT / Half 10baseT / Atoa le 100baseT / Half 100baseT / Atoa 1000baseT / Atoa Faʻasalalauga faʻataʻatia le faʻavaʻa faʻaaoga: Leai Faʻalauiloa otometi feutanaiga: Ioe Saosaoa: 100Mb / s Faʻalua: Faʻatele Port: Twisted Pair PHYAD: 1 Transceiver: internal Auto-feutanaiga: luga MDI-X: on (taʻavale) Lagolago Ala-luga: pumbg Ala mai luga: g Nei tulaga feʻau: 0x00000007 (7) drv suʻesuʻe soʻotaga Soʻotaga mauaina: ioe

O suiga tatou te faia e ala i lenei mea faigaluega e le tumau ma o le a leiloa i le isi toe amataina o le komepiuta. Afai tatou te manaʻomia ni suiga tumau faia e ala i ethtool, e tatau ona tatou faʻaopopoina i le faila / etc / network / interfaces se faʻatonuga «muamua"Poʻo" aʻo leʻi siʻitia luga le Ofisa "pei ona taʻua i lalo:

taʻavale eth1
iface eth1 inet dhcp
muamua-luga / sbin / ethtool -s eth1 saoasaoa 1000 duplex atoa

O le mea lea o le network card eth1 lea e mauaina lona tuatusi IP mai le DHCP server, e suia tumau e faʻagaioia i le saoasaoa o le 1000 Mb / s i le faiga Masalosalo atoa.

  • O le auala i luga e aoga foi mo kata ma static IPs.

Tuatusi Ip

O le a matou vaʻavaʻai i lalo pe faʻafefea ona configure le IP tuatusi o mea faigaluega, faʻapea foʻi ma le faitotoʻa - vaiania e ala i le le mafai, talafeagai mo fesoʻotaʻiga ma le toega o le lotoifale fesoʻotaʻiga ma saʻo ma Initaneti ala i su vaiania.

  • A matou tusi "tuusao»Matou te vaʻai i mataupu o fesoʻotaʻiga SME e faʻatagaina ai le ulufale i le Initaneti e aunoa ma le faʻaaogaina o se server sui, lea e e le fautuaina, e ui lava o loʻo iai le malosiʻaga Palola i luga o le komepiuta lava ia e galue e pei Faitotoa. A oʻo mai lou taimi o le a matou fetagofi atu i le mataupu sui.

Tautalaga le tumau

Faʻaaogaina tulafono masani o soʻo se Linux tufatufaina pei o ip, ifconfig ma le auala, e mafai ona tatou faʻanofoina le tumau se fesoʻotaʻiga fesoʻotaʻiga pei ona o le a tatou vaʻaia i lalo.

Ina ia tofia se tuatusi IP ma lona subnet mask ona siaki lea o le faʻagaioiga, tatou faʻatino:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo ifconfig eth0 172.16.10.2 netmask 255.255.0.0
buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo ifconfig
eth0 Link encap: Ethernet HWaddr 70: 54: d2: 19: ad: 65 inet addr: 172.16.10.2 Bcast: 172.16.255.255 Mask: 255.255.0.0 inet6 addr: fe80 :: 7254: d2ff: fe19: ad65 / 64 Aotelega: Link UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU: 1500 Metric: 1 RX afifi: 0 sese: 0 paʻu: 0 overruns: 0 fausaga: 0 TX afifi: 659 mea sese: 0 pa'ū: 0 ova: 0 feaveaʻi: 0 fetauiga: 0 txqueuelen: 1000 RX bytes: 0 (0.0 B) TX bytes: 115601 (112.8 KiB) Faʻalavelave: 20 Manatu: fe600000-fe620000

Na ona matou faʻatulagaina mo se taimi le tumau le kata eth0 tuatusi IP tuatusi 172.16.10.2 ma subnet ufimata 255.255.0.0 auai i le Vasega «B» Private Internet Network.

  • Matau ua tatou fesuiaʻia le faʻatulagaina o le network interface eth0 o le sysadmin.fromlinux.fan computer, lea sa i ai muamua le IP 10.10.10.1/255.255.255.0 auai i le Vasega "A" Private Internet Network, e ui lava naʻo le 254 komepiuta e mafai ona talimalo e tusa ai ma lona subnet mask..

