Hage buuxa oo faahfaahsan (tusaalayaal ah) illaa DD

Waxaan idinkaga tegayaa maqaal aad u fudud oo ah Waan is helay marinka shabakadda, waxay na tusaysaa tusaalooyin badan iyo si faahfaahsan waxa ay tahay iyo waxa lagu gaari karo amarka DD.

Waxaan kuu daayey tarjumaadda buuxda ee ah maqaal:

1. Waa maxay sababta dd?:

Waan dooranay dd sida tartamihii ugu horreeyay ee taxanaheenna maxaa yeelay waa aalad waxtar leh oo leh xulashooyin badan, sida aad arki doontid. Tani waxay ku dhowdahay inay ka dhigto mid ka mid ah mindiyo ciidankii Switzerland ee adduunka Linux. Haa, ereygan (Switzerland Army mindi) waxaa loo isticmaalaa in ka badan intii ay ahayd in loo adeegsado qorayaasha maqaallada Linux-ku wajahan, sidaa darteed uma gudbin karno fursadda aan nafteena u adeegsanno.

2. Isticmaalka guud:

Kahor intaanan bilaabin waxaan dooneynay inaan ku siino fikrad guud sida loo isticmaalo dd. Ugu horreyntii, magacu wuxuu ka yimid nuqul-bixiye xog ah, laakiin si kaftan ah waxaa sidoo kale la yiraahdaa macnaheedu waa burburiyaha diskiga ama baabi'iyaha xogta maxaa yeelay waa qalab aad u awood badan. Marka waxaan kugula talineynaa daryeel dheeri ah markaad isticmaaleyso dd maxaa yeelay daqiiqad taxaddar la'aan ah ayaa kaaga kici doonta xogtaada qiimaha leh. Nidaamka guud ee taliska dd es:

# dd haddii = $ input_data ee = $ output_data [xulashooyinka]

xog-gelin y saarka_data waxay noqon karaan saxanno, qormooyin, feylal, aalado ... inta badan wax kasta oo aad wax u qori karto ama ka akhrisan karto. Sida aad arki doonto, waxaad u isticmaali kartaa dd qaab isku xirnaanta shabakadda si aad ugu dirto durdurrada xogta dusha sare LAN-kaaga, tusaale ahaan. Waxaad haysan kartaa oo keliya qaybta soo gelinta ee amarkaaga dd, ama kaliya amarka wax soo saarka, oo xitaa waad ka saari kartaa labadaba xaaladaha qaarkood. Kuwaas oo dhan waxaa wax looga qaban doonaa liistada soo socota.

3. Tusaalooyin:

dd haddii = / dev / urandom of = / dev / sda bs = 4k - »Ku buuxi diskiga xog aan kala sooc lahayn

dd haddii = / dev / sda of = / dev / sdb bs = 4096 - » Disk-to-disk mirroring

dd haddii = / dev / eber ee = / dev / sda bs = 4k - » Nadiifi wadid adag (waxaa loo baahan karaa in lagu celiyo)

dd if = inputfile of = / dev / st0 bs = 32k conv = sinc - » Nuqul ka soo qaad faylka illaa aaladda cajaladda

dd haddii = / dev / st0 of = outfile bs = 32k conv = isku xirnaanta - » Kii hore, wuu rogay

dd haddii = / dev / sda | hexdump -C | salaax [^ 00] - » Hubi haddii diskku runti eber yahay

dd haddii = / dev / urandom of = / guri / $ isticmaale / ግዙፍ fayl bs = 4096 - » Dadweynaha qayb ka noqo (Iska jir nidaamka qormooyinka!)

dd haddii = / dev / urandom of = myfile bs = 6703104 tirinta = 1 - » Furo fayl (laga yaabee ka hor intaadan tirtirin)

dd haddii = / dev / sda3 ee = / dev / sdb3 bs = 4096 conv = = norunc, noerror - » Nuqul xijaab qeyb kale

dd haddii = / proc / filesystems | hexdump -C | ka yar - » Arag nidaamyada faylka ee la heli karo

dd haddii = / proc / qoruhu | hexdump -C | ka yar - » Eeg qormooyinka la heli karo ee kb

dd haddii = / dev / sdb2 ibs = 4096 | gzip> partition.image.gz conv = noerror - » Abuur sawir gzip ah qaybta labaad ee diskka labaad

