TLAMA le Active Directory® - Li-Network tsa SME

Kakaretso ea li-series: Li-network tsa likhomphutha tsa li-SME: Selelekela

Lumelang metsoalle!. Morero oa mantlha oa sengoloa sena ke ho bonts'a hore na re ka kopanya litšebeletso tsa DNS joang ho latela BIND9 marang-rang a Microsoft, a atileng haholo ho li-SME tse ngata.

E bakoa ke kopo ea semmuso ea motsoalle ea lulang La Tierra del Fuego -Fuegian- e ikhethang ho Microsoft® Networks -Litifikeiti li kenyelelitsoe- ho u tataisa karolong ena ea phallo ea li-server tsa hau ho Linux. Litsenyehelo tsa ho ba Ts'ehetso Setsebi se lefang Microsoft® se se se ntse se le teng E sa mamelleheng bakeng sa Khamphani eo a sebetsang ho eona eo e leng Kabelo ea hae e ka Sehloohong.

Motsoalle oa ka Fuegian o motlae haholo, 'me kaha o bone letoto la lifilimi tse tharo «Morena oa mehele»O ile a khahloa ke mabitso a mangata a batho ba hae ba lefifi. Kahoo, motsoalle oa Reader, u se ke oa makatsoa ke mabitso a domain ea hau le li-server tsa hau.

Bakeng sa ba sa tsoa tla sehloohong, le pele o tsoela pele ho bala, re khothaletsa hore o bale le ho ithuta lingoloa tse tharo tse fetileng ho SME Networks:

Ho tšoana le ho shebella likarolo tse tharo ho tse 'ne tsa «Ka tlas'a lefatše»E phatlalalitsoe ho fihlela kajeno, le hore lena ke la bone.

Meeli e akaretsang

Kamora phapanyetsano e 'maloa ka imeileQetellong ke ne ke hlakile mabapi le mekhahlelo ea mantlha ea marang-rang a hau a joale, e leng:

Lebitso la domain name mordor.fan LAN Network 10.10.10.0/24 ================================== ========================================= Servers IP Aterese Morero (Li-server tse nang le OS Lifensetere) ============================================= =============================== sauron.mordor.fan. 10.10.10.3 Active Directory® 2008 SR2 mamba.mordor.fan. 10.10.10.4 seva ea faele ea Windows darklord.mordor.fan. 10.10.10.6 Proxy, heke le firewall ho Kerios troll.mordor.fan. 10.10.10.7 Blog e ipapisitse le ... ha e hopole shadowftp.mordor.fan. 10.10.10.8 FTP seva e ntšo.mordor.fan. 10.10.10.9 Tšebeletso e felletseng ea e-mail blackspider.mordor.fan. 10.10.10.10 Tšebeletso ea WWW palantir.mordor.fan. 10.10.10.11 Puisano ka Openfire bakeng sa Windows

Ke kopile tumello ea ho Fuegian ho beha likhetho tse ngata kamoo ho hlokahalang ho hlakola kelello ea ka le ho mpha tumello:

Real CNAME ============================== sauron ad-dc mamba fileserver darklord proxyweb troll blog shadowftp ftpserver blackelf mail blackspider www palantir mollo

Ke phatlalalitse lirekoto tsohle tsa bohlokoa tsa DNS ts'ebetsong ea ka ea Directory Directory Windows 2008 eo ke qobelletsoeng ho e kenya ts'ebetsong ho ntataisa ha ho etsoa poso ena.

Mabapi le litlaleho tsa SRV tsa DNS ea Directory e sebetsang

Lingoliso SRV Li-Locator tsa Ts'ebeletso - tse sebelisoang haholo ho Microsoft Active Directory - li hlalositsoe ho Kopo ea Maikutlo RFC 2782. Ba lumella sebaka sa ts'ebeletso ho latela protocol ea TCP / IP ka potso ea DNS. Mohlala, moreki marangrang a Microsoft a ka fumana sebaka sa Domain Controllers - Balaoli ba Domain tse fanang ka ts'ebeletso ea LDAP ka lebaka la protocol ea TCP koung ea 389 ka potso e le 'ngoe ea DNS.

Ho tloaelehile hore Morung - meru, le Lifate - lifate ea Microsoft Network e kholo ho na le li-Domain Controllers tse 'maloa. Ka ho sebelisa lirekoto tsa SRV libakeng tse fapaneng tse etsang Lebitso la Sebaka sa Sebaka sa Marangrang ao, re ka boloka Lethathamo la li-server tse fanang ka lits'ebeletso tse tsebahalang tse tšoanang, tse laetsoeng ka khetho ho latela protocol ea lipalangoang le boema-kepe lisebelisoa.

Ho Kopo ea Maikutlo RFC 1700 Mabitso a Akaretsang a Litšebeletso tse Tsebahalang a hlalosoa - Tšebeletso e Tsejoang Hantle, le mabitso a kang «khomotso«,«_tsetse»Bakeng sa lits'ebeletso Telnet y SMTP. Haeba lebitso la tšoantšetso le sa hlalosoe bakeng sa Ts'ebeletso e Tsejoang Hantle, lebitso la lehae kapa le leng le ka sebelisoa ho latela likhetho tsa mosebelisi.

Tlama

Morero oa tšimo ka ngoe «e khethehileng»E sebelisitsoeng phatlalatsong ea Rekoto ea Lisebelisoa tsa SRV ke tse latelang:

  • domain name: "Pdc._msdcs.mordor.fan.«. Lebitso la DNS la ts'ebeletso eo rekoto ea SRV e buang ka eona. Lebitso la DNS mohlaleng le bolela -ho feta kapa hanyane- Motsamaisi oa Domain oa mantlha ea sebaka seo khongsa.
  • Service: "_Ldap". Lebitso la ts'ebeletso le fanoeng le hlalosoa ho latela Kopo ea Maikutlo RFC 1700.
  • melaoana: "_Tcp". E bonts'a mofuta oa protocol ea lipalangoang. Ka tloaelo ho ka nka litekanyetso _tcp o _liteboho, leha - mme ha e le hantle- mofuta ofe kapa ofe oa protocol ea lipalangoang e bonts'itsoeng ho Kopo ea Maikutlo RFC 1700. Mohlala, bakeng sa ts'ebeletso buisana e thehiloeng ho protocol XMPP, tšimo ena e ne e tla ba le boleng ba sebose.
  • ntho ea bohlokoa ho: «0«. Phatlalatsa se tlang pele kapa khetho bakeng sa Motsamaisi ea fanang ka ts'ebeletso ena eo re tla e bona hamorao. Lipotso tsa DNS tsa bareki mabapi le ts'ebeletso e hlalositsoeng ke rekoto ena ea SRV, ha ba fumana karabelo e nepahetseng, ba tla leka ho ikopanya le moamoheli oa pele ea fumanehang ka nomoro e tlase ka ho fetisisa e thathamisitsoeng lebaleng. ntho ea bohlokoa ho. Mefuta ea litekanyetso eo tšimo ena e ka e nkang ke 0 ke 65535.
  • Weight: «100«. E ka sebelisoa hammoho le ntho ea bohlokoa ho ho fana ka mochini o lekanyang mojaro ha ho na le li-server tse 'maloa tse fanang ka ts'ebeletso e ts'oanang. Ho lokela ho ba le rekoto e ts'oanang ea SRV bakeng sa seva ka seng ho file ea Zone, mme lebitso la eona le phatlalatsoe lebaleng Motsamaisi ea fanang ka ts'ebeletso ena. Pele ho li-server tse nang le litekanyetso tse lekanang lebaleng ntho ea bohlokoa ho, boleng ba tšimo Weight e ka sebelisoa e le boemo bo eketsehileng ba khetho ho fumana khetho e nepahetseng ea seva bakeng sa ho leka-lekanya mojaro. Mefuta ea litekanyetso eo tšimo ena e ka e nkang ke 0 ke 65535. Haeba ho leka-lekanya mojaro ho sa hlokahale, mohlala joalo ka ha ho le seva e le 'ngoe, ho kgothaletswa ho fana ka boleng 0 ho etsa hore rekoto ea SRV e balehe habonolo.
  • Nomoro ea Port - Port: «389«. Nomoro ea koung e kene Motsamaisi ea fanang ka ts'ebeletso ena e fanang ka ts'ebeletso e bonts'itsoeng lebaleng Service. Nomoro ea boema-kepe e khothaletsoang mofuta o mong le o mong oa Tšebeletso e Tsebahalang e bontšoa ho Kopo ea Maikutlo RFC 1700, leha e ka nka boleng lipakeng tsa 0 le 65535.
  • Motsamaisi ea fanang ka ts'ebeletso ena - Sepheo: «sauron.mordor.fan.«. E totobatsa file ea FQDN e khethollang ntle ho tikatiko moamoheli e fanang ka ts'ebeletso e bonts'itsoeng ke rekoto ea SRV. Mofuta oa rekoto «A»Sebakeng sa mabitso sa domain bakeng sa e 'ngoe le e' ngoe FQDN ho tsoa ho seva kapa moamoheli e fanang ka ts'ebeletso. E bonolo, mofuta oa rekoto A libakeng tse tobileng.
    • Tlhokomeliso:
      Ho bontša ka matla hore ts'ebeletso e boletsoeng ke rekoto ea SRV ha e fanoe ho moamoheli enoa,
      .) supa.

Re mpa re batla ho pheta hore ts'ebetso e nepahetseng ea marang-rang kapa Active Directory® e itšetleha haholo ka ts'ebetso e nepahetseng ea Domain Name Service..

