Kugoverwa

General pfungwa

Kune avo vanobva mukushandisa Windows kana Mac zvinogona kushamisa kuti kune akati wandei "vhezheni" kana "kugoverwa" kweLinux. MuWindows, semuenzaniso, isu tinongova neyakanyanya vhezheni (Yekutanga Kodhi), nyanzvi (Professional Edition) uye imwe yemaseva (Server Edition). PaLinux, pachinzvimbo pane HUGE huwandu hwe migove.

Kutanga kunzwisisa kuti chii chinonzi kugovera, iwe unotanga uchida kujekeswa. Linux ndeye, kutanga kwezvose, iyo kernel kana kernel uchishandisa system. Iyo kernel ndiyo moyo wechero inoshanda system uye inoshanda se "muyananisi" pakati pezvikumbiro kubva kuzvirongwa uye Hardware. Izvi zvoga, pasina chero chinhu, hazvishande zvachose. Zvatinoshandisa mazuva ese, zvirokwazvo, kugoverwa kweLinux. Ndokunge, iyo kernel + akateedzana zvirongwa (tsamba vatengi, hofisi otomatiki, nezvimwewo) izvo zvinoita zvikumbiro kune iyo Hardware kuburikidza nekernel.

Izvo zvakati, isu tinogona kufunga nezvekuparadzirwa kweLinux seLeGO castle, ndiko kuti, seti yezvidimbu zvidiki zveesoftware: imwe iri kutarisira kubhaiza iyo system, imwe inotipa nharaunda inoonekwa, imwe iri pamusoro pe "visual visual" kubva kudesktop, nezvimwe. Zvino kune vamwe vanhu vanoisa pamwechete zvavo zvavanogovera, vanozvitsikisa, uye vanhu vanogona kurodha pasi nekuvaedza. Musiyano uripo pakati peshanduro idzi unosanganisira, chaizvo, mu kernel kana kernel yaunoshandisa, mubatanidzwa wezvirongwa zviri kutarisira mabasa enguva dzose (system startup, desktop, windows management, nezvimwewo). zvirongwa, uye seti ye "desktop zvirongwa" (hofisi otomatiki, internet, chat, edhi edhita edhita, nezvimwewo) zvakasarudzwa.

Ndosarudza kugovera kupi?

Tisati tatanga, chinhu chekutanga kusarudza ndechekuti kugoverwa kweLinux - kana "distro" - kushandisa. Kunyangwe paine zvinhu zvakawanda zvinopinda mukutamba kana uchisarudza distro uye zvinogona kutaurwa kuti pane chimwe chezvinhu zvese zvinodiwa (dzidzo, odhiyo uye vhidhiyo kugadzirisa, chengetedzo, nezvimwewo), chinhu chakakosha kwazvo paunotanga kusarudza distro iyo "yevatangi", ine yakafara uye inotsigira nharaunda iyo inogona kukubatsira kugadzirisa kusahadzika kwako uye matambudziko uye ane zvinyorwa zvakanaka.

Ndeapi akanakisa ma distros evatangi? Iko kune kumwe kubvumirana pamusoro peiyo distros inofungidzirwa newbies, pakati pavo pane: Ubuntu (uye ayo anonongedza Kubuntu, Xubuntu, Lubuntu, nezvimwewo), Linux Mint, PCLinuxOS, nezvimwe. Izvi zvinoreva here kuti ndiwo akanakisa ma distros? Kwete. Izvi zvinoenderana zvakanyanya nezvose zvaunoda (mashandisiro aunoita sisitimu, muchina upi, nezvimwe) uye kugona kwako (kana iwe uri nyanzvi kana "wekutanga" muLinux, nezvimwewo).

Pamusoro pezvaunoda uye kugona kwako, pane zvimwe zvinhu zviviri zvinonyatso shandura sarudzo yako: nharaunda yedesktop uye processor.

