Chii chinonzi yemahara software?

El free software (muchirungu software yemahara, kunyangwe zita iri dzimwe nguva richivhiringidzika ne "mahara" nekuda kwekusanzwisisika kweshoko rekuti "yemahara" mururimi rweChirungu, ndosaka "software yemahara" ichishandiswawo) izita reiyo software inoremekedza rusununguko rwevashandisi pamusoro pechigadzirwa chavakatenga uye, nekudaro, kana changowanikwa chingave used, kutevedzera, akadzidza, modifieduye redistributed zvakasununguka. 


Zvinoenderana neFree Software Foundation, yemahara software inoreva rusununguko rwevashandisi kumhanya, kuteedzera, kugovera, kudzidza, kugadzirisa software, uye kugovera software yakashandurwa.

Iyo software inoonekwa semahara kana ikazadzisa zvinotevera mamiriro:

  • Chirongwa chinogona kushandiswa chero chinangwa
  • Izvo zvinokwanisika kuwana iyo sosi kodhi
  • Izvo zvinokwanisika kugadzira makopi echirongwa
  • Kuvandudza kunogona kuburitswa

Chinhu chakakosha kujekesa ndechekuti yemahara software inoenderana nemitemo iripo yezvivakwa uye inopa rusununguko rukuru, kana munhu akasangana nemimwe mamiriro. Mune mamwe mazwi, iyo inobvumidza iyo shanduko uye kugovera patsva kwesoftware, chimwe chinhu chinowanzo rambidzwa mune inozivikanwa se "proprietary software", chero bedzi munhu achitevedzera nemamiriro ekuti izvo zvigadziriso zviwanikwe kune rese pasirese. Izvo zvinoenderana nenyaya yekuti kana isu tese tichigovana, isu tese tichava nani.

Mukati memahara software pane akati wandei marudzi emalayisensi:

  • GPL, imwe yeanonyanya kuzivikanwa marezinesi akagadzirwa neiyo GNU chirongwa.
  • LGPL, yakafanana neGPL, asi mutsauko uri muchiyero chauinacho
  • Creative Commons: iri izita chairo rinobatanidza marudzi mazhinji emarezinesi ayo anowanzo shandiswa kuzvinhu zvekugadzira, senge magirafu, zvinyorwa kana mimhanzi. Mamwe marezinesi aya anotorwa semahara.

Kune zvakare Open Software, ane mukurumbira mukuru iri rezinesi reBSD. Vhura software inobvumidza kugoverwa patsva kwekodhi uye software, pasina rusarura, asi hazvipe vimbiso yekuti kodhi yekodhi yakafanana inogona kugara ichiwanikwa. Iyo yekupedzisira ndiyo musiyano mukuru nemahara software.

Chii chinonzi isoftware?

Proprietary software inodaidzwa nekuti nekuishandisa iyo inozvinyima kodzero iyo iyo yaungangove unayo. Iyo yekudyidzana software inofambidzana neyekupedzisira-shandisa rezinesi chibvumirano, kana EULA yezita racho muchirungu. Iri rezinesi rinotadzisa mashandisiro ako software nenzira dzakasiyana. Chikuru ndechekuti zvinowanzorambidza kugadzirisa chirongwa uye nekuganhurira izvo zvandingaite nechirongwa.

Muenzaniso weizvi vatyairi vehardware, vane rezinesi rinongobvumidza ivo kuti vashandiswe neyakajeka Hardware kunyanya, uye neicho chakatarwa sisitimu yekushandisa.

Isu tinoona iyo yakajairwa kuisirwa yeproparietary chirongwa. Iyi haisi iyo chaiyo kurongeka, asi matanho acho akawandisa kana mashoma seinotevera:

  • Mumwe anomhanyisa iyo inosimudza (kazhinji nekudzvanya kaviri pa .exe faira)
  • Meseji yekutambira inoonekwa
  • Iwe unobvunzwa kubvuma kune rezinesi
  • Iwe unobvunzwa kuti usarudze dhairekitori kwaunenge uchizoriisa
  • Iwe unobvunzwa kuti usimbise
  • Iwo mafaira anoenderana akaiswa
  • Kuisa kwapera

Iyo poindi yemusiyano pakati pemahara software nepropetiary software iri murezinesi iyo munhu anotambira panzvimbo c. Chibvumirano chechirongwa ndicho chinoratidza kuti chirongwa chemahara kana chepamutemo. Zvakare, mukati mehurongwa hwekudyara kune akati wandei mapoka:

  • Kubhadhara: software iyo iyo mushandisi yaanofanirwa kubhadhara mari kuti aitore uye agone kuishandisa zviri pamutemo. Mune zvimwe zviitiko, kodzero yekushandisa inogumira munguva uye inofanirwa kubhadharwa zvakare kuti uenderere mberi nekuishandisa.
  • Madhimoni / Shareware: Enzaniso dzerudzi urwu rwechirongwa ndeye Winzip kana Winrar. Mune mapurogiramu aya, mashandiro avo anogumira kune imwe nhamba yemazuva.
  • Mahara: Izvi zvinogona kutorwa pasi mahara kubva painternet uye zvinogona kushandiswa pasina chero muganho, kunyangwe paine kazhinji yakabhadharwa vhezheni yacho ine zvimwe zvinhu. Muenzaniso weizvi ndiWinamp.