Lirekoto tsa Active Directory DNS

Ho etsa libaka tsa Seva se secha sa DNS ho latela BUNG, re tlameha ho fumana lirekoto tsohle tsa DNS ho tsoa ho Active Directory®. Ho etsa hore bophelo bo be bobebe, re ea sehlopheng sauron.mordor.fan -Active Directory® 2008 SR2- le ho DNS Administration Console re kenya tšebetsong Transfer Transfer -direct le ho khutlisa- libaka tse ka sehloohong tse phatlalalitsoeng mofuteng ona oa litšebeletso, e leng:

  • khongsa
  • motlatsi
  • 10.10.10.in-addr.harepa

Hang ha mohato o fetileng o phethiloe mme ka mokhoa o khethehileng ho tsoa khomphuteng ea Linux eo aterese ea eona ea IP e leng kahara subnet e sebelisoang ke Windows Network, rea phetha:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ dig @ 10.10.10.3 _msdcs.mordor.fan axfr> temp /khomotso_mokhothu
buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ dig @ 10.10.10.3 mordor.fan axfr> temp / rrs.mordor.fan
buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ dig @ 10.10.10.3 10.10.10.in-addr.arpa axfr> temp / rrs.10.10.10.in-addr.arpa
  • Hopola ho tsoa lihloohong tse fetileng hore aterese ea IP ea sesebelisoa sysadmin.fromlinux.fan ke 10.10.10.1 kapa 192.168.10.1.

Litaelong tse tharo tse fetileng re ka felisa khetho @10.10.10.3 -botsa seva sa DNS ka aterese eo- haeba re phatlalatsa faeleng /etc/resolv.conf ho seva IP sauron.mordor.fan:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ cat /etc/resolv.conf # E hlahisitsoe ke patlo ea NetworkManager ho tsoa linux.fan nameserver 192.168.10.5 nameserver 10.10.10.3

Kamora ho hlophisa ka tlhokomelo e fetelletseng, joalo ka faele efe kapa efe ea libaka ho TLAMA, re tla fumana lintlha tse latelang:

RRs rekota ho tsoa sebakeng sa mantlha _msdcs.mordor.fan

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ katse ea nakoana / rrs._msdcs.mordor.fan 
; E amanang le SOA le NS _msdcs.mordor.fan. EA 3600 HO SOA sauron.mordor.fan. motsamaisi.mordor.fan. 12 900 600 86400 3600 _msdcs.mordor.fan. EA-3600-NS sauron.mordor.fan. ; ; GLOBAL CATALOG gc._msdcs.mordor.fan. 600 KA A 10.10.10.3; ; Li-aliases - ho database ea LDAP e fetotsoeng le ea lekunutu ea Directory e sebetsang ea SAURON 03296249-82a1-49aa-a4f0-28900f5d256b._msdcs.mordor.fan. 600 IN CNAME sauron.mordor.fan. ; ; LDAP e fetotsoeng le ea lekunutu ea Directory Directory _ldap._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.dc._msdcs.mordor.fan. EA 600 0 HO SRV 100 389 600 sauron.mordor.fan. _e_leng_tvp.dc._msdcs.mordor.fan. EA 0 100 HO SRV 389 18 3360 sauron.mordor.fan. _ldap._tcp.8d40d-678fdb-7cf-a420-d6c775b600d0.domains._msdcs.mordor.fan. EA 100 389 HO SRV 600 0 100 sauron.mordor.fan. _ldap._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.gc._msdcs.mordor.fan. EA 3268 600 IN SRV 0 100 3268 sauron.mordor.fan. khongsa.png. EA 600 0 IN SRV 100 389 600 sauron.mordor.fan. khongsa.pdc._msdcs.mordor.fan. EA 0 100 HO SRV 88 600 0 sauron.mordor.fan. ; ; KERBEROS e fetotsoe ebile e le lekunutu ho tsoa ho Directory Directory _kerberos._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.dc._msdcs.mordor.fan. EA 100 88 IN SRV XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX sauron.mordor.fan. nthabiseng_molebatsi EA XNUMX XNUMX IN SRV XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX sauron.mordor.fan.

RRs rekota ho tsoa sebakeng sa mantlha sa mordor.fan

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ katse ea nakoana / rrs.mordor.fan 
; E amanang le SOA, NS, MX le rekoto ea A eo e e bonang; Lebitso la Lebitso ho IP ea SAURON; Lintho tse tsoang ho Directory Directory mordor.fan. EA 3600 HO SOA sauron.mordor.fan. motsamaisi.mordor.fan. 48 900 600 86400 3600 mordor.fan. 600 KA 10.10.10.3 mordor.fan. EA-3600-NS sauron.mordor.fan. motlatsi. EA-3600-MX 10 blackelf.mordor.fan. khongsa. EA-3600-NS sauron.mordor.fan. ; ; Hape ho bohlokoa A records DomainDnsZones.mordor.fan. 600 HO A 10.10.10.3 ForestDnsZones.mordor.fan. 600 KA A 10.10.10.3; ; GLOBAL CATALOG _gc._tcp.mordor.fan. EA 600 0 IN SRV 100 3268 600 sauron.mordor.fan. _gc._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.mordor.fan. EA 0 100 IN SRV 3268 600 0 sauron.mordor.fan. ; ; LDAP e fetotsoeng le ea lekunutu ea Directory Directory _ldap._tcp.mordor.fan. EA 100 389 HO SRV 600 0 100 sauron.mordor.fan. _ldap._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.DomainDnsZones.mordor.fan. EA 389 600 HO SRV 0 100 389 sauron.mordor.fan. _Lerato.DomainDnsZones.mordor.fan. EA 600 0 HO SRV 100 389 600 sauron.mordor.fan. _ldap._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.mordor.fan. EA 0 100 HO SRV 389 600 0 sauron.mordor.fan. _ldap._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.ForestDnsZones.mordor.fan. EA 100 389 HO SRV 600 0 100 sauron.mordor.fan. _NakThu_Nokia_Source. EA 88 600 HO SRV 0 100 88 sauron.mordor.fan. ; ; KERBEROS e fetotsoeng le ea lekunutu ea Directory Directory _kerberos._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.mordor.fan. EA 600 0 HO SRV 100 464 600 sauron.mordor.fan. nthabiseng_molefe EA 0 100 IN SRV 88 600 0 sauron.mordor.fan. khongso. EA 100 464 IN SRV 3600 10.10.10.9 3600 sauron.mordor.fan. nthabiseng_molefe EA 10.10.10.10 3600 IN SRV 10.10.10.6 3600 10.10.10.4 sauron.mordor.fan. nthabiseng_moletsane EA 3600 10.10.10.11 IN SRV 3600 10.10.10.3 3600 sauron.mordor.fan. ; ; Rekoto e nang le li-IP tse sa fetoheng -> Blackelf.mordor.fan li-server. 10.10.10.8 HO A 3600 blackspider.mordor.fan. 10.10.10.7 HO A 3600 darklord.mordor.fan. 3600 KA 3600 mamba.mordor.fan. 3600 HO A 3600 palantir.mordor.fan. 3600 HO A 3600 sauron.mordor.fan. 3600 HO A XNUMX shadowftp.mordor.fan. XNUMX KA XNUMX troll.mordor.fan. XNUMX KA XNUMX; ; CNAME e tlaleha ad-dc.mordor.fan. EA-XNUMX-TKA sauron.mordor.fan. blog.mordor.fan. EA-XNUMX-HO-CNAME troll.mordor.fan. fileserver.mordor.fan. EA-XNUMX-KE kamohelo. EA-XNUMX-CNAME shadowftp.mordor.fan. mail.mordor.fan. EA-XNUMX-TZ openfire.mordor.fan. EA-XNUMX-CNAME palantir.mordor.fan. proxy.mordor.fan. EA-XNUMX-KE www.mordor.fan. XNUMX HO CNAME blackspider.mordor.fan.

RRs rekota ho tsoa sebakeng sa mantlha sa 10.10.10.in-addr.arpa

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ katse ea nakoana / rrs.10.10.10.in-addr.arpa 
; Mabapi le SOA le NS 10.10.10.in-addr.arpa. EA 3600 HO SOA sauron.mordor.fan. motsamaisi.mordor.fan. 21 900 600 86400 3600 10.10.10.in-addr.arpa. EA-3600-NS sauron.mordor.fan. ; ; Litlaleho tsa PTR 10.10.10.10.in-addr.arpa. EA-3600-PTR blackspider.mordor.fan. 11.10.10.10.in-addr.arpa. EA-3600-PTR palantir.mordor.fan. 3.10.10.10.in-addr.arpa. EA-3600-PTR sauron.mordor.fan. 4.10.10.10.in-addr.arpa. EA-3600-PTR mamba.mordor.fan. 5.10.10.10.in-addr.arpa. EA-3600-PTR dnslinux.mordor.fan. 6.10.10.10.in-addr.arpa. EA-3600-PTR darklord.mordor.fan. 7.10.10.10.in-addr.arpa. EA-3600-PTR troll.mordor.fan. 8.10.10.10.in-addr.arpa. EA-3600-PTR 9.10.10.10.in-addr.arpa. EA-3600-TZ

Ho fihlela ntlheng ena re ka nahana hore re na le tlhaiso-leseling e hlokahalang bakeng sa ho tsoela pele ka boiphihlelo ba rona, eseng ntle le ho shebella TLTL le tlhaiso-leseling e ngoe ka tsela e khuts'oane tlhahiso le ho shebisisa ka kotloloho ea DNS ea Microsft® Active Directory® 2008 SR2 64 bits e re fa eona.

