Chii chinosiyanisa kugoverwa kweGNU / Linux kubva kune vamwe?

Linux

Iyo GNU / Linux nyika yakafara kwazvo asi zvakadaro inozivikanwa kwazvo. Pfungwa yedesktop nharaunda, package, uye midzi dhairekitori inozivikanwa kune vazhinji vashandisi; zvinoshamisa, zvinhu izvi hazvisi zvega pakati pekugovera kumwe nekumwe.

Saka pese pandinoverenga nezve kugoverwa kweLinux kunovimbisa kuve "kwakasiyana", ndinozvibvunza kuti:chii chinoita kuti zvisiyane yezvimwe zviripo? Pasi paizvozvo paramita podemos mutsauko chaizvo kune imwe Kugoverwa kweGNU / Linux pakati pezviuru izvo nyika ino inotipa?

Mapakeji nemaneja avo

Kunyangwe chirongwa chimwe chete ichi chingawanikwe nezviuru zvekugovera, pasuru iyo yawakaisirwa mune yega yega inogona kunge yakasiyana. Kana isu tichitaura zvepakeji tinotaura nezve fomati kana kuwedzerwa kwefaira, iro rinoshandiswa nehurongwa hwekushandisa kuisa chirongwa. Kuti kugovera kuve nekukwanisa kushandisa iyi faira, inofanirwa zvakare kuve ne package package, iyo ine maturusi ekuisa, kugadzirisa kana kubvisa chirongwa chakataurwa. Izvi zvakakosha, nekuti kunyangwe hazvo zvirongwa zvisingachinje pakati pekuparadzira kumwe nekumwe (ndokuti, Mozilla Firefox icharamba iri Firefox mune zvese zvinogoverwa) zvinonyanya kuitika kuti kana pasuru yakashandiswa kuiisa inochinja.

Mamwe mafomu epakeji ndeaya:

  • deb: inoshandiswa naDebian uye zvigadzirwa zvayo.
  • RPM: (Red Hat Package Manager) ichibva kuRed Hat uye yakashandiswa zvakanyanya nevamwe vazhinji vakaita saFedora, OpenSUSE, Mandriva, Mageia nevamwe.
  • PISI: kubva kuPardus.
  • MO: kubva kuSlax.
  • PUP uye PET: Puppy Linux.
  • .txz: Slackware

Uye vamwe vevanonyanya kufarirwa mamaneja emapakeji:

  • APT (terminal) uye Synaptic (graphic): inoshandiswa naDebian uye zvigadzirwa zvayo.
  • Zypper (terminal) uye YaST (graphical): iyo OpenSUSE maneja.
  • YUM: Fedora uye Yero Imbwa Linux.
  • Pac-man: Arch Linux.
  • dpkg - yakatanga kugadzirwa naDebian.
  • Urpmi: Mandriva naMageia.
  • up2date: Tsvuku Hat.
  • slapt-tora, slackpkg, uye swaret - Zvakasiyana "zvishandiso" izvo Slackware zvinoshandisa kushanda ne tgz mapakeji.

synaptic package maneja

Izvo zvakakosha here kuti ini ndichinje maneja maneja pakati pekugovera? Ehe. Icho chokwadi chekuti iwe unosarudza pane mumwe maneja kukuvadza vamwe zvinoreva kuti urikutsvaga inoshanda manejimendi yemapakeji kuti aiswe. Muchidimbu, maneja wepakeji anotsanangura chikamu chikuru che "musimboti" wekugovera, uye ipfungwa yakanaka yekufunga nezvayo kusiyanisa kubva kune vamwe. Ini handisi kuzokurukura kuti ndeupi ari nani, kunyangwe paine mienzaniso yakati wandei pane internet yezvandinodaidza kuti "aptitude - zypper - yum war" umo maSUSE mafeni anozivisa kuti Zypper achiri akanakisa.

Kuwedzera: http://distrowatch.com/dwres.php?resource=package-management

The usability

Imwe nhaurwa inodzokororwa kazhinji idanho rechiitiko ratinofanira kushandisa kugovera. Zvinoitika kakawanda kana tichikurudzira kugoverwa kune vatsva, kana sezvatichave takaitika nekuparadzirwa kwedu kwekutanga, kuti isu tinowanzonzwa "hatitomborote tichizama Gentoo kunze kwebhokisi" kana "Ubuntu isarudzo yakanaka kutanga nayo" .

Iko kunetseka kwekushandisa kugovera kunofungidzirwa maererano ne:

  • huwandu hwezvinhu zvemifananidzo zvaunopa.
  • huwandu hwebasa rinofanirwa kuitwa pakoni imwe neimwe (apo pasina mimwe mifananidzo yemabasa iwayo).
  • kuoma kwekumisikidza.
  • iyo vhoriyamu yekumisikidza iyo inofanirwa kuitwa mushure mekugadzwa kwekugovera.
  • kana panguva yekumisikidza iyo inodikanwa kumisikidza iyo diski kupatsanura kana izvi zvinogona kuitwa otomatiki.