Ia faʻatulaga le Faitotoa e ala ona le mafai ona siaki lea o le faʻagaioʻoga tatou faʻatinoina:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo auala faʻaopoopo le tumau gw 172.16.10.1 eth0

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo auala -n
Kernel IP faʻasolosolo laulau Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface 0.0.0.0 172.16.10.1 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0 0.0.0.0 172.16.10.1 0.0.0.0 UG 1024 0 0 eth0 172.16.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 U 0 0 0 eth0 192.168.10.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 vmnet8 192.168.20.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 virbr0

Na matou faʻatulagaina mo se taimi le tumau le Faitotoʻa 172.16.10.1 i le interface eth0 172.16.10.2, ae o isi fesoʻotaʻiga tausia latou muamua taua.

Ina ia aveʻese UMA tulaga network card tulaga, tatou tamoʻe:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo ip addr flush eth0

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo ifconfig
eth0 Link encap: Ethernet HWaddr 70: 54: d2: 19: ad: 65 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU: 1500 Metric: 1 RX afifi: 0 sese: 0 pa'ū: 0 ova: 0 fausaga: 0 TX afifi: 718 mea sese: 0 paʻu: 0 ova: 0 feaveaʻi: 0 fetauiga: 0 txqueuelen: 1000 RX bytes: 0 (0.0 B) TX bytes: 125388 (122.4 KiB) Faʻalavelave: 20 Manatu: fe600000-fe620000

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo auala -n
Kernel IP faʻasolosolo laulau Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Faʻaoga Iface 192.168.10.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 vmnet8 192.168.20.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 virbr0
  • Seʻi tatou vaʻai lelei atu, aʻo tatou aveʻesea UMA setiina o fesoʻotaʻiga muamua e oʻo lava i le tasi na faʻalauiloaina i le / etc / network / interfaces file!.

Ia toe faʻafoʻi le lalolagi i le tulaga sa iai ae tatou te leʻi toe faʻaola le komipiuta. Afai tatou te le mananaʻo e taofi le galue, tatou tamoʻe:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo ifconfig eth0 10.10.10.1 netmask 255.255.255.0

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo ifconfig eth0
eth0 Link encap: Ethernet HWaddr 70: 54: d2: 19: ad: 65 inet addr: 10.10.10.1 Bcast: 10.10.10.255 Mask: 255.255.255.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU: 1500 Metric: 1 RX afifi: 0 measese: 0 paʻu: 0 soʻona: 0 faavaa: 0 TX afifi: 729 mea sese: 0 pa'ū: 0 ova: 0 feaveaʻi: 0 fetauiga: 0 txqueuelen: 1000 RX bytes: 0 (0.0 B) TX bytes: 129009 (125.9 KiB) Faʻalavelave: 20 Manatua: fe600000-fe620000

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo auala -n
Kernel IP faʻasolosolo laulau Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface 10.10.10.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 eth0 192.168.10.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 vmnet8 192.168.20.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 virbr0

ma o lea tatou te toe foi ai i le amataga faʻatulagaina.

Faʻamatalaga le tumau e faʻaaoga ai le ip poloaiga

I le tele o taimi matou te minoi ai ma se komepiuta - komepiuta i seisi SME Network na talosagaina a matou tautua poʻo fesoasoani ma matou te le mananaʻo e fesuiaʻi le faʻatulagaina lautele o lana network network. Ina ia ausia lenei mea e mafai ona tatou faʻaaogaina le faʻatonuga ip.

O le poloaiga ip faapipii ma afifi iproute, poʻo le iproute2 faʻalagolago i le tufatufaina ma le faʻamatalaga. I Debian 6 "Oomi" -i lo matou lava manatu- le itulau faʻatonu tagata ip na sili atu ona manino nai lo le faʻataʻitaʻiga, Wheezy ma Jessie. ip afai e faʻaauau pea ona faʻaaoga e faʻaali ai, pe faʻasolosolo ai le faʻasolosolo - maneta, masini, faʻasolosolo faiga faʻavae ma ala faʻaofuofu.

Oe mafai ona siaki le tamaloa itulau mo le faapipiiina faʻamatalaga faʻaaogaina tamaloa ip.