Kazhinji, Proprietary Software inozivikanwa zvakare pasi pezita reClosed Software kana Proprietary Software. Chakavanzika izita rakakodzera nekuti, sekuona kwatinoita, rinotinyima kodzero.

Main Kubatsira kweFree Software pamusoro pePachivande Software

Kuenzanisira izvi zvakanaka, ngatitorei muenzaniso wechimwe chinhu chatinoshandisa isu nhasi, nhare mbozha. Kazhinji, munhu anowana nhare mbozha nekuitenga kubva kukambani isiri iyo inogadzira nharembozha iyi, asi asi iye anopa rubatsiro rwefoni.

Iyo kambani inotengesa iwe nharembozha ine "yekupedzisira-shandisa rezinesi", inoisa mamwe mamiriro pauri, senge shoma temu iwe yaunofanirwa kuchengetedza iyo foni sevhisi uye nemabasa aunogona kushandisa neiyo nhare mbozha. Iyo yakavharidzirwa kuita zvinhu izvo iyo kambani isingadi kuti iwe uite nefoni yako mbozhanhare, kana kune iyo yainoda kukuchaja iwe yekuwedzera.

Kusvikira nguva pfupi yadarika, ivo vakatobhadharisa imwe mari yekukupa iyo kodhi iyo yaikubvumidza iwe kushandura makambani, kunyangwe kana nguva yepasi yakanga yatopera.
Ndokunge, vanokutorera kuita zvinhu nefoni YAKO mbozhanhare, izvo zvinogona kuitwa nemuchina, asi kambani inoisa zvirambidzo zvekunyepedzera kukubhadharisa sebasa rekuwedzera, kana kukutengesera mudziyo unodhura. Uye ivo vanokutomanikidza kuti uchinje nharembozha yako kana kuirasa wotenga imwe kana vasisadi kuchengetedza sevhisi yerudzi rwefoni iyo makambani anoona seisingachashandi, sezvakaitika nezvidhinha.
Uyezve une vagadziri vefoni, vanokubhadharira software kuti ubatanidze nharembozha, kana zvekushandisa zvishomashoma, sezvazviri nharembozha inozivikanwa mazuva ano. Uye iyo waranti inopera paunongobata sikuru, kana ivo vanoedza kukuchaja iwe nekuda kwekuchinja bhatiri.

Kune rimwe divi, iwe une nhare mbozha yemahara. Zvirongwa zvefoni zvemahara zvakasununguka, saka kune vanhu vanogona kubatsira kugadzirisa matambudziko anoitika mune dzimwe nguva, sekushandisa nharembozha iri pakati pesango muPatagonia, chimwe chinhu icho chakagadzirwa neyakajairwa chaisazoteerera zvakanyanya kubva icho haisi yako chaiyo niche.

Uye iwe unogona kuisa mapurogiramu nemitambo yaunoda nekuzvibatanidza kune komputa yako nesoftware iyo mumwe munhu akaigadzirira wega kuronga uye mumwe munhu akagadziridzwa kuitira kuti izvishandewo nenharembozha iyi. Iwe unogona zvakare kuishandisa kune chimwe chinhu icho mugadziri kana iyo kambani yaifunga panguva iyoyo, senge nhare mbozha ine kamera inotumira mafoto ese x masekondi uye inokutendera iwe kubata pseudo teleconferefere pamusoro peyakajairika network, pasina kubhadhara imwe sevhisi. Kana chinja software yese zvizere kune iyo yaunoshandisa pakombuta yako uye wozvigadzirisa sezvaunoda, kwete nesarudzo idzo portal yeiyi kana iyo kambani yefoni yaunokupa. Uye kana iwe usingade iyo kambani yenhare, unogona kuchinja pese paunoda kubva kune imwe uchienda kune imwe, uye kunyange kushandisa akati wandei panguva imwe chete, zvinoenderana nerudzi rwekufona, meseji kana chinhu chaunoda kuita. Mune mamwe mazwi, nharembozha inoita zvaunoda kwete neimwe nzira yakatenderedza.

Yemahara software inoedza kukudzosera kodzero dzisingatombofanirwa kutorwa kubva kwauri, uye kuti wajaira kusave nadzo. Yemahara software inotenda kuti kana isu tese tichigovana, isu tese tichava nani. Zvinotaridza senge utopia, asi chiri chinhu chinobatika; Zviri kuitika zvakakukomberedza usina kana kuzviziva.