Litšoantšo tsa Motsamaisi oa DNS ho SAURON

Sehlopha sa Dnslinux.mordor.fan.

Haeba re sheba ka hloko, atereseng ea IP 10.10.10.5 ha ho lebitso leo le fuoeng lebitso leo hantle e le hore le tla ts'oaroa ka lebitso la DNS e ncha dnslinux.mordor.fan. Ho kenya lipara tsa DNS le DHCP re ka tataisoa ke lingoloa DNS le DHCP ho Debian 8 "Jessie" y DNS le DHCP ho CentOS 7.

Sisteme e sebetsang ea Base

Motsoalle oa ka FuegianNtle le ho ba setsebi sa 'nete ho Microsoft® Windows - o na le Litifikeiti tse' maloa tse fanoeng ke k'hamphani eo - o balile le ho sebelisa tse ling tsa lingoloa tse deskotong tse phatlalalitsoeng ho Ho tlohaLinux., mme a mpolella hore o batla tharollo e thehiloeng ho Debian. 😉

Ho u khahlisa, re tla qala ka ho kenya sets'oants'o se hloekileng le se hloekileng sa seva se ipapisitse le Debian 8 "Jessie". Leha ho le joalo, seo re tla se ngola ka mor'a moo se nepahetse bakeng sa lipehelo tsa CentOS le openSUSE tseo lingoliloeng tsa tsona re buileng ka tsona pejana. TLAMA le DHCP li ts'oana le ho distro efe kapa efe. Liphetoho tse nyane li hlahisoa ke bahlokomeli ba liphutheloana kabo ka 'ngoe.

Re tla etsa kopo joalo ka ha ho bonts'itsoe ho DNS le DHCP ho Debian 8 "Jessie", ho hlokomela ho sebelisa IP 10.10.10.5 le marang-rang 10.10.10.0 / 24., le pele o hlophisa TLAMA.

Re hlophisa TLAMA ka setaele sa Debian

/etc/bind/named.conf

Faele /etc/bind/named.conf rea e tlohela kamoo e kentsoeng kateng.

/etc/bind/named.conf.options

Faele /etc/bind/named.conf.options lokela ho sala le litaba tse latelang:

motso @ dnslinux: ~ # cp /etc/bind/named.conf.options /etc/bind/named.conf.options.original

motso @ dnslinux: ~ # nano /etc/bind/named.conf.options
likhetho {directory "/ var / cache / bind"; // Haeba ho na le firewall lipakeng tsa hau le li-nameservers tseo u batlang // ho bua le tsona, u kanna ua hloka ho lokisa firewall ho lumella li-port tse ngata tsa // ho bua. Bona http://www.kb.cert.org/vuls/id/800113 // Haeba ISP ea hau e fane ka aterese e le 'ngoe kapa tse ngata tsa IP bakeng sa li-nameservers tse tsitsitseng, mohlomong u batla ho li sebelisa e le li-forwarders. // Uncomment block e latelang, 'me u kenye liaterese tse nkang sebaka sa // holder ea 0-all. // bapalami {// 0.0.0.0; //}; // =========================================== ===================== $ // Haeba TLAMA likutung melaetsa e mabapi le senotlolo sa motso se felile, // o tla hloka ho ntlafatsa linotlolo tsa hau. Bona https://www.isc.org/bind-keys // ============================= ===================================

    // Ha re batle DNSSEC
        dnssec-etsa che;
        //ts'ebetso ea dnssec-auto;

        mongoli-nxdomain no; # ikamahanya le RFC1035

 // Ha re hloke ho mamela liaterese tsa IPv6
        // mamela-ka-v6 {leha e le efe; };
    mamela-on-v6 {ha ho letho; };

 // Bakeng sa licheke tse tsoang ho localhost le sysadmin
    // ka // cheka mordor.fan axfr // cheka 10.10.10.in-addr.arpa axfr // cheka _msdcs.mordor.fan axfr // Ha re na lekhoba DNS ...
 lumella-fetisa {localhost; 10.10.10.1; };
};

// HO KENYA TLAMA
ho rema lifate {

        lipotso tsa mocha {
        file "/var/log/named/queries.log" mefuta ea 3 size 1m;
        leseli la matla;
        Nako ea khatiso e;
        matla a ho hatisa e;
        sehlopha sa khatiso e;
        };

        Phoso ea mocha-mocha {
        file "/var/log/named/query-error.log" mefuta ea 3 size 1m;
        leseli la matla;
        Nako ea khatiso e;
        matla a ho hatisa e;
        sehlopha sa khatiso e;
        };

                                
lipotso tsa sehlopha {
         lipotso;
         };

liphoso tsa sehlopha
         phoso-potso;
         };

};
  • Re tsebisa ho ts'oaroa ha lifate tsa BIND e le NTSANE ponahalo letotong la lingoloa tse buang ka taba ena. Re theha lfoldara le lifaele tse hlokehang bakeng sa Ho kena lipalaneng ea TLAMA:
motso @ dnslinux: ~ # mkdir / var / log / named
motso @ dnslinux: ~ # touch /var/log/named/queries.log
motso @ dnslinux: ~ # thetsana /var/log/named/query-error.log
motso @ dnslinux: ~ # chown -R tlama: bind / var / log / named

Re sheba syntax ea lifaele tse hlophisitsoeng

motso @ dnslinux: ~ # e reheletsoeng-checkconf 
motso @ dnslinux: ~ #

/etc/bind/named.conf.local

Re theha faele /etc/bind/zones.rfcFreeBSD e na le litaba tse tšoanang le tse bontšitsoeng ho DNS le DHCP ho Debian 8 "Jessie".

motso @ dnslinux: ~ # nano /etc/bind/zones.rfcFreeBSD

Faele /etc/bind/named.conf.local lokela ho sala le litaba tse latelang:

// // Etsa tlhophiso ea lehae mona // // Nahana ka ho eketsa libaka tsa 1918 mona, haeba li sa sebelisoe mokhatlong oa hau oa // //
kenyeletsa "/etc/bind/zones.rfc1918"; kenyeletsa "/etc/bind/zones.rfcFreeBSD";

libaka "mordor.fan" {mofuta oa master; faele "/var/lib/bind/db.mordor.fan"; }; libaka "10.10.10.in-addr.arpa" {mofuta oa mofuta; faele "/var/lib/bind/db.10.10.10.in-addr.arpa"; };

libaka "_msdcs.mordor.fan" {mofuta oa master;
 mabitso a hlahloba ha a tsotelle; faele "/etc/bind/db._msdcs.mordor.fan"; }; motso @ dnslinux: ~ # e reheletsoeng-checkconf
motso @ dnslinux: ~ #

Sebaka sa File mordor.fan

motso @ dnslinux: ~ # nano /var/lib/bind/db.mordor.fan
$ TTL 3H @ IN SOA dnslinux.mordor.fan. motso.dnslinux.mordor.fan. (1; serial 1D; khatholla 1H; leka hape 1W; felloa ke nako 3H); bonyane kapa; Nako e fosahetseng ea caching ea ho phela;
; HLOKOMELA HANGATA LIREKOTO TSE LATELANG
@ IN NS dnslinux.mordor.fan.
@ KA HO 10.10.10.5
@ IN MX 10 motho e motsho. @ IN TXT "Rea u amohela ho Lefifi le Lefifi la Mordor";
khongsa. IN NS dnslinux.mordor.fan.
;
dnslinux.mordor.fan. KA 10.10.10.5
; FELA KA HOBANE HOBANE HOBANE HANG LE LIREKOTO TSE LATELANG;
DomainDnsZones.mordor.fan. KA 10.10.10.3 ForestDnsZones.mordor.fan. KA 10.10.10.3; ; GLOBAL CATALOG _gc._tcp.mordor.fan. EA 600 0 HO SRV 0 3268 600 sauron.mordor.fan. _gc._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.mordor.fan. EA 0 0 HO SRV 3268 600 0 sauron.mordor.fan. ; ; LDAP e fetotsoeng le ea lekunutu ea Directory Directory _ldap._tcp.mordor.fan. EA-0 ho SRV 389 600 0 sauron.mordor.fan. _ldap._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.DomainDnsZones.mordor.fan. EA-0 ho SRV 389 600 0 sauron.mordor.fan. _Lerato.DomainDnsZones.mordor.fan. EA-0 ho SRV 389 600 0 sauron.mordor.fan. _ldap._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.mordor.fan. EA-0 ho SRV 389 600 0 sauron.mordor.fan. _ldap._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.ForestDnsZones.mordor.fan. EA-0 ho SRV 389 600 0 sauron.mordor.fan. _NakThu_Nokia_Source. EA-0 ho SRV 389 600 0 sauron.mordor.fan. ; ; KERBEROS e fetotsoeng le e ikemetseng ea Directory Directory _kerberos._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.mordor.fan. EA 0 88 IN SRV 600 0 0 sauron.mordor.fan. nthabiseng_nthabeleng EA 88 600 IN SRV 0 0 464 sauron.mordor.fan. khongso. EA 600 0 IN SRV 0 88 600 sauron.mordor.fan. nthabiseng_nthabeleng EA 0 0 IN SRV 464 10.10.10.9 10.10.10.10 sauron.mordor.fan. nthabiseng_moletsane EA 10.10.10.6 10.10.10.4 IN SRV 10.10.10.11 XNUMX XNUMX sauron.mordor.fan. ; ; Rekoto ea A e nang le IP e tsitsitseng -> Servers blackelf.mordor.fan. KA XNUMX blackspider.mordor.fan. HO XNUMX darklord.mordor.fan. KA XNUMX mamba.mordor.fan. KA XNUMX palantir.mordor.fan. KA XNUMX
sauron.mordor.fan. KA 10.10.10.3
lehlohonolo. KA 10.10.10.8 troll.mordor.fan. KA 10.10.10.7; ; CNAME e tlaleha ad-dc.mordor.fan. KA KHOTSO sauron.mordor.fan. blog.mordor.fan. HO CNAME troll.mordor.fan. fileserver.mordor.fan. KA CNAME mamba.mordor.fan. kamohelo. HO CNAME shadowftp.mordor.fan. mail.mordor.fan. HO CNAME balckelf.mordor.fan. openfire.mordor.fan. HO CNAME palantir.mordor.fan. proxy.mordor.fan. HO CNAME darklord.mordor.fan. www.loord.fan. HO CNAME blackspider.mordor.fan.