Ndicho chikonzero nei zvakajairika kurongedza kumwe kugoverwa senge chikamu chehunyanzvi (Gentoo, Linux Kubva kuScratch, Slackware, Arch), izvo zvisina kukurudzirwa kune "wepakati-mutsva" mushandisi. Munguva pfupi yapfuura kwave nechinhu chinokonzeresa maitiro ekuparadzirwa kweLinux kutendeuka kuti ipe inowedzera inonakidza Inoshanda Sisitimu kune chero mushandisi. Kunyangwe zvakadaro, kumwe kugovera kwevanotanga (Linux Mint, Ubuntu, Elementary OS, pakati pevamwe) zvinoramba zvichishamisa.

Hardware

Haisi imwe yezvinhu zvekutanga zvinotaurwa kana uchitaura nezvekugovera, asi ichiri chimwe chinhu chakakosha. Munyika inoedza kuregedza kubva ku "system inowedzera kukumbira zvimwe zviwanikwa" (Windows) uye ichiri kuenderana nehurongwa hutsva, pane niche yekugovera iyo inobvumidza hardware kuti ishandiswe zvakare (Puppy Linux, Slitaz, Tiny Core Linux , AUSTRUMI, Slax, Lubuntu, Xubuntu, Alcolix, Damn Diki Linux, Molinux, nezvimwewo). Kunyangwe mamwe ma distros, akadai seLinux Mint kana Arch achigona kuiswa pamakomputa ekare, pane muganho umo kufefetera kwesisitimu kwakarasika, nekudaro kune kwakasarudzika kugoverwa kwerudzi irworwo rwehardware. Izvo zvine musoro, nekudaro, kuti kumwe kwekugovera uku kunopa rutsigiro rwe32-bit uye 16-bit shanduro; chakakurumbira chinopihwa 32 uye 64 bhiti rutsigiro

Kugovaniswa senge Puppy linux Zvinotaridzika ipapo mune kuti hazvidiwe kuti uve neyakagadziriswa zvine hungwaru pamusika uripo, asi unoshanda zvizere mumakomputa ane zviwanikwa zviri nyore, chero bedzi tisingamise mapurogiramu anoda zviwanikwa zvakawandisa.

Vhura mafomati

Zviri nyore: kugovera kunowanzo kuuya mune akateedzana mafomati ayo anopedzisira atsanangura kukosha kwayo. Kunyangwe Live CD / DVD inowanzo kuve yakajairika pakati peakakurumbira mafiros, kune akawanda akawanda asingashandise fomati iyi, achirega kuburitsa chete anokwanisa kuisa mavhezheni.

Iko mukana wekuve neCD, DVD, Live CD / DVD, akasiyana desktop desktop nekukasira kana kugona kuisa kubva paInternet, chimwe chinhu chinokonzeresa danho revashandisi vazhinji kuyedza kugovera kana kuishandisa zvachose. Isu tinoona zvakare kuti kune pre-kuburitswa iyo inobvumidza nharaunda kuyedza kugovera isati yapedzwa.

Mamwe mapoinzi akakosha anosanganisira iwo mavhezheni ezvigadzirwa zvinotakurika uye mamwe anogovera "Spin-Offs", uko muenzaniso wechokwadi ndewaFedora, uyo une vhezheni yeMitambo, Rabhoritari uye Dhizaini, kunyangwe izvi, mumaonero angu, zviri nyaya yekuisa mapakeji aripo mune akasiyana marekodhi. Chekupedzisira, ini handikanganwe kuendesa-kuburitsa kugovera, vane avo vanojekesa zviri pachena Debian, Arch y OpenSUSE, Kubvumira kumutsiridza software uye neshanduro dzesystem pasina kuita kumisikidza nyowani kana kutya kurasikirwa neyako data.

Chinangwa chikuru

Kugoverwa kwega kwega kune pfungwa yechinangwa chainotarisira kusvika kune avo vazvino kana vanogona kushandisa. Kubva ipapo isu tinokwanisa kusiyanisa izvo zvakanangana nemalaptop (senge JoliCloud, inoitirwawo kushandisa mukati megore) neayo emaseva (Red Hat Linux Bhizinesi Iyo ndeimwe yeakasimba kwazvo uye parizvino inotsigirwa).

Kumwe kugovera kunovavarira kutarisika kwekushongedza kwedesktop uye kufanana nemamwe masisitimu (nekudaro kufambisa shanduko neaya), sezvazviri Pear OS (ine Mac-senge yekushongedza), ZorinOS (inochinjika neGNOME kuti ipe nharaunda yakafanana kune dzakasiyana maWindows) uye Elementary OS (iine seti yemifananidzo yakavakirwa-mukati uye kumisikidza inoshanda nekumisikidza); Izvi zvinogona kuzviti zvakasiyana nenzvimbo dzechinyakare, asi izvi zvinogona kuiswa mune izvi zvekugovera.