Ngano uye Chokwadi cheMahara Software vs. Yakavharwa kana Yakavanzika Software

  • Yemahara Software inogadzirwa nevateereri, saka ndeyemhando yepasi pane Yakavanzika Software
    FALSE: semunzvimbo dzese, mhando inosiyana, asi yemahara software inobvumidza vanhu vazhinji kuti vaongorore kodhi uye vokurudzira kuvandudzwa. Rudzi urwu rwekuwongorora uye kuongorora, mune dzimwe nguva nezviuru zvevanhu, zvinoita kuti mhando ye software ifanane kana zvirinani pane software yeimba. Kunyangwe vazhinji vevanhu ava vanoshanda mumakambani esoftware pachigadziko.
  • Yemahara Software ndeye Mahara
    FALSE: Mahara Software - Mahara Software muChirungu, anobva ku "Mahara semutauro wekusununguka, kwete sedzemahara doro", iro dudziro yacho iri: "Mahara sekusununguka kwekutaura, kwete senge pasina doro." Uku ndiko kusiiwa uko kunonzwisisika kune avo vanotaura Chirungu, kunyanya nekuda kwekusanzwisisika kweshoko rekuti "mahara." Nekudaro, mazhinji emahara software ndeye mahara. Kunyangwe painobhadharwa, kana iro rezinesi re software ratengwa, rinogona kuteedzerwa zvakasununguka, kana mamiriro erezinesi asangana.
  • Mu Mahara Software hapana munhu anoita mari
    FALSE: Zvikasadaro, kutengwa kwemamwe maFree Software makambani kungaruramiswe sei, senge MySql, semuenzaniso, ichangobva kuwanikwa neSun Microsystems? Kune mamwe makambani anogadzira Mahara Software munyika medu uye anounza mari sezvo izvo zvinotengeswa isiri iyo purogiramu pachayo, asi rutsigiro uye tsika yekuvandudza masevhisi.

Malayisensi

Rezinesi chibvumirano chekuti munyori wesoftware anobvumidza mushandisi kushandisa "zviito zviri pamutemo zvekushandisa". Pakati pemarezinesi emahara, anonyanya kuzivikanwa ndeaya:

  • GPL marezinesi
  • BSD marezinesi
  • MPL uye marezinesi akatorwa

Iine rezinesi reGPL (GNU General Public License), munyori anochengeta kodzero dzevaridzi uye anobvumidza kugoverwa patsva nekushandurwa pasi pematemu akagadzirirwa kuona kuti ese mavhezheni esoftware anoramba ari pasi pemitemo inodzvinyirira yeGNU GPL pachayo.

Inenge 60% yeiyo software yakapihwa rezenisi seMahara Software inoshandisa rezinesi reGPL. Kurambidzwa kwelayisensi iyi: redistributed modified vhezheni ine vhezheni yepakutanga iri pasi peGPL rezinesi, inofanirawo kupihwa rezinesi pasi peGPL. Ndokunge, kodhi yekodhi inofanirwa kuchengetwa yakavhurika kune chero munhu anoda kuverenga uye / kana kuishandura, haifanire kuvharwa. Kana zvikaitika zvekupedzisira, rezinesi rinenge rakatyora.

Iyo BSD rezinesi ndiyo software rezinesi rakapihwa kunyanya kune BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution) masisitimu. Icho chiri cheboka reboka reOpen Software marezinesi uye musiyano mukuru neGPL ndeyekuti ine zvirambidzo zvishoma. Chinhu cheiyo BSD rezinesi ndechekuti inobvumidza kushandiswa kweiyo kodhi kodhi muClosed Software, zvinopesana neGPL.

Iyo MPL rezinesi (Mozilla Veruzhinji License muSpanish kana Mozilla Veruzhinji License muChirungu) yakavhurwa sosi uye Mahara Software rezinesi. Yakagadziriswa neNetscape Communications Corporation, kuburitsa Netscape Communicator 4.0, iyo yakazove inozivikanwa uye inozivikanwa chirongwa cheMozilla. Iyo MPL rezinesi inoenderana zvizere nedudziro yeakavhurika sosi software uye neine rusununguko rweFree Software. Nekudaro, iyo MPL inosiya yakavhura nzira yekukwanisa kusasununguka kushandiswazve kwesoftware pasina kudzora kushandiswazve kwekodhi kana kupihwa rezenisi zvakare pasi peirisensi imwechete.