ProcessorMukuita kwekutsvaga iyo "yakakwana distro" uchaona kuti migove mizhinji inouya mushanduro mbiri: 2 uye makumi matanhatu nematanhatu (inozivikanwawo se x32 uye x64). Musiyano uyu une chekuita nerudzi rweprosesa yavanotsigira. Sarudzo chaiyo inoenderana nerudzi uye modhi yepurosesa yauri kushandisa.

Kazhinji, sarudzo yakachengeteka inowanzo dhawunirodha 32-bit vhezheni, kunyange michina mitsva (iine mamwe ma processor epashure) pamwe tsigira 64 zvishoma. Kana iwe ukaedza kugovera makumi matatu nemasere pamushini unotsigira 32-bit, hapana chakaipa chinoitika, hachizoputika, asi unogona "kusanyatsobatsirwa" (kunyanya kana uine zvinopfuura 64GB zve RAM).

Desktop nharaunda: Iyo inonyanyo kufarirwa distros inouya, kuti uzviise zvakanaka, mune akasiyana "mavhenekeri." Imwe yeshanduro idzi inoshandisa yatinoti "desktop nharaunda." Ichi hachisi chimwe chinhu kunze kwekuitwa kweiyo graphical mushandisi interface iyo inopa yekuwana uye yekumisikidza zvivakwa, kunyorera application, desktop desktop mhedzisiro, windows maneja, nezvimwe. Nzvimbo dzakakurumbira ndedzeGNOME, KDE, XFCE, uye LXDE.

Nekudaro, semuenzaniso, akanyanya kuzivikanwa Ubuntu "flavour" ndeaya: echinyakare Ubuntu (Kubatana), Kubuntu (Ubuntu + KDE), Xubuntu (Ubuntu + XFCE), Lubuntu (Ubuntu + LXDE), nezvimwe. Izvo zvinoenda kune kumwe kugoverwa kwakakurumbira.

Ini ndatosarudza, ikozvino ndoda kuyedza

Zvakanaka, kana uchinge waita sarudzo, zvinongosara kurodha pasi distro yaunoda kushandisa. Uku zvakare kuchinja kwakasimba kubva paWindows. Kwete, hausi kutyora chero mutemo uye haufanire kufamba nemapeji anogona kuva nenjodzi, iwe enda kungoenda kune yepamutemo peji yeiyo distro yaunoda, tora iyo ISO mufananidzo, iwe unoteedzera iyo kuCD / DVD kana pendrive uye zvese zvagadzirira kutanga kuyedza Linux. Iyi ndiyo imwe yemabhenefiti mazhinji e free software.

Nezverunyararo rwepfungwa, Linux ine mukana wakakosha pamusoro peWindows: unogona kuyedza anenge ese ma distros pasina kudzima yako yazvino system. Izvi zvinogona kuwanikwa nenzira dzinoverengeka uye pamatanho akasiyana.

1. Rarama CD / DVD / USB- Iyo inonyanya kufarirwa uye yakapusa nzira yekuyedza distro ndeye kurodha pasi iyo ISO mufananidzo kubva kune yayo yepamutemo webhusaiti, kuteedzera iyo kune CD / DVD / USB tsvimbo, uyezve booting kubva ipapo. Izvi zvinokutendera iwe kumhanya Linux yakananga kubva kuCD / DVD / USB pasina kudzima iota yesystem iwe yawakaisa. Hapana chikonzero chekuisa madhiraivha kana kudzima chero chinhu. Zviri nyore zvakadaro.

Zvese iwe zvunofanirwa kuita ndezvekuti: tora iyo ISO mufananidzo weiyo distro yaunofarira zvakanyanya, ipise iyo CD / DVD / USB uchishandisa yakakosha software, gadzirisa BIOS kuitira kuti ibhuye kubva pachigadzirwa chakasarudzwa (CD / DVD kana USB) uye, pakupedzisira, sarudza sarudzo "Test distro X" kana yakafanana ichaonekwa pakutanga.

