IMyuziyam yeMbali yeKhompyutha ibuyisele iividiyo ezingama-21 ezinqabileyo ezivela kwinkomfa yekhompyuter yango-1976

Emva kokubuyiselwa kunye nenkqubo yokubuyisela eyathatha iminyaka, iMyuziyam yeMbali yeKhompyutha yabelane ngeerekhodi ezingama-21 zange ndayibona ividiyo yenkomfa yekhompyutha edumileyo ka-1976.

Uphando ngembali yekhompyutha, ebizwa ngokuba yiWoodstock yecomputing, yadibanisa abantu abaphezulu behlabathi yoovulindlela bekhompyuter. UDag Spicer, uMlawuli oMkhulu kwiMyuziyam yeMbali yeKhompyutha (CMH), ubhengeze esi sixhobo esitsha esibonelela ngombono onomdla kwiminyaka yokuqala yekhompyuter yedijithali.

“Kangangeentsuku ezintlanu ngehlobo lowe-1976, isizukulwana sokuqala senzululwazi yekhompyutha ‘iinkwenkwezi zerock’ zaba nezazo iWoodstock. Ukusuka kwihlabathi liphela, inkitha yeenjineli, izazinzulu, kunye noovulindlela besayensi yekhompyuter bahlanganisene ukuze bacamngce kwiminyaka yokuqala engama-25 yoqeqesho lwabo kwindawo eshushu, enelanga (kwaye mhlawumbi neyoyikeka kancinci) yeLos Alamos National Laboratories, indawo yokuzalwa yeathomu. ibhombu,” kuchaza uDag Spicer kwiposti yebhlog yomhla we-7 kaJuni ngo-2022. Kwirekhodi, kwiintsuku zayo zangaphambili (1950s kunye no-1960s), ikhompuyutha yayiyindawo evulekileyo yokuhlola.

Kwinqaku lakhe, uDag Spicer ubalisa oko kuba izinto ezininzi zazintsha, abaqambis owakha iikhompyutha ngeli xesha lokufunyanwa kwangoko badla ngokuyila izinto zexabiso elisisigxina nelihlala lihleli kwicomputingnokuba kwihardware okanye kwisoftware.

Ukhumbule ukuba amagqabantshintshi kaNjineli u-Bob Everett kwikhompyuter ye-MIT eyintsomi ye-Whirlwind ichaze uphuhliso lwe-MIT luka-1952 lwenkumbulo engundoqo yemagnethi, ngaloo ndlela isombulula eyona ngxaki inkulu ejongene nabayili bekhompyuter.

Ngaphambi kwenkumbulo engundoqo yamagnetic, kwakungekho memori ethembekileyo, yedijithali, ye-elektroniki kunye nofikelelo olungacwangciswanga nokwakhiwa ngalo iikhomputha, olubambezele inkqubela de yasonjululwa.

UBob Everett (ngoJuni 26, 1921 - Agasti 15, 2018) wayengusosayensi wekhompyuter waseMelika. Wayelilungu elihloniphekileyo lebhodi yabalawuli be-MITER Corporation. Ngo-2009, wabizwa ngokuba nguMntu weMyuziyam yeMbali yeKhompyutha ngomsebenzi wakhe kwi-MIT's Whirlwind kunye neenkqubo zekhompyutha ze-SAGE kunye nobunkokeli bakhe bonke ubomi bakhe kuphando oluphambili kunye neeprojekthi zophuhliso.

U-Spicer ukhumbula kwakhona ukuba ngelo xesha, "umdwebi wenkqubo," "umhlalutyi weenkqubo," okanye ezinye izihloko zobuchwephesha ezisemthethweni neziziwayo ngoku zazingekho: aba matshini bakhiwa ngoononjineli, amagcisa, oomatshini kunye noosonzululwazi ababenokuthi ngenxa yabo babenokufuna indalo yabo. zithethelelwe ngezibalo eziphezulu abazenzileyo.

Uhlabela mgama esithi phantse bonke aba matshini bokuqala "yayiyiprosesa zamanani," ezenzelwe ukubala nokusombulula iingxaki eziphambili zenzululwazi nobunjineli.

“Ukuba nenkomfa eLos Alamos ke ngoko kwakufanelekile, ngandlel’ ithile, xa kujongwa inani elikhulu lokubala elifunekayo ukuzalisekisa uthumo lokhuseleko lwesizwe lweelebhu ngexesha lemfazwe nangaphaya. Namhlanje, ezinye zezona khompyutha zinamandla ehlabathini zikwiilebhu,” utshilo. Enye yeevidiyo ezibuyiselweyo yeyentetho kaJohn Mauchly, umqambi we-ENIAC, ikhompyutha yokuqala enkulu yaseMelika yombane. UMauchly wachaza ukuba i-ENIAC kwakufuneka ihlale iiyure ezingama-24 ngosuku ukuze igcine imibhobho yayo yokucoca engama-18.000 XNUMX ikwimeko entle.

Ukuzilayita nokuzicima, njengebhalbhu yesibane, kwabufutshane kakhulu ubomi babo. Esinye isicatshulwa esibalulekileyo esiye sabuyiselwa ngusosayensi wekhompyutheni kunye nomlando wekhompyutha uBrian Randell. Intetho yakhe yayikwiinjini zekhompyuter zeColossus zeMfazwe yesibini yeHlabathi.

Yayiziikhompyuter ezikhethekileyo ezisetyenziselwa ukucima imiyalezo Umkhosi omkhulu waseJamani ngexesha leMfazwe Yehlabathi II. Ngokusekwe emazantsi eNgilani eBletchley Park, aba matshini bakhulu bokuyila besoloko bebonelela ngobukrelekrele obubalulekileyo kwiiAllies.

Ubukho bayo yayiyimfihlelo egcinwe ngokusondeleyo ngexesha lemfazwe kunye namashumi eminyaka emva koko. Ngokutsho kwababhali bembali, Intetho kaRandell yaba nefuthe lebhombu yaza yaxhokonxa ukuba kuhlolwe kwakhona kuyo yonke imbali yekhompyuter. Ngokomntu owayekhona kwinkomfa (kunye nomqambi we-ASCII) uBob Bemer, uNjingalwazi uRandell weza eqongeni waza wabuza ukuba kukho nabani na owakha wazibuza ukuba uAlan Turing wenza ntoni kwiMfazwe Yehlabathi II. Emva koko wabalisa ibali likaColossus: loo mini eLos Alamos yayiphantse yaba lixesha lokuqala uMthetho weeMfihlo ezisemthethweni wase-UK uvumela naluphi na ukubhengezwa.

Gqibela ukuba unomdla wokwazi okungakumbi ngayoUngajonga iifayile ze iinkcukacha kwikhonkco elilandelayo.


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
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  1.   ArtEze sitsho

    Inika umdla kakhulu, namhlanje yonke into kulula ukuyisebenzisa kangangokuba ingqiqo yezinto ezisisiseko zalahleka… Isoftware yangoku idumbile kwaye ayisebenzi kancinane xa ithelekiswa nangaphambili… Babeziingcali zokwenyani zenzululwazi, kule mihla akukho mntu ucinga ngokophula iikhowudi .