Parizvino pane hwaro, iyo Yemahara Software Foundation (FSF), chinova chinhu chinoratidza kuti rezinesi riri mahara here kana kuti kwete. Kuti uone marezinesi ese emahara, ona: https://www.gnu.org/licenses/license-list.html


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

Makomendi gumi, siya zvako

Siya yako yekutaura

Your kero e havazobvumirwi ichibudiswa. Raida minda anozivikanwa ne *

*

*

  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako

  1.   Suso akadaro

    Chinodiwa:
    * Iyo chaiyo dudziro ye "Mahara sekutaura pachena, kwete senge yemahara doro" iri "Mahara sekusununguka kwekutaura, kwete senge yemahara doro", muchokwadi muchiSpanish hapana kukanganisa kunoitika muChirungu, uko «mahara "zvinogona kureva zvese" mahara "uye" mahara ".

  2.   Ngatishandise Linux akadaro

    Ndatenda! Yakagadziriswa uye yakawedzera chirevo nezve «kusanzwisisika» kweshoko «yemahara» muChirungu. Ichokwadi chose. Mufaro!

  3.   Suso akadaro

    Hapana dambudziko! Zvakanaka kupa chimwe chinhu nguva nenguva. Kuenderera mberi nemusoro wenyaya, ndinofunga kuti "yemahara" inodhira kupfuura "yemahara." Kuisa muenzaniso: Internet Explorer kana Windows Live Messenger vakasununguka, asi havana kusununguka.

  4.   adriannaly akadaro

    basa rechikoro rinofinha izvozvi ndinofanira kuongorora

    1.    Norelkys akadaro

      Warevesa Hahahahahaha

  5.   christian elihu mendez nuñez akadaro

    Tsamba yacho inonakidza kwazvo, asi chii chingave runyorwa rweyakanakisa yemahara software?
    Ndeapi anonyanya kuzivikanwa?
    Izvo hazvikanganise chokwadi chekuti mushandisi anochinja kodhi kodhi, nguva dzese?
    Ko kana mumwe mushandisi asingazvifarire, haakwanise kuona imwe nharo yekushandura kodhi yekodhi chero nguva?
    Ndeupi musiyano uripo pakati peyakavhurika uye yemahara software?
    Ndiri kureva, chii chiri basa rekuti uve neakavhurika software kana iwe usingakwanise kupinda zvakasununguka kodhi yekodhi kana zviri izvo ndezvewe muridzi

  6.   Ernesto akadaro

    KUSHANDISWA KWAKAFANIRA KWEMutauro. Ivo vanonyora / nyora: "Nechekuita" Zvinofanira kunzi: "YOKUTANGA".

  7.   karen marin akadaro

    yakanakisa ruzivo nezve yemahara software.

  8.   adrii castilla akadaro

    maita basa linux rakakosha basa

  9.   Andrea Elizabeth Carvajal Basto akadaro

    Ruzivo rwakanaka kwazvo! Kumwe kusahadzika, nekuona nyaya inomuka pakushandiswa kwemahara software zvakanyanya nemakambani Ndezvipi zvingave zvakanakira maSMEs (Makambani madiki nepakati-epakati) vachishandisa software yemahara pane software yakavhurika uye yakavharwa? Uye zvakare, unogona here kundipa mimwe mienzaniso yesoftware yemahara iyo iriko uye inogona kushandiswa senge rubatsiro munzvimbo dzakasiyana kana nenzira yakajairika nemaSMEs.

  10.   Andrea Elizabeth Carvajal Basto akadaro

    Kupedzisa ruzivo ruri papeji uye nekumwe kusahadzika kwakasara kwandiri. Ndakafunga kuita imwe tsvagiridzo ndikawana pane peji reGeekno kuti mutsauko pakati peyakavhurika uye yemahara sosi ndeyekuti mune software yemahara, kwete chete kodhi yekodhi inogona kuwanikwa, asi zvinokwanisika kuishandura, kuigovera uye kunyange kushambadzira shanduko, sekureba sekunge isu tinobatanidza iro rekutanga basa neayo inoenderana yemahara rezinesi Kune rimwe divi, yakavhurwa sosi software inogona kusatendera kushambadzira kweiko kunyange kuchinjiswa kwekodhi, kana kungo kugovera kweakashandurwa akadaro. (M Blanco, 2019).

    Zvakaitikawo kwandiri kuti nditsvage mienzaniso yemahara uye yakavhurika software zvirongwa.
    Zvinoenderana neiyo gidahatari peji, mamwe epamoyo emahara software zvirongwa zvinotevera:
    1. Linux Ubuntu
    2. FreeOffice
    3. GIMP
    4. Inkscape
    5. Mozilla Firefox

    Uye zvinoenderana neComputerHoy peji, mamwe akavhurwa sosi mapurogiramu ndeaya:
    1. VLC
    2. Chromium
    3. Mozilla Thunderbird
    4. FileZilla
    5. ClamAV
    6. XBMC
    7. PDFMusiki
    8. PeaZip