dd bs = 10240 cbs = 80 conv = ascii, furid haddii = / dev / st0 ee = ascii.out - » Nuqul ka kooban waxyaabaha ku jira cajalad feyl ah, isagoo ka beddelaya EBCDIC una beddelaya ASCII

dd haddii = / dev / st0 ibs = 1024 obs = 2048 ee = / dev / st1 - » Nuqul ka sameynta Qalabka Block 1KB ee aaladda Block 2KB

dd haddii = / dev / eber ee = / dev / null bs = 100M count = 100
100 + 0 diiwaanka
100 + 0 ayaa diiwaangeliya
10485760000 bytes (10GB) waa la guuriyey,

5.62955 s, 1.9 GB / s

Nuqul 10 GB oo eber ah dib-u-warshadaynta qashinka.

dd haddii = / dev / eber ee = / dev / sda bs = 512 tirinta = 2
fdisk -s / dev / sda
dd haddii = / dev / eber ee = / dev / sda doon = (lambar_of_sectors - 20) bs = 1k

Ka tirtir GPT diskiga. Sidee GPT u qortaa xogta bilowga
Iyo dhamaadka diskiga, ka dib marka la tirtiro bilowga, waa inaan helnaa tirada qaybaha (amarka labaad), ka dibna aan tirtirno 20-kii qaybood ee ugu dambeeyay.

dd haddii = / guri / $ isticmaale / bootimage.img of = / dev / sdc - » Samee disk UDB ah oo la qaadi karo (oo lagu muujiyey halkan sida / dev / sdc)

dd haddii = / dev / sda of = / dev / null bs = 1m - » Hab wanaagsan oo lagu helo baloogyo xun. Kaabta iyo nidaamka la xiriira

dd haddii = / dev / sda of = / dev / fd0 bs = 512 tirinta = 1 - » Nuqul MBR-ga ah ku duub disk

dd haddii = / dev / sda1 ee = / dev / sdb1 bs = 4096 - » Disk-to-disk mirroring

dd haddii = / dev / sr0 ee = / guri / $ isticmaale / mycdimage.iso \ bs = 2048 conv = nosync - » Abuur sawir CD ah

buurta -o loop /home/ $user/mycdimage.iso / mnt / cdimages / - » Ku dheji sawirka meesha lagu xusay

dd haddii = / dev / sda of = / dev / sdb bs = 64k conv = sync - » Faa'iido leh marka lagu beddelayo cajalad leh mid isku mid ah.

dd if = / dev / sda2 ee = / guri / $ isticmaale / hddimage1.img bs = 1M count = 4430
dd if = / dev / sda2 ee = / guri / $ isticmaale / hddimage2.img bs = 1M count = 8860
[...]

Abuur sawirada DVD-ga qayb ka mid ah (waxtar u leh sameynta keyd)

dd haddii = / $ goobta / hddimage1.img ee = / dev / sda2 bs = 1M
dd haddii = / $ goobta / hddimage2.img of = / dev / sda2 raadso = 4430 bs = 1M
dd haddii = / $ goobta / hddimage3.img of = / dev / sda2 raadso = 8860 bs = 1M
[iwm…]

Ka soo celi kaydkii hore

dd haddii = / dev / eber tirinta = 1 bs = 1024 raadso = 1 ee = / dev / sda6 - » Burbur superblock

dd haddii = / dev / eber tirinta = 1 bs = 4096 raadso = 0 ee = / dev / sda5 - » Hab kale oo lagu burburiyo superblock-ka

dd haddii = / guri / $ isticmaale / shaki.doc | clamscan - » Wuxuu hubiyaa faylka fayraska (wuxuu u baahan yahay ClamAV)

dd haddii = / guri / $ isticmaale / faylka binary | hexdump -C | ka yar - » Eeg waxa ku jira faylka binary (wuxuu u baahan yahay hexdump)

dd haddii = / guri / $ isticmaale / bigfile of = / dev / null
dd haddii = / dev / eber ee = / guri / $ isticmaale / bigfile bs = 1024 tirin = 1000000