Naʻo loʻu faʻaaogaina e tofia ai se isi tuatusi IP e tutusa ma le isi kamupani SME LAN subnet. Faʻataʻitaʻiga, tatou tofia le IP tuatusi 192.168.1.250 i se faʻaopopoga i le tasi ua uma ona ia te oe ma o le a le 10.10.10.1 i laʻu komepiuta network network:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ ip addr faʻaali le eth0
2: eth0: mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP kulupu le tumau qlen 1000 link / ether 70: 54: d2: 19: ad: 65 brd ff: ff: ff: ff: ff: ff
    inet 10.10.10.1/24 brd 10.10.10.255 lautele lalolagi eth0
       valid_lft faavavau fiafia_lft faavavau inet6 fe80 :: 7254: d2ff: fe19: ad65 / 64 lautele avanoa valid_lft faavavau fiafia_lft faavavau

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo ip addr faʻaopoopo le 192.168.1.250/24 faʻasalalauga 192.168.1.255 dev eth0

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ ip addr faʻaali le eth0
2: eth0: mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP kulupu le tumau qlen 1000 link / ether 70: 54: d2: 19: ad: 65 brd ff: ff: ff: ff: ff: ff
    inet 10.10.10.1/24 brd 10.10.10.255 lautele lalolagi eth0
       valid_lft faavavau fiafia_lft faʻavavau
    inet 192.168.1.250/24 brd 192.168.1.255 lautele lalolagi eth0
       valid_lft faavavau fiafia_lft faavavau inet6 fe80 :: 7254: d2ff: fe19: ad65 / 64 lautele avanoa valid_lft faavavau fiafia_lft faavavau

E ui lava o le taunuʻuga o le faʻatonuga e atagia ai o le suiga e aoga e faʻavavau

valid_lft faavavau fiafia_lft faʻavavau

e le tupu moni lea, lea e mafai ona tatou siakiina pe a tatou faʻamamaina ma vave maeʻa faʻatagaina le fesoʻotaʻiga i le faʻaogaina o tulafono ifdow eth0 && ifup eth0. Afai matou te le mananaʻo e toe amata le fesoʻotaʻiga ma toe foʻi i eth0 i lona amataga tulaga, matou faʻatinoina:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo ip addr del 192.168.1.250/24 faʻasalalauga 192.168.1.255 dev eth0
buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ ip addr faʻaali le eth0

Ina ia iloa tulafono o le afifi faapipiiina iproute2 tatou tamoʻe:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo dpkg -L iproute2 | grep / lapisi
buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo dpkg -L iproute2 | grep / sbin

Talanoaga malosi

Afai tatou te manaʻomia se masini e mauaina se tuatusi IP tuatusi, e tatau ona tatou configure lona fesoʻotaʻiga fesoʻotaʻiga ina ia maua ai ia ala i le sitaili. Pau lava le mea matou te faʻailoa i le faila / etc / network / interfaces o laina nei mo lena Ofisa:

taʻavale eth0
iface etho inet dhcp

Afai i le taimi o le faʻagasologa o faʻagasologa na faia ai le filifiliga o le network card ia maua se IP malosi, e le manaʻomia le sitepu talu ai ona e tatau ona faʻatulaga saʻo ina ia lisiina ai se IP mai le DHCP server o loʻo i ai i le SME Network.

Afai tatou te suia mai le Static IP i le Dynamic one, pe tatou te faʻaopopoina se fou interface ma manaʻo ia maua se IP malosi, ina ia mafai ai lena interface matou faʻatinoina

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo ifup eth0

poloaʻi i lenei tulaga faʻatonutonuina le polokalama sitaili amata le DHCP gaioiga. Faʻamutaina le fesoʻotaʻiga matou te faia

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo ifdown eth0

poloaʻiga e amata le tatalaina o faʻagasologa - tatala faʻatulagaina faʻaaogaina le DHCP ma tapunia le fesoʻotaʻiga fesoʻotaʻiga.

Tamoe tamaloa atamai mo nisi faʻamatalaga i luga ole DHCP client polokalame.

Lauga saʻo

Ua matou vaʻaia i le tele o tusitusiga muamua auala e faʻavasega ai se static IP luga o se network network. O le faila autu faʻatulagaina o / etc / network / interfaces. Faataitaiga:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ cat / etc / network / interfaces
# Lenei faila faʻamatalaina fesoʻotaʻiga fesoʻotaʻiga avanoa i lau faiga # ma faʻafefea ona faʻagaoioia i latou. Mo nisi faʻamatalaga, vaʻai vaʻai (5). # O le loopback network interface auto lo iface lo inet loopback # O le uluaʻi fesoʻotaʻiga fesoʻotaʻi faʻatagaina-hotplug eth0
iface eth0 inet static
    tuatusi 10.10.10.1/24 netmask 255.255.255.0 upega 10.10.10.0 faʻasalalau 10.10.10.255 faitotoʻa 10.10.10.101 # dns- * filifiliga e faʻaogaina e le # resolvconf afifi, pe a faʻapipiʻi dns-nameservers 192.168.10.5 dns-search mai linux.fan

