I-NIST ibhengeze abaphumeleleyo kukhuphiswano lweealgorithms ezixhathisayo kwiikhompyuter zequantum

Kwiintsuku ezimbalwa ezidlulileyo i-US National Institute of Standards and Technology. (NIST) ikhutshiwe ngesazisos abaphumeleleyo kwi "crypto algorithms ukumelana nokukhethwa kwikhompyuter yequantum.

Ukhuphiswano lwaququzelelwa kwiminyaka emithandathu eyadlulayo kwaye ijolise ekukhetheni i-post-quantum cryptography algorithms ilungele ukunyuselwa njengemigangatho. Ngexesha lokhuphiswano, i-algorithms ecetywayo ngamaqela ophando lwamazwe ngamazwe yaphononongwa ziingcali ezizimeleyo ezijonga ubuthathaka obunokwenzeka kunye nobuthathaka.

Ophumeleleyo phakathi kwe-algorithms yendalo yonke enokusetyenziswa ukukhusela ukuhanjiswa kolwazi kuthungelwano lwekhompyuter yi-Crystals-Kyber, amandla alo alingana nesayizi encinci yesitshixo kunye nesantya esiphezulu.

Kwintengiso I-CRYSTALS-Kyber iyacetyiswa ukuba iguqulelwe kwimigangatho. Ukongeza kwi-CRYSTALS-Kyber, ezinye ii-algorithms ezine ezisetyenziswa ngokuqhelekileyo, i-BIKE, i-Classic McEliece, i-HQC, kunye ne-SIKE, ziye zachongwa njengezifuna ukuphuculwa.

Ababhali bezi algorithms banethuba lokuhlaziya iinkcukacha kunye nokuphelisa ukungaphumeleli ekuphunyezweni kude kube ngu-Oktobha 1, emva koko banokuthi bafakwe phakathi kwabokugqibela.

Emva kokuqwalaselwa ngononophelo ngexesha lomjikelo wesithathu wenkqubo yokumisela umgangatho ye-NIST PQC, i-NIST ichonge iialgorithms ezine zabagqatswa bomgangatho. Ii-algorithms eziphambili apho i-NIST incoma ukuphunyezwa kwiimeko ezininzi zokusetyenziswa yi-CRYSTALS-KYBER (isiseko esibalulekileyo) kunye ne-CRYSTALS-Dilithium (iisignesha zedijithali). Ukongeza, i-Falcon kunye ne-SPHINCS + izikimu zesiginesha nazo ziya kulungelelaniswa.

Kwi-algorithms eyenzelwe ukusebenza ngeesignesha zedijithali, i-CRYSTALS -Dilithium, i-FALCON kunye ne-SPHINCS + zivelele. Ii-algorithms ze-CRYSTALS-Dilithium kunye ne-FALCON zisebenza kakuhle kakhulu.

I-CRYSTALS-Dilithium inconywa njenge-algorithm ephambili yeesignesha zedijithali, ngelixa i-FALCON igxininise kwizisombululo ezifuna ubuncinci besignesha. I-SPHINCS+ ishiyeke ngasemva kwii-algorithms ezimbini zokuqala ngokobungakanani botyikityo kunye nesantya, kodwa yashiywa njengenye indlela phakathi kwabo baphumeleleyo, kuba isekwe kwimigaqo yezibalo eyahluke ngokupheleleyo.

Ngokukodwa, i-algorithms I-CRYSTALS-Kyber, i-CRYSTALS-Dilithium kunye ne-FALCON zisebenzisa iindlela ze-cryptographic ezisekelwe kwithiyori yethiyori yokusombulula ingxaki., ixesha labo lesisombululo alihlukanga kwiikhomputha eziqhelekileyo kunye ne-quantum. I-algorithm ye-SPHINCS+ isebenzisa iindlela ze-cryptographic ezisekelwe kwi-hash.

Ii-algorithms zendalo yonke ezishiyekileyo zijongwa kwakhona zisekwe kweminye imigaqo: I-BIKE kunye ne-HQC zisebenzisa izinto ze-algebraic coding theory kunye neekhowudi zomgca, ezikwasetyenziswa kwiinkqubo zokulungisa iimpazamo.

I-CRYSTALS-KYBER (i-keying) kunye ne-CRYSTALS-Dilithium (iisignesha zedijithali) zikhethwe ngenxa yokhuseleko oluqinileyo kunye nokusebenza okugqwesileyo, kwaye kulindeleke ukuba i-NIST iqhube kakuhle kwizicelo ezininzi. I-Falcon nayo iya kulungelelaniswa yi-NIST, njengoko kunokubakho iimeko zokusetyenziswa apho iisignesha ze-CRYSTALS-Dilithium zinkulu kakhulu. Ukongeza, i-SPHINCS+ iya kulungelelaniswa ukuze ugweme ukuthembela kuphela kukhuseleko lwe-lattice kwiisignesha. I-NIST icela uluvo lukawonke-wonke ngoguqulelo lwe-SPHINCS+ ngenani elincinane lemisayino ephezulu.

I-NIST ijonge ukubeka emgangathweni enye yezi algorithms ukubonelela ngenye indlela kwithiyori esele ikhethiweyo yelattice-based CRYSTALS-Kyber algorithm.

I-algorithm ye-SIKE isekelwe ekusetyenzisweni kwe-isogeny ye-supersingular (isetyhula kwigrafu ye-isogenic ephezulu) kwaye ikwathathwa njengomviwa wokulinganisa, njengoko inobukhulu obuncinci beqhosha. I-algorithm yeClassic McEliece iphakathi kwabagqwesileyo, kodwa ayisayi kuba semgangathweni ngenxa yobukhulu beqhosha likawonkewonke.

Isidingo sokuphuhlisa kunye nokulinganisa i-algorithms entsha ye-cryptographics kungenxa yokuba iikhomputha ze-quantum, eziphuhliswe ngokusebenzayo mva nje, zisombulula iingxaki zokubola inani lendalo kwizinto eziphambili (RSA, DSA) kunye ne-discrete logarithm yamanqaku e-elliptic curve. . (I-ECDSA), ephantsi kwe-algorithms ye-asymmetric encryption yangoku yesitshixo sikawonke-wonke kwaye ayinakusonjululwa ngempumelelo kwiiprosesa zakudala.

Kwinqanaba langoku lophuhliso, izakhono zeekhompyuter ze-quantum azikakwaneli ukwaphula i-algorithms yangoku ye-encryption yangoku kunye nezitshixo zedijithali ezisekelwe kuluntu ezifana ne-ECDSA, kodwa kucingelwa ukuba imeko ingatshintsha kwiminyaka eyi-10 kwaye kuyimfuneko ukuba lungisa isiseko sokudluliselwa kwe-cryptosystems kwimigangatho emitsha.

Gqibela ukuba unomdla wokwazi okungakumbi ngayo, ungajonga iinkcukacha Kule khonkco ilandelayo.


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.