Meel ku calaamadee xawaaraha akhriska / qorista ee darawalka adag

dd haddii = / dev / sda of = / dev / sda - » Nolol cusub sii darawallada adag ee duugga ah oo aan in muddo ah la isticmaalin (darawalada waa inay ahaadaan "kuwo aan la fuulin"

dd haddii = / dev / mem | xadhkaha | grep 'string_to_search' - » Baadh waxyaabaha ku jira xusuusta (bini'aadamka la akhrin karo, taasi waa)

dd haddii = / dev / fd0 ee = / guri / $ isticmaale / floppy.image bs = 2x80x18b conv = notrunc - » Nuqul ka samee diskiga

dd haddii = / proc / kcore | hexdump -C | ka yar - »Waxay muujinaysaa xusuusta dalwaddii

dd haddii = / proc / filesystems | hexdump -C | ka yar - » Arag nidaamyada faylka ee la heli karo

dd haddii = / proc / kallsyms | hexdump -C | ka yar - » Muuji modules la soo raray

dd haddii = / proc / hakad galiyo | hexdump -C | ka yar - » Muujiya miiska kala goynta

dd haddii = / proc / uptime | hexdump -C | ka yar - » Waxay muujinaysaa wakhti-dhaaf ilbiriqsiyo ah

dd haddii = / proc / qoruhu | hexdump -C | ka yar - » Eeg qormooyinka la heli karo ee kb

dd haddii = / proc / meminfo | hexdump -C | ka yar - » Waxay muujinaysaa heerka xusuusta

dd haddii = / dev / urandom of = / guri / $ isticmaale / myrandom bs = 100 count = 1 - » Abuur feyl 1kb ah oo gibberish random ah

dd haddii = / dev / mem of = / guri / $ isticmaale / mem.bin bs = 1024 - » Waxay abuurtaa sawir xaaladda hadda jirta ee nidaamka xusuusta

dd haddii = / guri / $ isticmaale / myfile - » Daabac feylka si aad ujoogto

dd haddii = / dev / sda2 bs = 16065 | hexdump -C | grep 'text_to_search' - » Ka raadi xadhig qayb dhan; xitaa haddii la hubiyo, waad kabaha kartaa liveCD

dd haddii = / guri / $ isticmaale / file.bin dhaaf = 64k bs = 1 ee = / guri / $ isticmaale / convfile.bin - » Nuqul feyl.bin ah u rar convfile.bin ka boodi 64 kii ugu horreeyay

dd haddii = / guri / $ isticmaale / bootimage.img of = / dev / sdc - » Samee disk UDB ah oo la qaadi karo (oo lagu muujiyey halkan sida / dev / sdc)

dd if = / dev / mem bs = 1k skip = 768 count = 256 2> / dev / null | xadhig -n 8 - » Akhriso BIOS-ka.

dd bs = 1k if = imagefile.nrg of = imagefile.iso skip = 300k - » Waxay u rogeysaa sawirka Nero qaab caadi ah oo ISO ah.
Tani waa suurtagal maxaa yeelay farqiga kaliya ee u dhexeeya labadooda waa 300 kB oo madax ah oo Nero uu kudarsado sawirka caadiga ah ee ISO.

echo -n "hello vertical world" | dd cbs = 1 conv = furid 2> / dev / null - » Iskuday, waa amaan. 🙂

dd haddii = / dev / sda1 | gzip -c | kala -b 2000m - \ /mnt/hdc1/backup.img.gz - » Abuur muuqaal gzip ah oo xijaab ah adoo adeegsanaya kala qaybsan

bisad /mnt/hdc1/backup.img.gz.* | gzip -dc | dd ee = / dev / sda1 - » Soo celi kaydadkii hore

dd if = / dev / zero of = myimage bs = 1024 count = 10240 - » Abuur sawir disk faaruq ah

dd ibs = 10 ka bood = 1 - » Kala qaad 10-ka byte ee ugu horeeya

dd bs = 265b conv = noerror if = / dev / st0 of = / tmp / bad.tape.image - » Wuxuu ka sameeyaa sawir cajalad dhibco xun leh

dd haddii = / dev / sda tirinta = 1 | hexdump -C - » Arag MBR-gaaga

dd haddii = / dev / sda | nc -l 10001 nc $ system_to_backup_IP 10001 | dd ee = sysbackupsda.img - » Kaydinta shabakadda degdegga ah adoo adeegsanaya netcat

dd haddii = / dev / eber ee = / dev / sdX bs = 1024000 tirinta = 1 - » Nadiifi 10MB-tii ugu horreysay ee qeybta

dd haddii = / dev / eber ee = tmpswap bs = 1k
tiris = 1000000
chmod 600 tmpswap
mkswap tmpswap
isku beddel tmpswap