Le fesoʻotaʻiga fesoʻotaʻiga fesoʻotaʻiga tapulaʻa eth0 mai le faila i luga faailoa mai:

  • faataga-hotplug eth0: Upu uiga tutusa a "taʻavale»Ma«faʻataga-taʻavale«. Laina o loʻo faʻailoa mai o le tino faʻatino eth0 tatau ona tu i luga - up otometi lava e subsystems eseese i le taimi o komipiuta amataga. Masani lava e afai
  • iface eth0 inet static: laina faʻailoa mai o le fesoʻotaʻiga - iface eth0 tatau ona faʻatulagaina mo se upega tafailagi TCP / IP IPv4 statically -fixed IP- ae le o le dynamically, pei o le tulaga o Dynamic Address i le laina iface eth0 inet dhcp
  • tuatusi 10.10.10.1: tofi IPv4 10.10.10.1 i le Ofisa
  • netmask 255.255.255.0- Subnet mask mo se masani Vasega "C" LAN oʻo atu i le 254 komupiuta. Upu uiga tutusa o le ua folafola tuatusi 10.10.10.1/24 i le laina muamua
  • fesootaiga: subnet e ana le tuatusi static tofia
  • faasalalauga: Faʻasalalauga poʻo faʻasalalauga IP
  • vaiania: faitotoʻa mo masani fesoʻotaʻi i le Initaneti
  • dns-nameservers- DNS server IP tuatusi pe a fai o le afifi ua faʻapipiʻi fofoconf lea e le tatau ona fenumiai ma le faila /etc/resolv.conf - pe fofo
  • dns-saili: le mafai ona suʻe le sailiga ile DNS

O mea o loʻo i luga o le faila e mafai ona faʻafaigofieina i:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ cat / etc / network / interfaces
taʻavale lo iface lo inet loopback

allow-hotplug eth0 iface eth0 inet static tuatusi 10.10.10.1/24

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ ip addr faʻaali le eth0
2: eth0: mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP kulupu le tumau qlen 1000 link / ether 70: 54: d2: 19: ad: 65 brd ff: ff: ff: ff: ff: ff inet 10.10.10.1/24 brd 10.10.10.255 lautele lalolagi eth0 valid_lft faavavau fiafia_lft faavavau faʻavavau inet6 fe80 :: 7254: d2ff: fe19: ad65 / 64 lautele avanoa valid_lft faʻavavau fiafia_lft faʻavavau

O isi tapulaʻa uma o le a ave le faʻamaoniga aoga, e aunoa ma le faʻagaloina o tulaga taua ua matou folafolaina i le faila /etc/resolv.conf al LEAI ia faapipii le afifi fofoconf.

Alalaupapa - Alalaupapa Fesoʻotaʻiga

Faia se Alalaupapa - ala laupapa oe manaʻomia e faʻapipiʻi le alalaupapa-utils afifi:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo aptitude faʻapipiʻi alalaupapa-utils

E faʻaaoga lautele auala laupapa i le Virtualization. Sei tatou fai atu o loʻo ia tatou le HP Proliant ML 350 Gen 8 poʻo le Gen 9 server ma le 4 network interfaces. E mafai ona matou tuua se tasi o ia e fesoʻotaʻi saʻo ma le Host - matai e lagolagoina masini tafailagi. Faatasi ai ma le tolu totoe mafai ona tatou faia se Anonymous igoa -aunoa ma le tofiaina o soʻo se tuatusi IP- ma faʻafesoʻotaʻi masini tafaʻilagi i le auala laupapa ina ia mafai ai ona latou ofi atu i le SME LAN, o nei masini tafaʻilagi e iai ni tuatusi IP mautu.