motso @ dnslinux: ~ # e reheletsoeng-checkzone mordor.fan /var/lib/bind/db.mordor.fan 
zone mordor.fan/IN: serial serial 1 e lokile

Linako TTL 600 tsa lingoliso tsohle tsa SRV re tla li boloka haeba ho ka etsahala hore re kenye TLHOKO EA Makhoba nakong e tlang. Lirekoto tseo li emela lits'ebeletso tsa Active Directory® tse balang hangata tlhaiso-leseling e fumanehang ho database ea hau ea LDAP. Ha database eo e fetoha khafetsa, linako tsa sync li tlameha ho khutsufatsoa, ​​ka leano la Master - Slave DNS. Ho ea ka filosofi ea Microsoft e hlokometsoeng ho tloha Directory Directory 2000 ho isa 2008, boleng ba 600 bo bolokiloe bakeng sa mefuta ena ea lirekoto tsa SRV.

ea TLTL ea li-server tse nang le IP e tsitsitseng, li tlasa nako e phatlalalitsoeng ho SOA ea lihora tse 3.

Sebaka sa Zone 10.10.10.in-addr.arpa

motso @ dnslinux: ~ # nano /var/lib/bind/db.10.10.10.in-addr.arpa
$ TTL 3H @ IN SOA dnslinux.mordor.fan. motso.dnslinux.mordor.fan. (1; serial 1D; khatholla 1H; leka hape 1W; felloa ke nako 3H); bonyane kapa; Nako e fosahetseng ea caching ea ho phela; @ IN NS dnslinux.mordor.fan. ; 10 HO PTR blackspider.mordor.fan. 11 HO PTR palantir.mordor.fan. 3 HO PTR sauron.mordor.fan. 4 HO PTR mamba.mordor.fan. 5 HO PTR dnslinux.mordor.fan. 6 HO PTR lefifi.mordor.fan. 7 HO PTR troll.mordor.fan. 8 HO PTR shadowftp.mordor.fan. 9 HO PTR motho e motsho.mordor.fan.

motso @ dnslinux: ~ # e reheletsoe-10.10.10.in-addr.arpa /var/lib/bind/db.10.10.10.in-addr.arpa 
libaka 10.10.10.in-addr.arpa/IN: serial serial 1 OK

Sebaka sa File File _msdcs.mordor.fan

Ha re nahaneng ka se khothalletsoang faeleng /usr/share/doc/bind9/README.Debian.gz Mabapi le moo lifaele tsa Master Zones li leng teng, ha li na ntlafatso e matla ea DHCP.

motso @ dnslinux: ~ # nano /etc/bind/db._msdcs.mordor.fan
$ TTL 3H @ IN SOA dnslinux.mordor.fan. motso.dnslinux.mordor.fan. (1; serial 1D; khatholla 1H; leka hape 1W; felloa ke nako 3H); bonyane kapa; Nako e fosahetseng ea caching ea ho phela; @ IN NS dnslinux.mordor.fan. ; ; ; GLOBAL CATALOG gc._msdcs.mordor.fan. 600 KA A 10.10.10.3; ; Li-aliases - ho database ea LDAP e fetotsoeng le ea poraefete ea Directory e sebetsang ea SAURON 03296249-82a1-49aa-a4f0-28900f5d256b._msdcs.mordor.fan. EA 600 600 KA CNAME sauron.mordor.fan. ; ; LDAP e fetotsoeng le ea lekunutu ea Directory Directory _ldap._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.dc._msdcs.mordor.fan. EA 0 100 HO SRV 389 600 0 sauron.mordor.fan. _e_leng_tvp.dc._msdcs.mordor.fan. EA 100 389 HO SRV 18 3360 8 sauron.mordor.fan. _ldap._tcp.40d678d-7fdb-420cf-a6-d775c600b0d100.domains._msdcs.mordor.fan. EA 389 600 HO SRV 0 100 3268 sauron.mordor.fan. _ldap._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.gc._msdcs.mordor.fan. EA 600 0 HO SRV 100 3268 600 sauron.mordor.fan. khongsa.px. _tcp.gc._msdcs.mordor.fan. EA 0 100 IN SRV 389 600 0 sauron.mordor.fan. khongsa.pdc._msdcs.mordor.fan. EA 100 88 HO SRV 600 0 100 sauron.mordor.fan. ; ; KERBEROS e fetotsoe ebile e le lekunutu ho tsoa ho Directory Directory _kerberos._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.dc._msdcs.mordor.fan. EA 88 XNUMX IN SRV XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX sauron.mordor.fan. nthabiseng_molebatsi EA XNUMX XNUMX IN SRV XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX sauron.mordor.fan.

Re sheba syntax mme re ka iphapanyetsa phoso eo e khutlang ka eona, kaha ha ho hlophisoa ha Sebaka sena faeleng /etc/bind/named.conf.local re kenyelletsa polelo mabitso a ho hlahloba a hlokomoloha;. Sebaka se tla laoloa ka nepo ke TLAMA.

motso @ dnslinux: ~ # e reheletsoeng-checkzone _msdcs.mordor.fan /etc/bind/db._msdcs.mordor.fan 
/etc/bind/db._msdcs.mordor.fan:14: gc._msdcs.mordor.fan: lebitso la mong'a bobe (mabitso a ho hlahloba) libaka _msdcs.mordor.fan/IN: serial serial 1 OK

motso @ dnslinux: ~ # systemctl qala hape bind9.service 
motso @ dnslinux: ~ # systemctl boemo bind9.service 
● bind9.service - BIND Domain Name Server Server Loaded: umthwalo (/lib/systemd/system/bind9.service; e nolofalitsoe) Drop-In: /run/systemd/generator/bind9.service.d └─50-insserv.conf- $ named.conf E sebetsa: sebetsang (mathang) ho tloha ka Sun 2017-02-12 08:48:38 EST; 2s ago Docs: man: named (8) Tshebetso: 859 ExecStop = / usr / sbin / rndc stop (code = exited, status = 0 / SUCCESS) Main PID: 864 (named) CGroup: /system.slice/bind9.service 864 / usr / sbin / named -f -u tlama Feb 12 08:48:38 dnslinux e reheletsoe [864]: zone 3.efip6.arpa/IN: serial serial 1 Feb 12 08:48:38 dnslinux e reheletsoe [864] ]: zone befip6.arpa/IN: serial serial 1 Feb 12 08:48:38 dnslinux e bitsoang [864]: zone 0.efip6.arpa/IN: serial serial 1 Feb 12 08:48:38 dnslinux e bitsoang [864]: libaka 7.efip6.arpa/IN: serial serial 1 Feb 12 08:48:38 dnslinux e reheletsoe [864]: zone mordor.fan/IN: serial serial 1 la la 12 08 48:38:864 dnslinux e reheletsoe [1]: mohlala oa libaka .org / IN: serial e laetsoeng 12 Feb 08 48:38:864 dnslinux e reheletsoe [1]: zone _msdcs.mordor.fan/IN: serial serial 12 Feb 08 48:38:864 dnslinux e bitsoang [1]: zone invalid / IN : serial e laetsoeng 12 Feb 08 48:38:864 dnslinux e bitsoang [XNUMX]: libaka tsohle tse laetsoeng
Feb 12 08:48:38 dnslinux e reheletsoe [864]: mathang

Re sheba TLANG

Pele Kamora ho kenya DHCP, re tlameha ho etsa letoto la licheke tse kenyeletsang ho kenela moreki oa Windows 7 ho domain motlatsi e emeloang ke Directory Directory e kentsoeng komporong sauron.mordor.fan.

Ntho ea pele eo re tlamehang ho e etsa ke ho emisa ts'ebeletso ea DNS khomphuteng sauron.mordor.fan, 'Me u phatlalatse khokahanong ea hau ea marang-rang hore ho tloha joale seva ea hau ea DNS e tla ba file ea 10.10.10.5 dnslinux.mordor.fan.

Ho khokahano ea seva ka boeona sauron.mordor.fan rea phethisa:

Microsoft Windows [Mofuta oa 6.1.7600]
Tokelo ea Copyright (c) 2009 Microsoft Corporation. Litokelo tsohle li sirelelitsoe.