Abuur meel ku meel gaadh ah oo sarrif ah

dd haddii = / dev / sda of = / dev / null bs = 1024k count = 1024
1073741824 bytes (1.1GB) waa la guuriyey,
24.1684 s, 44.4 MB / s

Go'aamiyaa xawaaraha I / O ee isku xigxiga ee diskigaaga.

dd if = / dev / count random = 1 2> / dev / null | od -t u1 | \ awk '{daabac $ 2}' | madaxa -1 - » Abuuri lambar nasiib ah

dd haddii = / dev / mem of = myRAM bs = 1024 - » Nuqul xusuusta RAM feyl

dd haddii = / dev / sda bs = 512 tirinta = 1 | od -xa - » Ku eeg nuxurka MBR-kaaga qaab hex iyo ASCII ah

dd haddii = / my / jir / mbr ee = / dev / sda bs = 446 count = 1 - » Dib u soo celinta MBR iyada oo aan wax laga beddelin diiwaanka miiska qaybta oo u dhexeeya 447 - 511 bytes

dd haddii = / dev / sda1 | kala -b 700m - sda1-image - » Abuur nuqul qeybta ka mid ah oo keydi sawirada halka cabirka ugu badan ee cabirkiisu yahay 700MB

ls -l | dd conv = ucase - » U rogaa wax soo saarida amarka mid sare

echo "QORAALKAYGA CAAFIMAAD EE UGU SARE" | dd conv = lcase - » U beddel qoraal kasta yar

dd if = / etc / passwd cbs = 132 conv = ebcdic of = / tmp / passwd.ebcdic - » Waxay faylasha lambarka sirta ah u rogtaa qaab EBCDIC ah oo dhererkiisu go'an yahay

dd if = text.ascii of = text.ebcdic conv = ebcdic - » U beddelo ASCII una beddelo EBCDIC

dd if = myfile of = myfile conv = ucase - » U beddel feyl mid weyn (SED fudud ama beddel tr)

4. Gunaanad:

Kani waa qayb yar oo ka mid ah waxa ay dd samayn karto waxaanan rajaynaynaa in qodobkani ku khaldamay iyaga si ay u daboosho tusaalooyinka ugu badan ee loo isticmaalo isticmaalaha guud. Si kastaba ha noqotee, ka hor intaadan sii gudbin, waxaan kugula talineynaa inaad aqriso dukumiintigaaga adag, adoo raadinaya waxyaabo sida xaddidaadda LBA ah, oo aad taxaddar dheeraad ah u yeelato markaad isticmaalayso dd saldhigga xididka. Dabcan, waxaad horeyba uheyd keyd, laakiin daryeel yar oo dheeri ah ayaa kaa badbaadin doona saacado shaqo aan loo baahnayn.

Halkaasna qodobku wuu ku dhammaanayaa.

Diiwaanka, ma aanan tijaabin mid ka mid ah amarrada lagu muujiyey qodobkan, markaa haddii qof uu si qaldan u isticmaalo (ama si khaldan) amarradan, waxay u badan tahay in haddii ay wax ku waxyeeleeyaan kombuyuutarkooda aanan awoodin inuu ku caawiyo.

Waxba ma ahan, inyar oo kayar ayaan tijaabin doonaa amarradiisa hehe, haddii aan helo wax xiiso leh waan la wadaagayaa.

Salaan


Nuxurka maqaalka wuxuu u hogaansamayaa mabaadi'deena anshaxa tifaftirka. Si aad u soo sheegto khalad guji Halkan.

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  6. Xuquuqda: Waqti kasta oo aad xadidi karto, soo ceshan karto oo tirtiri karto macluumaadkaaga.

  1.   Luweeds dijo

    Maqaal weyn, taasi waa sida amarka si fiican loogu falanqeeyo sidaas darteedna wax badan ayaan ka barannaa waxa ku saabsan. Hambalyo iyo mahadsanidiin had iyo jeer! 😉

  2.   Oscar dijo

    Soo galitaan aad u wanaagsan oo xiiso leh, maadaama aan muhiim u arkay waxaan sii wadi doonaa feylkayga.
    Waxaan qiyaasayaa in adiga iyo lammaanahaagu aad ka heli doontaan baytariyadooda si fiican u shaqeeya ka dib laba maalmood oo fasax ah, hahahaha.
    Waan u xiisay maqaalo la'aanta ku jirtay baloogga.