O lenei fesoasoani aoga na aveina mai e laʻu uo ma laʻu paaga Eteuati Claus. Faʻapea foi, i le faila / usr / share / doc / ifupdown / faʻataʻitaʻiga / alalaupapa o le a tatou maua ai se tusitusiga - tusilima ile faʻafefea ona faʻafesoʻotaʻi le tele o fesoʻotaʻiga.

buzz @ host: ~ $ sudo nano / etc / network / interfaces
auto lo iface lo inet loopback allow-hotplug eth0 iface eth0 inet static address 192.168.10.27 iface eth1 inet manual iface eth2 inet manual iface eth3 inet manual # Bridge Anonymous auto br0 iface br0 inet manual bridge_ports eth1 eth2 eth3

Aotelega

O le mataupu o Fesootaʻiga e faigata ma e manaʻomia le tele o suʻesuʻega ma faʻataʻitaʻiga. Sysadmin manaʻomia le iloa mea taua. O lenei tusitusiga e na o le Tulaga Maualalo Ulufale. Leai lava.

Matou te leʻi tago - ma o le a le paʻi atu ile OSI faʻataʻitaʻiga «Tatala Fesoʻotaʻiga Fesoʻotaʻiga»O le fea o faʻataʻitaʻiga faʻataʻitaʻiga mo fesoʻotaʻiga fesoʻotaʻiga ma le foloa fale fausiaina i le 1980 e le Faʻalapotopotoga Faʻavaomalo mo le FaʻatulagainaISO".

Tuʻu i lalo i mataupu faʻavae o OSI faʻataʻitaʻiga, toeititi tutusa ma le alu ifo i le Deep Web po o le Deep Web ... sili mo aʻu e le o aʻu o Hacker.

Le tilivaina atu

Folasaga i le Tautinoga Tautinoga


O mataupu o le tusitusiga e tausisi ia tatou mataupu silisili o amio lelei faʻatonu. E lipotia se mea sese kiliki iinei.

5 manatu, tuʻu lau

Tuʻu lau faamatalaga

o le a le lomia lou tuatusi imeli.

*

*

  1. E tali atu mo faʻamatalaga: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Faamoemoega o faʻamatalaga: Pulea le SPAM, faʻamatalaga pulega.
  3. Tulaga faʻatulafonoina: Lau maliega
  4. Fesoʻotaʻiga o faʻamatalaga: O faʻamatalaga o le a le fesoʻotaʻi atu i isi vaega vagana i tulafono faʻatulafonoina.
  5. Teuina o faʻamatalaga: Faʻamaumauga tuʻufaʻatasia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Aia Tatau: I soo se taimi e mafai ai ona e faʻatapulaʻaina, toe maua ma aveʻese au faʻamatalaga.

  1.   Zodiac Carburus malo

    O le poloaiga ip Sa ou faʻaaogaina e pei o oe, Fico, i le tele o taimi ma sa avea o se laina faʻaola. E naʻo lou tusitusi e uiga i faʻasalalauga tumaoti ua faʻasaoina mo pisinisi pisinisi. O se faʻanoanoaga tele ona o se tusitusiga ua "ono ono" pe tusilima ma na asia e le toʻatele e leai ni tala o fai mai.

  2.   Zodiac Carburus malo

    Na ou maitauina le le faia i lau vaega, Fico. I le faamatalaga o le auala laupapa o loʻo faapea mai:
    Iface br0 inet tusi lesona

    Pei ona e iloa, i lena laina tasi pe a toe amataina le alalaupapa e le siʻi otometi. Tatau ona fai atu:

    taʻavale br0
    Iface bro tusi lesona
    Bridge_ports eth1 eth2 eth3

    Faafetai foʻi. 🙂

  3.   Feterika malo

    Talofa Zodiac.
    Oe pei o taimi uma faitauina aʻu pou loloto.
    O le a ou faʻaaogaina le mataupu o fesoʻotaʻiga tumaoti i le tusitusiga muamua o le Samba 4. Ma ioe, na galo ia te aʻu ona tusi taʻavale br0 ile amataga ole faʻasologa ole auala laupapa. Seʻi vaai pe o le pele Luigys, pule o le 'upega tafaʻilagi, suia le pou.
    Faʻafetai tele lava mo lou taimi, Zodiac.

  4.   manaia tele malo

    Ou te fiafia e faitau nei ituaiga o aʻoaʻoga i laʻu RSS. Ua leva na ou faitauina ia tusi ma ua ou paʻu e pei lava o ni mataupu. Sa ou fai atu ... Faafetai lava, ua ou faitau atu ia te oe

  5.   Feterika malo

    Ia, faʻaauau pea ona fiafia e faitau, Ado Ello. Manuia!