C: \ Basebelisi \ Motsamaisi> nslookup
Sesebelisoa sa kamehla: dnslinux.mordor.fan Aterese: 10.10.10.5

> gc._msdcs
Server: dnslinux.mordor.fan Aterese: 10.10.10.5 Lebitso: gc._msdcs.mordor.fan Aterese: 10.10.10.3

> mordor.fan
Seva: dnslinux.mordor.fan Aterese: 10.10.10.5 Lebitso: mordor.fan Aterese: 10.10.10.3

> 03296249-82a1-49aa-a4f0-28900f5d256b._msdcs
Seva: dnslinux.mordor.fan Aterese: 10.10.10.5 Lebitso: sauron.mordor.fan Aterese: 10.10.10.3 Aliases: 03296249-82a1-49aa-a4f0-28900f5d256b._msdcs.mordor.fan

> seta mofuta = SRV
> _kerberos._tcp.Default-Pele-Pele-Lebitso-Lebitso._sites.dc._msdcs
Seva: dnslinux.mordor.fan Aterese: 10.10.10.5 _kerberos._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.dc._msdcs.mordor.fan SRV serv ice location: pele = boima ba 0 = 100 port = 88 svr hostname = sauron.mordor.fan _msdcs.mordor.fan nameserver = dnslinux.mordor.fan sauron.mordor.fan inthanete aterese = 10.10.10.3 dnslinux.mordor.fan aterese ea inthanete = 10.10.10.5
> _ldap._tcp.18d3360d-8fdb-40cf-a678-d7c420b6d775.domains._msdcs
Seva: dnslinux.mordor.fan Aterese: 10.10.10.5 _ldap._tcp.18d3360d-8fdb-40cf-a678-d7c420b6d775.domains._msdcs.mordor.fan Sebaka sa ts'ebeletso sa SRV: priority = 0 weight = 100 port = 389 svr hostname = sauron .mordor.fan _msdcs.mordor.fan nameserver = dnslinux.mordor.fan sauron.mordor.fan inthanete aterese = 10.10.10.3 dnslinux.mordor.fan aterese ea inthanete = 10.10.10.5
> tsoa

C: \ Basebelisi \ Motsamaisi>

Lipotso tsa DNS tse entsoeng ka sauron.mordor.fan lia khotsofatsa.

Mohato o latelang e tla ba ho theha mochini o mong o hlakileng o nang le Windows 7. Ha re ntse re sena ts'ebeletso ea DHCP e kentsoeng, re tla fa komporo eo lebitso "win7»Aterese ea IP 10.10.10.251. Re boetse re phatlalatsa hore seva sa hau sa DNS e tla ba file ea 10.10.10.5 dnslinux.mordor.fan, le hore sebaka sa ho batla se tla ba motlatsi. Re ke ke ra ngolisa komporo eo ho DNS hobane re tla e sebelisa ho lekola ts'ebeletso ea DHCP kamora hore re e kenye.

E latelang re bula khokahano CMD 'me ka eona re phethisa:

Microsoft Windows [Mofuta oa 6.1.7601]
Tokelo ea Copyright (c) 2009 Microsoft Corporation. Litokelo tsohle li sirelelitsoe.

C: \ Basebelisi \ buzz> nslookup
Sesebelisoa sa kamehla: dnslinux.mordor.fan Aterese: 10.10.10.5

> mordor.fan
Seva: dnslinux.mordor.fan Aterese: 10.10.10.5 Lebitso: mordor.fan Aterese: 10.10.10.3

> seta mofuta = SRV
> _ldap._tcp.DomainDnsZones
Seva: dnslinux.mordor.fan Aterese: 10.10.10.5 _ldap._tcp.DomainDnsZones.mordor.fan SRV sebaka sa ts'ebeletso: priority = 0 weight = 0 port = 389 svr hostname = sauron.mordor.fan mordor.fan nameserver = dnslinux.mordor. .fan sauron.mordor.fan aterese ea inthanete = 10.10.10.3 dnslinux.mordor.fan inthanete aterese = 10.10.10.5
> _tsoa
Seva: dnslinux.mordor.fan Aterese: 10.10.10.5 _kpasswd._udp.mordor.fan Sebaka sa ts'ebeletso sa SRV: pele = 0 boima = 0 port = 464 svr hostname = sauron.mordor.fan mordor.fan nameserver = dnslinux.mordor.fan sauron.mordor.fan aterese ea inthanete = 10.10.10.3 dnslinux.mordor.fan aterese ea inthanete = 10.10.10.5
> _ldap._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.ForestDnsZones
Seva: dnslinux.mordor.fan Aterese: 10.10.10.5 _ldap._tcp.Default-First-Site-Name._sites.ForestDnsZones.mordor.fan SRV serv ice location: pele = 0 weight = 0 port = 389 svr hostname = sauron. mordor.fan mordor.fan nameserver = dnslinux.mordor.fan sauron.mordor.fan inthanete aterese = 10.10.10.3 dnslinux.mordor.fan inthanete aterese = 10.10.10.5
> Etsoa

C: \ Basebelisi \ buzz>

Lipotso tsa DNS tse entsoeng ho moreki «win7»A ne a boetse a khotsofatsa.

Ka Directory ea Active re theha mosebelisi «saruman«, Ka sepheo sa ho e sebelisa ha o kenela moreki win7 ho domain motlatsi., a sebelisa mokhoa «ID ea marang-rang«, Ho sebelisa usernames saruman@mordor.fan y motsamaisi@mordor.fan. Setho se atlehile mme ho netefatsoa ke skrini se latelang:

Mabapi le Lintlafatso tsa Dynamic ho Microsoft® DNS le BIND

Ha re ntse re emisitse ts'ebeletso ea DNS ho Active Directory® ho ne ho sa khonehe ho moreki «win7»Ngolisa lebitso la hau le aterese ea IP ho DNS eo. Hanyane hanyane ho dnslinux.mordor.fan kaha ha rea ​​ka ra etsa polelo efe kapa efe lumella-ntjhafatso bakeng sa libaka life kapa life tse amehang.

Ke hona moo ntoa e ntle le motsoalle oa ka e ileng ea theoa Fuegian. Ka lengolo-tsoibila la ka la pele ka ntlha ena ke ile ka fana ka maikutlo:

  • Lingoloa tsa Microsoft mabapi le ts'ebeliso ea BIND le Active Directory® li khothaletsa hore, haholo-holo Direct Zone, e lumelloe ho nchafatsoa -phunyeletse- ka kotloloho ke bareki ba Windows ba seng ba ntse ba kenella ho domain Directory ea Active Directory.
  • Ke ka lebaka leo, ka boiketsetso, libakeng tsa DNS tsa Lisebelisoa tsa Active Directory® Secure Dynamic li lumelloang. ke bareki ba Windows ba seng ba ntse ba kenella ho domain Directory ea Active Directory. Haeba ba sa kopane, ba qoba litlamorao.
  • DNS ea Directory Directory e ts'ehetsa lintlafatso tse matla "E sireletsehile feela", "Neccure and safe", kapa "None" e ts'oanang le ho re NO Updates kapa None.
  • Ho joalo Filosofi ea Microsoft ha e lumellane hore bareki ba eona ba SE KE ba ntlafatsa lintlha tsa bona ho li-DNS (li) bona, e ke ke ea siea e butse monyetla oa ho holofatsa lintlafatso tse matla ho li-DNS tsa bona, ntle le haeba khetho e tla tlohelloa merero e patiloeng haholoanyane.
  • Microsoft e fana ka "Security" molemong oa Lefifi, jwaloka ha mosebetsi mmoho le motswalle ya ileng a feta lithuto tsa Microsft® Certificates a mpolelletse. Ke 'nete. Ntle le moo, El Fueguino o ile a ntiisetsa eona.
  • Mofani ea fumanang aterese ea IP ka DHCP e kentsoeng mochining oa UNIX® / Linux ka mohlala, a ke ke a khona ho rarolla aterese ea IP ea lebitso la hae ho fihlela o kenella ho domain Directory ea Active Directory, ha feela Microsoft® kapa BIND e sebelisoa e le DNS ntle le lintlafatso tse matla tsa DHCP.
  • Haeba ke kenya DHCP ho Active Directory® ka boeona, ke tla tlameha ho phatlalatsa hore libaka li nchafatsoa ke Microsoft® DHCP.
  • Haeba re tla sebelisa TLAMA joaloka DNS bakeng sa netweke ea Windows, hoa utloahala ebile ho khothaletsoa hore re kenye BIND-DHCP duo, 'me ea morao-rao e nchafatse BATHO mme taba e phethetsoe.
  • Lefatšeng la marang-rang a LAN ho UNIX® / Linux, kaha lintlafatso tse matla li qapiloe ho BIND, ke Monghali DHCP feela ea lumelloang «phunyeletsa»Ho Mofumahali TLAMA ka lintlafatso tsa hae. Ka kopo, boikhathollo bo nang le tatellano.
  • Ha ke phatlalatsa sebakeng motlatsi mohlala: lumella-ntlafatso {10.10.10.0/24; };, TLHOKA ka boeona e ntsebisa ha ke qala kapa ke e qala bocha hore:
    • zone 'mordor.fan' e lumella lintlafatso ka aterese ea IP, e sa sireletsehang
  • Lefats'eng la sacrosanct UNIX® / Linux, savvy e joalo ka DNS ha e amohelehe.

U ka inahanela feela ka phapanyetsano e setseng le motsoalle oa ka Fuegian ho feta ea e-mail, Puisano ea thelekramo, mehala e lefiloeng ke eena (ehlile monna, ha ke na kilo bakeng sa seo), esita le melaetsa ka maeba a tsamaisang lekholong la XXI!