Linux PearOS kugovera

Idzo kugoverwa kunoitirwa "chaiko vateereri", senge Sayenzi Linux, music, Otaux uye vamwe vanongowedzera chaiwo mafomu, ayo pachezvake anoita seakakwana kuti aite kuti zvionekwe kubva muboka rese, zvichipiwa kuti chikumbiro chinogona kuiswa pane chero system kana kodhi yekodhi iripo.

Kujekesa zvakare, kune zvimwe "zvisinganzwisisike", sezvatinoona muGlobo Linux, mugove wekuparadzira unoronga mapurogiramu akaiswa neimwe nzira kubva kune zvimwe zvekugovera, kuitira kuti mafaera echirongwa chimwe chete ave pamwechete. Iwo madhairekitori ekare aripo, asi akavanzwa, zvekuti mune dhairekitori remidzi nekumisikidza tinoona madhairekitori anotevera: Zvirongwa, Vashandisi, Sisitimu, Mafaira, Gomo, Depot.

Mumwe muenzaniso wakanaka ndewe igelle, Yakavakwa kubva pakutanga kutsigira nhamba hombe yezvinhu zviripo. Kugovera kune nzvimbo yedesktop inonzi Esther yakanyorwa muGTK + uye neWebkit seinjini yekupa.

Mukuvhara katsamba aka, ndinoda kuratidza chinhu icho mumaonero angu zvakare chiri chinhu chinopfuura chinosiyanisa migove: nharaunda inotenderedza kugovera kumwe kwakakosha mukuita kweizvi. Kune mienzaniso mishoma uko sarudzo dzemunharaunda kana kushayikwa kweizvi kumisikidza kosi (yekubudirira kana kukundikana) kwekuvandudzwa kwekugovera, uye ndipo panofanirwa kusimudzira vatariri uye kutarisisa. Paivewo nezviitiko apo mushandisi akasiya distro yekusave nematambudziko kana kusahadzika uko nharaunda yanga isingazive kupindura kana kupa rubatsiro; ndosaka mufananidzo wevagari, kunyangwe uine hunhu kuhurongwa hwekushanda saizvozvo, unoramba uchiita basa repakati pakuratidzira kugovera kumwe pamusoro pevamwe.

Pakupedzisira, usakanganwa kuverenga chikamu "Kugoverwa”Yeblog ino, ine ruzivo rwakakosha kwazvo kune vatsva.

Kutenda Juan Ortiz!

Makomendi gumi, siya zvako

Siya yako yekutaura

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  1.   linuxito akadaro

    Zvakakwana kwazvo! Ini ndichangotanga kutamba zvishoma naMageia 2 uye ndisingakwanise kuwana maneja wepakeji weconsole, kwekanguva ndakafunga kuti chete drakerpm inogona kushandiswa (izvo zvaiita senge zvisinganzwisisike kwandiri hehe). Ini ndichaona kuti mapakeji akaiswa sei ne urpmi, ndatenda!

  2.   Ngatishandise Linux akadaro

    Hongu ndizvozvo. Zvekukosha kukuru.
    Ndinokurudzira kuti uverenge Chikamu cheMugovera cheichi blog. Mimwe yemafungiro akataurwa muchinyorwa chino akagadziridzwa zvishoma zvakadzama ipapo.

    Ini ndinokusiya iwe chinongedzo: http://usemoslinux.blogspot.com/p/distros.html

    Mufaro! Paul.

    2012/11/16

  3.   Víktor Bautista muRoca akadaro

    Iyo graphical nharaunda haisi mutsauko wakakosha?

  4.   mufudzi chiedza akadaro

    Ini ndinoda maitiro aunotsanangudza iyo distro zvinoenderana nekushanda kwayo ... Kunyanya kana iwe uchitaura nezve kurongedza uye mapakeji maneja .... Kunyangwe ini ndiri debian uye kbuntu mushandisi ... Ndiri kushamisika kuti zipper chishandiso chakanaka chekutarisira mapakeji ... Ehe, ini ndaizoda kwazvo kuyedza kuvhura pamushini wangu ... asi ini ndinongoshandisa pane vamwe maseva andinogadzirisa!

  5.   Xurxo akadaro

    Kwemakore Slackware yakashandisa iyo .txz fomati panzvimbo yeiyo .tgz iyo, nenzira, haina kufanana ne .tar.gz kana .tar.bz2 tarballs dzinoshandiswa, kazhinji kodhi yekodhi ...

  6.   Milti akadaro

    Zvakanakisa 😉

    Tsanangudzo

    APT (terminal) uye Synaptic (graphic): inoshandiswa ne "" Debian "" uye zvigadzirwa zvayo.