Vashandisi vepamberi vanogona kutogadzira iyo Rarama USBs multiboot, iyo inobvumidza kubhowa akati wandei ma distros kubva kune imwechete USB tanda.

2. Virtual muchina: A muchina chishandiso chinotibvumidza kumhanyisa sisitimu yekushandisa mukati meimwe sekunge chirongwa chakasiyana. Izvi zvinogoneka kuburikidza nekugadzirwa kweiyo vhezheni vhezheni yesimbi yezvivakwa; mune ino kesi, akati wandei zviwanikwa: iyo yakazara komputa.

Iyi nzira inowanzo shandiswa kuyedza mamwe masisitimu anoshanda. Semuenzaniso kana uri paWindows uye uchida kuyedza Linux distro kana zvinopesana. Izvo zvinonyanya kubatsira kana isu tichida kumhanyisa chaiyo application iyo inongowanikwa kune imwe system yatisingashandise nguva dzose. Semuenzaniso, kana iwe ukashandisa Linux uye iwe unofanirwa kushandisa chirongwa chinongori muWindows.

Kune akatiwandei zvirongwa zveichi chinangwa, pakati pazvo zviri Virtual Bhokisi , VMWare y QEMU.

3. Dual-bhutsuPaunosarudza kunyatsoisa Linux, usakanganwa kuti zvinokwanisika kuiisa pamwe neyako yazvino system, kuitira kuti paunotanga muchina inokubvunza iwe system yaunoda kutanga nayo. Maitiro aya anonzi mbiri-bhutsu.

Kuti uwane rumwe ruzivo nezve kugoverwa kweLinux, ini ndinokurudzira kuverenga zvinyorwa izvi:

Zvakajekeserwa zvakapfuura usati waona mamwe ma distros.

{Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} = Tsvaga zvinyorwa zvine chekuita neiyi distro uchishandisa iyo blog yekutsvaga injini.
{Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro} = Enda kune yepamutemo peji reiyo distro.

Kubva paDebian

  • Debian. {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: inozivikanwa nekuchengetedza kwayo uye kugadzikana. Zvinogona kutaurwa kuti ndeimwe yedistros yakakosha, kunyangwe nhasi isiri inozivikanwa sevamwe vayo vanotora (Ubuntu, semuenzaniso). Kana iwe uchida kushandisa zvakanyanya-zve-zve-zvenguva shanduro zvezvirongwa zvako zvese, iyi haisi yako distro. Kune rimwe divi, kana iwe uchikoshesa kugadzikana, hapana mubvunzo: Debian ndeyako.
  • Mepis. {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: yakanangana nekuvandudza uye kurerutsa dhizaini yeDebian. Iwe unogona kutaura kuti pfungwa iyi yakafanana chaizvo neBuntu, asi pasina "kutsauka" zvakanyanya kubva mukugadzikana uye chengetedzo iyo Debian inopa.
  • Knoppix. {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: knoppix yakave yakakurumbira zvakanyanya sezvo yaive imwe yekutanga distros kubvumidza yakananga kutenderera kubva mhenyu cd. Izvi zvinoreva kuti unokwanisa kumhanyisa sisitimu yekushandisa pasina kuiisa. Nhasi, kuita uku kunowanikwa mune angangoita ese makuru Linux distros. Knoppix inoenderera ichive imwe inonakidza imwe seyekununura CD mune chero zvinoitika.
  • uye zvimwe zvakawanda ...