O bile a ts'osa ka hore a se ke a nthomella mora oa phoofolo ea hae ea lapeng, Iguana ea hae «Petra»Hore o ne a ts'episitse e le karolo ea tefo. Ha ke le moo ke ile ka tšoha haholo. Kahoo ka qala hape, empa ka lehlakoreng le leng.

  • "Hoo e batlang e le" Directory e sebetsang e ka fihlelloang ka Samba 4, e rarolla tšobotsi ena ka tsela e bohlale, ka bobeli ha re sebelisa DNS ea kahare, kapa BIND e hlophiselitsoeng ho ts'ehetsa libaka tsa DLZ - Libaka tse Laetsoeng ka Dinamyc, kapa libaka tse nang le matla a maholo.
  • E ntse e tsoela pele ho ba le bothata bo tšoanang: ha moreki a fumana aterese ea IP ka DHCP e kentsoeng ho tse ling Mochini oa UNIX® / Linux, u ke ke ua khona ho rarolla aterese ea IP ea lebitso la hau ho fihlela e kopanngoa le taolo ea Samba 4 AD-DC.
  • Kopanya bobeli ba BIND-DLZ le DHCP mochining o le mong moo file ea AD-DC Samba 4 ke mosebetsi oa setsebi sa 'nete.

Fuegian O ile a mpitsetsa khaolong mme a nkhoela: HA RE BUE ka AD-DC Samba 4, empa Microsoft® Active Directory®!. Mme ka araba ka boikokobetso hore ke thabetse karolo ea lingoliloeng tse latelang tseo ke tlo li ngola.

Ke ha ke mo joetsa hore, qeto ea hoqetela ka lintlafatso tse matla tsa likhomphutha tsa bareki marang-rang a hae e ne e tlohelletsoe boikhethelo ba hae. Ke hore ke tla mo fa faele ea keletso ngotsoe pele ka lumella-ntlafatso {10.10.10.0/24; };, le ho feta ha ho letho. Hore ke ne ke se na boikarabello ba se ileng sa bakoa ke boitšoaro bo hlephileng boo mofani e mong le e mong oa Windows -kapa Linux- marang-rang a bona «tla phunyeletsa»Ka ho hloka kotlo ho TLAMA.

Haeba u ne u tseba, motsoalle oa ka, Reader hore eo e ne e le ntlha ea qetello ea ntoa, u ne u ke ke ua e kholoa. Motsoalle oa ka Fuegian o amohetse tharollo - mme o tla nthomella iguana «petrica«- hore hona joale ke kopanela le uena.

Re kenya le ho hlophisa DHCP

Bakeng sa lintlha tse ling bala DNS le DHCP ho Debian 8 "Jessie".

motso @ dnslinux: ~ # aptitude kenya isc-dhcp-server

motso @ dnslinux: ~ # nano / jj / default / isc-dhcp-server .... # Sehokelo sa DHCP (dhcpd) se lokela ho sebeletsa likopo tsa DHCP? # Arola likarolo tse ngata tse nang le libaka, mohlala "eth0 eth1". INTERFACES = "eth0" motso @ dnslinux: ~ # dnssec-keygen -a HMAC-MD5 -b 128 -r / dev / urandom -n USER dhcp-senotlolo
Kdhcp-senotlolo. + 157 + 29836

motso @ dnslinux: ~ # katse ea Kdhcp-key. + 157 + 29836
Sebopeho sa senotlolo sa poraefete: v1.3 Algorithm: 157 (HMAC_MD5) Senotlolo: 3HT / bg / 6YwezUShKYofj5g == Bits: AAA = E entsoe: 20170212205030 Phatlalatsa: 20170212205030 Sebetsa: 20170212205030

motso @ dnslinux: ~ # nano dhcp.key
senotlolo sa dhcp-key {algorithm hmac-md5; lekunutu "3HT / bg / 6YwezUShKYofj5g =="; };

motso @ dnslinux: ~ # kenya -o motso -g tlama -m 0640 dhcp.key /etc/bind/dhcp.key
motso @ dnslinux: ~ # kenya -o motso -g motso -m 0640 dhcp.key /etc/dhcp/dhcp.key

motso @ dnslinux: ~ # nano /etc/bind/named.conf.local
// // Na ho na le tlhophiso ea lehae mona // // Nahana ka ho eketsa libaka tsa 1918 mona, haeba li sa sebelisoe mokhatlong oa hau oa // li kenyelletsa "/etc/bind/zones.rfc1918"; kenyeletsa "/etc/bind/zones.rfcFreeBSD";
// Se lebale ... ke lebetse mme ke lefile ka liphoso. ;-)
kenyeletsa "/etc/bind/dhcp.key";


libaka "mordor.fan" {mofuta oa master;
        lumella-ntlafatso {10.10.10.3; senotlolo sa dhcp-key; };
        faele "/var/lib/bind/db.mordor.fan"; }; libaka "10.10.10.in-addr.arpa" {mofuta oa mofuta;
        lumella-ntlafatso {10.10.10.3; senotlolo sa dhcp-key; };
        faele "/var/lib/bind/db.10.10.10.in-addr.arpa"; }; libaka "_msdcs.mordor.fan" {mofuta oa master; mabitso a ho hlahloba a hlokomoloha; faele "/etc/bind/db._msdcs.mordor.fan"; };

motso @ dnslinux: ~ # e reheletsoeng-checkconf 
motso @ dnslinux: ~ #

motso @ dnslinux: ~ # nano /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf
ddns-mokhoa oa ntlafatso oa nakoana; lisebelisoa tsa ddns ho; ddns-domainname "mordor.fan."; ddns-rev-domainname "in-addr.arpa."; hlokomoloha lisebelisoa tsa bareki; matla khetho ea ip-fetisa; khetho domain-name "mordor.fan"; kenyeletsa "/etc/dhcp/dhcp.key"; libaka tsa mordor.fan. {mathomo 127.0.0.1; senotlolo sa dhcp-key; } libaka tsa 10.10.10.in-addr.arpa. {mathomo 127.0.0.1; senotlolo sa dhcp-key; } li-network-redlocal tse arolelanoeng {subnet 10.10.10.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {option routers 10.10.10.1; khetho subnet-mask 255.255.255.0; khetho-aterese-aterese 10.10.10.255; khetho domain-name-server 10.10.10.5; khetho netbios-name-server 10.10.10.5; moeli 10.10.10.30 10.10.10.250; }} # BOFELO dhcpd.conf

motso @ dnslinux: ~ # dhcpd -t
Sistimi ea Inthanete ea Consortium DHCP Server 4.3.1 Copyright 2004-2014 Internet Systems Consortium. Litokelo tsohle li sirelelitsoe. Ho fumana leseli, ka kopo etela https://www.isc.org/software/dhcp/ Config file: /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf Database file: /var/lib/dhcp/dhcpd.leases PID file: / var / run /dhcpd.pid

motso @ dnslinux: ~ # systemctl qala hape bind9.service 
motso @ dnslinux: ~ # systemctl boemo bind9.service 

motso @ dnslinux: ~ # systemctl qala isc-dhcp-server.service
motso @ dnslinux: ~ # systemctl boemo ba isc-dhcp-server.service

Ke eng e amanang le Ho hlahloba le bareki, le Phetoho ea buka ea lifaele tsa Zone, re u tlohella eona, 'mali motsoalle, hore u e bale ka kotloloho ho tloha DNS le DHCP ho Debian 8 "Jessie", 'me ue sebelise maemong a hau a nnete. Re ile ra etsa licheke tsohle tse hlokahalang mme ra fumana litholoana tse khotsofatsang. Ehlile re romella kopi ea tsona kaofela ho Fuegian. Ha ho sa tla ba le tse ling!

Litlhahiso

Kakaretso

  • Fumana mamello e ntle pele u qala.
  • Pele kenya le ho hlophisa TLAMA. Lekola ntho e ngoe le e ngoe 'me u bone lirekoto tsohle tseo u li phatlalalitseng faeleng ka' ngoe ea libaka tse tharo kapa tse ling, ka bobeli ho tsoa ho Directory Directory le ho tsoa ho seva ea DNS ka boeona ho Linux. Haeba ho khonahala, ho tsoa mochineng oa Linux o sa kenang ho domain, etsa lipotso tse hlokahalang tsa DNS ho BIND.
  • Ikopanye le moreki oa Windows ea nang le aterese e sa fetoheng ea IP ho domain e seng e le teng, 'me u hlahlobe li-setting tsohle tsa TLOPA ho moreki oa Windows.
  • Kamora hore ntle le pelaelo o netefatse hore phetolo ea BAND ea hau e ncha e nepahetse ka botlalo, ikemisetse ho kenya, ho hlophisa le ho qala ts'ebeletso ea DHCP.
  • Ha ho na le liphoso, pheta ts'ebetso eohle ho tloha ho zero 0.
  • Hlokomela kopi le ho peista! le libaka tse eketsehileng moleng o mong le o mong oa li-file tse bitsoang.conf.xxxx
  • Kamora moo, ha a ka a tletleba - haholo-holo ho motsoalle oa ka Fuegian - hore ha a eletsoa hantle.