    1.    KZKG ^ Gaara <"Linux dijo

      Mahadsanid, amaahdu aniga ma lihi ... Waxaan tarjumay tarjumaadda 🙂
      Iyo haha ​​haa, berri waxaa jiri doona maqaalo badan haha, raali galin ayaan ka bixinaynaa maalmahan anaga oo aan waxba daabicin, xitaa marka la fiiriyo tirakoobka aan aragno hoos u dhaca aan hehe hehe.

    2.    elav <° Linux dijo

      Fasax aad leedahay Hahahaha ... Waxaan jeclaan lahaa in taasi ay ahayd ...

  3.   oleksis dijo

    Maqaal wanaagsan, sidaan marwalba ku xasuusinayo haddii aad awood u siin karto qalab loogu talagalay in loo dhoofiyo PDF ama ku soo lifaaq maqaalka sidii PDF

    Waad ku mahadsan tahay!

    1.    Courage dijo

      Marka aan gudbayo waxaan ku xusuusinayaa inaad furto madal maxaa yeelay waxaa jira u janjeera in wax badan laga dhajiyo qoraallada (aniga ayaa ku jira)

      1.    KZKG ^ Gaara <"Linux dijo

        Khaladaadka ama dhibaatooyinka aan soo bandhignay, dhibaatooyinka isku xirka keydka macluumaadka iyo kuwa kale, waxaa sabab u ah xaqiiqda ah in goobta ay ka dhalato dhaqdhaqaaq badan ama taraafikada, waana taas sababta aan daqiiqado uga maqnayn. Haddii lagu daro goobta, waxaan ku darnaa gole, waxay abuuri doontaa taraafiko badan wax walbana way ka sii dari doonaan.

        Fikradda madasha ee haa, waan jecel nahay, runtii waxaan dooneynaa inaan sameyno, laakiin xilligan nasiib daro ma awoodno 🙁

        1.    Courage dijo

          WordPress wuxuu leeyahay qalab loogu talagalay, uma baahnid inaad adeegsato bogag aanad arki karin

      2.    oleksis dijo

        Waa hagaag ... beddel la'aan adigoon ku darin barxad kale ama bog waa bbPres (bbpress.org) WordPress

        Waad ku mahadsan tahay!

        1.    KZKG ^ Gaara <"Linux dijo

          Haa, waan aqaannaa hehe, dhab ahaantii waxaan ka fekereynay FluxBB 🙂
          Dhibaatadu maahan DB kale ama isticmaal isla kan leh miisas badan, laakiin kaliya waxqabad badan.

      3.    elav <° Linux dijo

        Waxaan furi doonaa goordhow very

    2.    KZKG ^ Gaara <"Linux dijo

      Waxaan weli u baahanahay inaan tijaabino qalabkaas ku filan, ka dibna aan dhigno haddii ay si fiican u shaqeeyaan 🙂
      Waqti nooma helin haha

  4.   korea dijo

    Saaxiibkeyga qaaliga ah, faraxsan waan soo xiganayaa naxariis aad u wanaagsan oo tani ay ku dheggan tahay dalabka waxaan jeclaan lahaa inaad si qoto dheer u qaadato maadama aan jeclaan lahaa inaan ogaado
    Haddii aad ku sameyn karto magnet DVD-ga ama * .iso, la cadaadiyey, horey waad u mahadsan tahay, waxaan rajeynayaa jawaabtaada qoraalkeyga dambe waxaan u maleynayaa inaad tahay qofka kaliya ee ka jira dhamaan shabakada Isbaanishka ee abala oo aad ugu baahsan qodobka weyn ee la sharaxay,

  5.   69na ugu wanaagsan 69 dijo

    Sidee ayaan hal mashiin uga dhex xidhi karaa shabakadda? kiiskeyga waxaa jira 2 laptops oo ku xiran lan oo labadaba leh jiho toosan

  6.   Erick dijo

    Waad ku mahadsantahay macluumaadka 🙂

  7.   gilcade4 dijo

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  8.   ayasi bor dijo

    Amarka ah in nolosha la keeno diiwaanno hore ayaa ah muhiimadda CAASIMADA. Wax fiican tani waa liis kooban oo ah waxa la qaban karo!