Kubva paUbuntu

  • Ubuntu. {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: Ndiyo inonyanya kufarirwa distro panguva ino. Yakawana mukurumbira nekuti, nguva yadarika vakakutumira remahara CD kumba kwako nehurongwa hwekuti iwe uyedze. Yakavewo yakafarirwa zvakanyanya nekuti uzivi hwayo hwaive hwekugadzira "Linux yevanhu", kuyedza kuunza Linux padhuze neyakajairika mushandisi wedesktop uye kwete kune ma "geeks" programmers. Iyo yakanaka distro kune avo vachangotanga kubuda.
  • Linux mint. {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: nekuda kwezvinetso zvine chekuita nemvumo uye huzivi hwemahara software pachayo, Ubuntu hahuuye nekusarongeka nemamwe macodec uye zvirongwa zvakaiswa. Zvinogona kuve nyore kusanganisirwa, asi zvinofanirwa kuiswa uye kugadziridzwa. Nechikonzero ichocho, Linux Mint yakaberekwa, iyo inotouya nezvose izvo "kubva kufekitori". Iyo ndiyo inonyanya kukurudzirwa distro kune avo vachangotanga paLinux.
  • Kubuntu. {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: Ndiyo Ubuntu musiyano asi iine KDE desktop. Iri desktop rinotaridzika zvakanyanya seWin 7, saka kana uchiifarira, uchafarira Kubuntu.
  • Xubuntu. {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: Ndiyo Ubuntu musiyano asi iine desktop yeXFCE. Iyi desktop ine mukurumbira wekushandisa zvakashomeka zviwanikwa pane GNOME (iyo inouya nekumisikidza muUbuntu) uye KDE (iyo inouya nekumira muKubuntu). Kunyangwe izvi zvaive zvechokwadi pakutanga, hazvichisiri izvo.
  • Edubuntu. {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: ndiwo musiyano weUbuntu wakanangana nebazi redzidzo.
  • Kudzokera shure. {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: distro yakanangana nekuchengeteka, maratidziro uye masisitimu kununura.
  • gNewSense. {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: ndeimwe yeiyo "mahara zvachose" distros, maererano ne FSF.
  • Ubuntu Studio. {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: distro yakanangana nehunyanzvi multimedia kugadzirisa odhiyo, vhidhiyo uye magirafu. Kana iwe uri muimbi, iyi yakanaka distro. Izvo zvakanakisa, zvakadaro, ndizvo Musix.
  • uye zvimwe zvakawanda ...

Kubva paRed Hat

  • Red Hat. {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: Iyi ndiyo vhezheni yekutengesa yakavakirwa paFedora. Ipo shanduro nyowani dzeFedora dzichibuda pamwedzi mitanhatu yega kana zvakadaro, RHEL shanduro dzinowanzo buda pamwedzi gumi nemasere kusvika makumi maviri nemana. RHEL ine akateedzana eakakosha-akawedzera masevhisi paanogadzika bhizinesi rayo (rutsigiro, kudzidziswa, kubvunza, kupihwa zvitupa, nezvimwewo).
  • Fedora. {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: mukutanga kwayo kwakavakirwa paRed Hat, mamiriro azvino mamiriro zvachinja uye zviriko nhasi Red Hat inodyisa kana kuvimba zvakanyanya kana kupfuura Fedora kubva kuRad Hat. Iyo ndeimwe yeanonyanya kufarirwa ma distros, kunyangwe nguva pfupi yadarika iri kurasikirwa nevateveri vazhinji pamaoko eUbuntu uye ayo anotorwa. Nekudaro, zvinozivikanwa zvakare kuti vashanduri veFedora vaita mipiro yakawanda kusununguka kwesoftware kazhinji pane vanogadzira Ubuntu (vakatarisa zvakanyanya pane zvinoonekwa, dhizaini uye nyaya dzinoyevedza).
  • CentOS. {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: Ichi chikamu chebhinari-chikamu cheRed Hat Enterprise Linux RHEL Linux kugovera, yakanyorwa nevanozvipira kubva kunowanikwa kodhi yakaburitswa neRed Hat.
  • Sayenzi Linux. {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: distro yakanangana nekutsvaga kwesainzi. Iyo inochengetedzwa neCERN uye Fermilab Physics mumarabhoritari.
  • uye zvimwe zvakawanda ...