Malebela a mang

  • Arola 'me u hlōle.
  • Ho SME Network ho bolokehile ebile ho molemo haholo ho kenya BIT e matla ea BOPHELO bakeng sa Libaka tsa ka hare tsa LAN tse sa khutleleng ho seva efe kapa efe ea methapo: recursion eseng;.
  • Ka netweke ea SME e fumanehang tlasa Mofani oa Inthanete oa Phihlello - ISP, mohlomong lits'ebeletso Proxy y SMTP ba hloka ho rarolla mabitso a marang-rang ho Internet. Eena Squid o na le khetho ea ho phatlalatsa DNS ea hau kantle kapa che, ha o ntse o le ho seva ea poso e ipapisitse le Phatlalatso o MDaemon® Hape re ka phatlalatsa li-server tsa DNS tseo re tla li sebelisa ts'ebeletsong eo. Maemong a kang ana, ke hore, linyeoe tse sa faneng ka litšebeletso ho inthanete le tse tlas'a Mofani oa Tšebeletso ea Inthanete, o ka kenya TLAMA ka Batsamaisi ho supa DNS ea ISP, 'Me u e phatlalatse e le DNS ea bobeli ho li-server tse hlokang ho rarolla lipotso tse kantle ho LAN, ho seng joalo ho ka khonahala ho li phatlalatsa ka lifaele tsa tsona tsa phetolo.
  • Haeba u na le sebaka se abetsoeng tlasa boikarabello bohle ba hauJoale mokoko o mong oa lla:
    • Kenya seva ea DNS ho latela NSD, e leng seva e lumelletsoeng ea DNS ka tlhaloso, e arabang lipotso ho tsoa likhomphutha ho Internet. Bakeng sa tlhahisoleseling aptitude bontša nsd. Ka kopo e sireletse hantle ka marako a mangata a mollo ha ho hlokahala. Ka bobeli li-hardware le software. E tla ba DNS bakeng sa Marang-rang, le hore «kenapa»Ha rea ​​tlameha ho e fa ka borikhoe bo tlase. 😉
    • Joalokaha ke e-s'o ipone ketsahalong e kang ena, ke ho re ke ikarabella ka botlalo ho Sebaka se Ikhethetsoeng, ke tla tlameha ho nahana hantle hore na ke khothaletse eng bakeng sa tharollo ea mabitso a marang-rang a kantle ho LAN ea rona bakeng sa lits'ebeletso tse e hlokang. Bareki ba SME Network ha ba hlile baa e hloka. Ikopanye le lingoliloeng tse khethehileng, kapa setsebi lithutong tsena, hobane ha ke kholoe ho ba e mong oa tsona. Ka botebo.
    • Boiphetetso ha bo eo ho li-server tsa Authoritarian. Ho lokile?. Haeba motho e mong a nahana ho e etsa ka TLAMA.
  • Le ha re hlakisa ka ho hlaka faeleng /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf phatlalatso hlokomoloha lisebelisoa tsa bareki;, haeba re matha ho komporo ea komporo dnslinux.mordor.fan taelo koropo -f, Re tla bona seo ha re qala moreki win7.mordor.fan re fumana melaetsa e latelang ea phoso:
    • Feb 12 16:55:41 dnslinux e rehelletsoe [900]: moreki 10.10.10.30 # 58762: ntjhafatso 'mordor.fan/IN' e hannoe
      Feb 12 16:55:42 dnslinux e rehelletsoe [900]: moreki 10.10.10.30 # 49763: ntjhafatso 'mordor.fan/IN' e hannoe
      Feb 12 16:56:23 dnslinux e rehelletsoe [900]: moreki 10.10.10.30 # 63161: ntjhafatso 'mordor.fan/IN' e hannoe
      
    • Ho felisa melaetsa ena, re tlameha ho ea likhethong tse tsoetseng pele tsa phetolo ea karete ea marang-rang ebe o sa khetholla khetho «Ngolisa liaterese tsa khokahano ena ho DNS«. Seo se tla thibela moreki ho leka ho ingolisa ho eona Linux DNS ka ho sa feleng le pheletso ea bothata. Tšoarelo, empa ha ke na kopi ea Windows 7 ka Sepanish. 😉
  • Ho tseba ka lipotso tsohle tse tebileng - le tse bohlanya - tseo mofani oa Windows 7 a li etsang, hlahloba file ea lintlha tsa log hore bakeng sa ho hong re ho phatlalatsa ka tlhophiso ea TLAMA. Taelo e tla ba:
    • motso @ dnslinux: ~ # mohatla -f /var/log/named/queries.log
  • Haeba u sa lumelle likhomphutha tsa hau tsa bareki ho hokela ka kotloloho inthaneteng, hobaneng u hloka li-server tsa DNS? Sena se tla fokotsa haholo tlhahiso ea taelo koropo -f le ho tsoa ho e fetileng, haeba seva ea hau ea Authoritarian DNS seva sa Libaka tsa kahare e sa hokahane ka kotloloho le inthanete, e khothaletsoang haholo ho latela pono ea ts'ireletso.
    motso @ dnslinux: ~ # cp /etc/bind/db.root /etc/bind/db.root.original
    motso @ dnslinux: ~ # cp / dev / null /etc/bind/db.root
  • Haeba o sa hloke phatlalatso ea li-server, hobaneng o hloka Recursion - Ho tsosolosoa?
    motso @ dnslinux: ~ # nano /etc/bind/named.conf.options
    likhetho {
     ....
     recursion eseng;
     ....
    };

Keletso e khethehileng eo ke ntseng ke sa hlaka hantle ka eona

El motho dhcpd.conf e re joetsa tse latelang hara tse ling tse ngata-ngata:

        Polelo ea ntlafatso ea ntlafatso

            ntjhafatso-ntlafatso ea folakha;

            Haeba paramethara ea ntlafatso ea ntlafatso e le leshano ho moreki ea fuoeng, seva e tla leka ntlafatso ea DNS bakeng sa moreki eo nako le nako ha moreki a nchafatsa tumellano ea eona, ho fapana le ho leka feela ntlafatso ha ho bonahala ho hlokahala. Sena se tla lumella DNS ho folisa ho se lumellane ha database habonolo, empa litšenyehelo ke hore seva ea DHCP e tlameha ho etsa liapdeite tse ling tse ngata tsa DNS. Re khothaletsa ho bala khetho ena e nolofalitsoe, e leng ea mantlha. Khetho ena e ama feela boits'oaro ba morero oa nakoana oa ntlafatso oa DNS, mme ha e na tšusumetso ho leano la ntlafatso la DNS la ad-hoc. Haeba paramethara ena e sa boleloa, kapa e le 'nete, seva ea DHCP e tla nchafatsoa ha tlhaiso-leseling ea moreki e fetoha, moreki o fumana tumellano e fapaneng, kapa tumellano ea mookameli e felloa ke nako.

Phetolelo kapa botoloki bo batlang bo nepahetse bo setseng ho uena, 'mali ea ratehang.

Ka boeena ho etsahetse ho nna - mme ho etsahetse nakong ea ha ho etsoa sengoloa sena - hore ha ke hokahanya TLAMA ho Active Directory®, e tsoa ho Microsft® kapa Samba 4, haeba ke fetola lebitso la k'homphieutha ea moreki e ngolisitsoeng ho domain Directory ea Directory kapa ea AD-DC ea Samba 4, e boloka lebitso la eona la khale le aterese ea IP ho Direct Zone, eseng ka lehlakoreng le leng, e ntlafalitsoeng ka nepo ka lebitso le lecha. Ka mantsoe a mang, mabitso a khale le a macha a ngotsoe atereseng e le 'ngoe ea IP ho Direct Zone, ha lebitso le lecha le hlaha feela. E le hore u nkutloisise hantle, u tlameha ho itlhahloba.

Ke nahana hore ke mofuta oa boiphetetso Fuegian -e seng ho 'na, ka kopo- ho leka ho fallisetsa lits'ebeletso tsa hau ho Linux.

Ehlile lebitso la khale le tla nyamela ha lona TTL 3600, kapa nako eo re e phatlalalitseng ka tlhophiso ea DHCP. Empa re batla hore e nyamele hanghang joalo ka ha e etsahala BUNG + DHCP ntle le Active Directory ka.

Tharollo ea boemo boo ke e fumane ka ho kenya polelo ntlafatso-ntlafatso ea bohata; qetellong ea bokaholimo ba file /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf:

ddns-mokhoa oa ntlafatso oa nakoana; lisebelisoa tsa ddns ho; ddns-domainname "mordor.fan."; ddns-rev-domainname "in-addr.arpa."; hlokomoloha lisebelisoa tsa bareki;
ntlafatso-ntlafatso ea bohata;

Haeba Sebali leha e le sefe se tseba ho eketsehileng ka eona, ka kopo ntsebise. Ke tla e ananela haholo.

Kakaretso

Re natefetsoe haholo ke taba eo, na? Ha ho na mahlomola hobane re na le TLAMA re sebetsa joalo ka seva sa DNS marang-rang a Microsoft®, re fana ka litlaleho tsohle tsa SRV le ho araba ka nepo lipotsong tsa DNS tse etsoang ho bona. Ka lehlakoreng le leng re na le seva ea DHCP e fanang ka liaterese tsa IP mme re ntlafatsa ka matla libaka tsa BIND ka nepo.

Empa ha re khone ho botsa ... bakeng sa motsotsoana.

Ke tšepa motsoalle oa ka Fuegian thaba le ho khotsofala ke mohato oa pele oa ho fallela Linux ho etsa hore litšenyehelo tse sa mamelleheng tsa Microsft® technical Support li mamellehe.

Tsebiso ea bohlokoa

Sebopeho "Fuegian»Ke ntho e iqapetsoeng ka ho felletseng ebile ke sehlahisoa sa monahano oa ka. Ho ts'oana kapa ho iketsahalla hampe le batho ba 'nete ke ntho e le' ngoe: Ketsahalo e ikhethileng ea ho itšunya-tšunya ka lehlakoreng la ka. Ke e thehile feela hore ho ngola le ho bala sengoloa sena ho be monate. Joale ha o ka mpolella hore bothata ba DNS bo lefifi. 😉


Litaba tsa sengoloa sena li latela melao-motheo ea rona ea melao ea boitšoaro ea bongoli. Ho tlaleha phoso tlanya mona.

Maikutlo a 13, siea ea hau

Siea maikutlo a hau

aterese ya hao ya imeile ke ke ho phatlalatswa.

*

*

  1. E ikarabella bakeng sa data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Morero oa data: Laola SPAM, tsamaiso ea maikutlo.
  3. Molao: Tumello ea hau
  4. Puisano ea data: Lintlha li ke ke tsa tsebisoa batho ba boraro ntle le ka tlamo ea molao.
  5. Polokelo ea data: Database e hapiloeng ke Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Litokelo: Nako efe kapa efe o ka fokotsa, oa hlaphoheloa mme oa hlakola tlhaiso-leseling ea hau.

  1.   crespo88 a re

    E matla haholo, ha ho na maikutlo. Kaha DNS ea Microsoft ha e hlokahale. Hlokomela hore o seke oa qosa, hahahaha. Ke leboha phetiso ea Fico.

  2.   federico a re

    Qosa 'na? Ba ke ba bonoe le EL Fueguino. 😉
    Kea leboha motsoalle !!!

  3.   Linaoa tsa Haniball a re

    Na ho ne ho se bonolo ho kenya zentyal, bakeng sa karolo ee kaofela ea sesebelisoa se sebetsang?

  4.   sethoto a re

    Haha, polelo e kholo ea ho beha tlamo e matla 'me ke bona hore Zentyal o khothalelitsoe ho uena ho maikutlo a kaholimo, kea tsamaea pele ho thunngoa ho qhoma.

    PES: Sebaka se ipapisitseng le Windows ke Mordor empa haeba re ka kenya Samba e hloekileng e ka ba Gondor kapa Rohan na? 😉

  5.   federico a re

    Ha ke khothaletse tšebeliso ea Zentyal ho mang kapa mang. Sebelisa Windows hobane ts'ebeliso ea eona ke ea nnete ho li-SME tse ngata. Mabapi le botsitso ba Zentyal, botsa motsoalle oa ka le mosebetsi-'moho Dhunter. 😉

  6.   federico a re

    Ke 'nete hore u se u, dhunter motsoalle. Ka Samba 4 e tla bitsoa tierramedia.fan. 😉

  7.   federico a re

    Bakeng sa ba seng ba jarollotse sengoloa sena, hlokomela haholo ka tse latelang:
    E reng
    ; HLOKOMELA HANGATA LIREKOTO TSE LATELANG
    @ IN NS dnslinux.mordor.fan.
    @ KA HO 10.10.10.3

    E tlameha ho bua hantle

    ; HLOKOMELA HANGATA LIREKOTO TSE LATELANG
    @ IN NS dnslinux.mordor.fan.
    @ KA HO 10.10.10.5

    Mosebetsi-'moho le eena Eduardo Noel ke eena ea ileng a hlokomela phoso ea ka ea boithatelo.

  8.   federico a re

    Bakeng sa ba seng ba jarollotse sengoloa sena, hlokomela haholo ka tse latelang:
    E reng
    ; HLOKOMELA HANGATA LIREKOTO TSE LATELANG
    @ IN NS dnslinux.mordor.fan.
    @ KA HO 10.10.10.3

    E tlameha ho bua hantle

    ; HLOKOMELA HANGATA LIREKOTO TSE LATELANG
    @ IN NS dnslinux.mordor.fan.
    @ KA HO 10.10.10.5

    Mosebetsi-'moho le eena Eduardo Noel ke eena ea ileng a hlokomela phoso ea ka ea boithatelo.

  9.   sethoto a re

    Bakeng sa ba rerileng ho sebelisa Zentyal bakeng sa ntho e tebileng ke u lemosa hore u be hlokolosi haholo, ke sebelisa li-driver tse peli tsa Zentyal 4.2 (ka 14.04), ke nchafalitse tsohle 'me u hlokomele boholo ba likokoana-hloko tse sa tloaelehang (le likarabo tse sa tloaelehang haholo ho projeke bugzilla, u etsa hore u ikutloe u le sethoto ka ho sebelisa ntho eo u e ananelang hanyane), ba ne ba se na maikutlo a makatsang ka nakoana eo ke neng ke nahana hore ba nyametse mme ka tšohanyetso ba lokolla 5.0 ntle le phallo e ka bang teng ea 4.2 ... e ntle. ..

    Ho tlaleha likokoana-hloko phetolelong ea sechaba ha ho utloahale ntle le haeba u matha haufi le bahlahisi kamehla u sebelisa mofuta oa morao-rao, sheba sena: https://tracker.zentyal.org/issues/5080#comment:14

    Qetellong o tlameha ho shoa ka mofuta o batlang o tsitsitse mme o o otle ho fihlela o nka nako, sheba lintho tseo zentyal ea ka e nang le tsona ho cron:

    0 7 * * 1-6 /sbin/shutdown -r now

    Joalokaha ke boletse ... ea ratehang!

    PES: Ho thoe ke sebelisa mosebetsi ona kaofela ho sebelisa mofuta oa mahala, ho nahanoa hore mofuta o lefelletsoeng o tebile, empa ke nahana hore ha se leano le letle ho fumana basebelisi, sehlahisoa se seng se nang le mofuta o tšoanang oa khoebo ke Proxmox mme ke bapisitse mofuta oa sona o lefuoeng bakeng sa mofuta ona. ho fana ka chelete morerong eseng hobane mofuta oa mahala o haella, Proxmox ke lehakoe.

  10.   Ismael Alvarez Wong a re

    Lumela Federico:
    Ka sengolo se seng le se seng se secha u phahamisa setopo, ekare ha se lekane ka ntho e ngoe le e ngoe e koahetsoeng ho tse 3 tse fetileng mabapi le BUNG + DHCP, hona joale u phatlalatsa "kutu" ena (ntšoarele polelo e hlalosang) ea hore na u ka fallisa DNS ea Microsoft joang ho TLAMA, hore na u ka e ntlafatsa joang ho tloha DHCP ho Linux le ho feta tsohle tse kaholimo li phela le Microsoft Active Directory.
    . Ntho e 'ngoe le e' ngoe e kholo e amanang le litlaleho tsa SRV tsa DNS ea Active Directory, sebaka sa eona se tobileng "_msdcs.domain", mokhoa oa ho nka ho tsoa Linux lirekoto tsa libaka - kapa tse ling- tsa Microsoft AD DNS ho theha Libaka tsa Boitsebiso ho boletse Libaka TLANG.
    . Ho bohlokoa haholo ho thusa li-Logs tsa lipotso ka tlhophiso ea BIND.
    . KHOELETSO E HLOKAHALA haholo keletso e reng: Moreki ea fumanang aterese ea IP ka DHCP e kentsoeng Linux, a ke ke a khona ho rarolla aterese ea IP ea lebitso la hae ho fihlela a kenella ho Directory Directory. Mohlala oa Laboratori ea sengoloa, "komporo" ea pele "computer" e abetsoe aterese ea IP 7 ho etsa lipatlisiso tsa DNS tsa domain "mordor.fan", ebe e ikopanya le IP eo e sa fetoheng ho Microsoft AD hore qetellong ha Haeba DHCP e kentsoe Linux, ena ke eona e fanang ka IP ea eona mme ka nako e ts'oanang liapdeite li "phunyeletsa" BIND ho ngola ngoliso ea lisebelisoa libakeng tsa Forward and Reverse. ETSA HO EKETSEHILENG U SE KE U FUMANE!
    . Ho lokile haholo ha ho nahanoa ka Lintlafatso tsa Matla ho Microsoft® DNS le ho TLAMA; ekasitana le likeletso tsohle tse hlalositsoeng karolong ea ho qetela mme haholo-holo nts'etsopele eohle le tharollo e sisintsweng ho "Lekhotla le Ikhethileng leo ke ntseng ke sa hlaka hantle ka lona."
    ! LITLHAKU TSE 5 TSA MONGOLI! 'me ke latela PYMES Series ka thahasello e ntseng e eketseha!

  11.   federico a re

    Dhunter: O ngotse lentsoe la boiphihlelo. "Itloaetse ke moelelo o motle oa 'nete."

    Wong: Ke se ke hlolohetsoe maikutlo a hau - motlatsi oa sengoloa. Kea ts'epa hore e ngoe ka dnsmasq e tla tsoa haufinyane.

    Ke leboha maikutlo a lona ka bobeli.

  12.   crespo88 a re

    Ha u so bue + ka molekane eo ho thoeng ke «El Fueguino», kapa ka qeto ea hae ea ho qala ho falla ha li-server tsa hae. U utsoitse e 'ngoe ho Microsoft, hahaha !!!! ????

  13.   federico a re

    hahahaha motsoalle crespo88. Kea bona u ratile leqhubu la sebapali se iqapetsoeng. Haeba ba bang ba na le maikutlo a mangata joalo ka uena, e ka etsa hore lingoloa tse mabapi le lihlooho tse teteaneng li natefise. Ha re emeleng litlhaloso tse ling ka eona.

bool('nete)