Kubva paSlackware

  • Slackware. {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: Ndiyo yekuparadzira kweLinux kwekare inoshanda. Yakagadzirwa ine zvibodzwa zviviri mupfungwa: nyore kushandisa uye kugadzikana. Iyo ndiyo inofarirwa nevazhinji "mageek", kunyangwe nhasi isinganyanyo kufarirwa.
  • Zenwalk Linux. {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: Icho chakareruka distro, chinokurudzirwa kune yekare compus uye chakanangana neInternet, multimedia, uye mapurogiramu maturusi.
  • Linux Vector. {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: Iyi ndiyo distro iri kuwana mukurumbira. Iyo yakavakirwa pane slackware, iyo inoita kuti igare yakachengeteka uye yakagadzikana, uye inosanganisa akati wandei anonakidza maturusi ayo ega.
  • uye zvimwe zvakawanda ...

Mandriva-yakavakirwa

  • Mandriva. {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: Pakutanga kwakavakirwa paRed Hat. Chinangwa chayo chakafanana neUbuntu: kukwezva vashandisi vatsva kuLinux nyika nekupa iri nyore kushandisa uye intuitive system. Nehurombo, mamwe matambudziko emari ekambani iri kuseri kweiyi distro yakakonzera kuti irasikirwe nemukurumbira wakawanda.
  • Magia. {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: Muna 2010, boka revaimbove vashandi veMandriva, nerutsigiro rwevanhu vemunharaunda, vakazivisa kuti vagadzira forogo yeMandriva Linux. Kugoverwa kutsva-kunotungamirwa munharaunda kunonzi Mageia kwakagadzirwa.
  • PCLinuxOS. {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: zvichibva paMandriva, asi mazuva ano kure kwazvo nazvo. Iri kuwedzera kufarirwa. Iyo inosanganisa akati wandei maturusi (simaki, nezvimwewo).
  • Tinyme. {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: Iyi ndiyo Linux mini-yekuparadzira yakavakirwa paPCLinuxOS, iyo yakanangidzirwa kune yekare hardware.
  • uye zvimwe zvakawanda ...

Independent

  • OpenSUSE. {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: Iyi ndiyo yemahara vhezheni yeSUSE Linux Enterprise, inopihwa naNovell. Iyo ndeimwe yeanonyanya kufarirwa marwa, kunyangwe iri kurasikirwa pasi.
  • Puppy linux. {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: Inongova 50 MB muhukuru, asi ichipa mushando unoshanda zvakakwana. Yakanyatsokurudzirwa kune yekare compus.
  • Arch Linux. {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: Huzivi hwake kuronga nekugadzirisa zvese neruoko. Pfungwa ndeyekuvaka yako system "kubva pakutanga", zvinoreva kuti kumisikidza kwakanyanya kuomarara. Nekudaro, kana uchinge wakabata chombo inokurumidza, yakagadzikana uye yakachengeteka system. Uye zvakare, iyo "rolling kuburitswa" distro zvinoreva kuti zvidzoreso ndezvechigarire uye hazvidiwe kubva kune imwe huru vhezheni kuenda kune imwe seyaUbuntu uye mamwe ma distros. Yakakurudzirwa mageek uye vanhu vanoda kudzidza mashandiro eLinux.
  • Gentoo. {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: inoitirwa vashandisi vane ruzivo mune ino mashandiro.
  • sabayon (zvichibva paGentoo) {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: Sabayon Linux inosiyana neGentoo Linux mukuti iwe unogona kuve nekumisikidzwa kwakazara kweiyo inoshanda sisitimu pasina kuunganidza ese mapakeji kuti ive yako. Kuisirwa kwekutanga kunoitwa uchishandisa preompiled mabhinari mapakeji
  • Tiny Core Linux. {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: yakanakisa distro kune yekare compus.
  • Watts. {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: "girini" distro inovavarira kuchengetedza simba.
  • Slitaz. {Tsvaga Yekutsvaga Injini zvine chekuita nezvakatumirwa} {Webhusaiti yepamutemo yedistro}: "mwenje" distro. Inonakidza kwazvo kune yekare compus.
  • uye zvimwe zvakawanda ...

Zvimwe zvinonakidza zvinyorwa

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