Unikezelo

Iikhonsepthi ngokubanzi

Kulabo bavela ekusebenziseni iWindows okanye iMac kusenokwenzeka ukuba kungumnqa ukuba kukho "iinguqulelo" okanye "ulwabiwo" lweLinux. KwiWindows, umzekelo, sinenguqulo esisiseko kuphela (uHlelo lwaseKhaya), ingcali (uHlelo loBuchule) kunye nenye yeeseva (uHlelo lweServer). Kwi-Linux, kukho isixa esikhulu se ulwabiwo.

Ukuqala ukuqonda ukuba loluphi ulwabiwo, kufuneka kuqala ucaciselwe. I-Linux yeyokuqala, i-kernel okanye kernel inkqubo yokwenza. I-kernel yintliziyo yayo nayiphi na inkqubo yokusebenza kwaye isebenza "njengomlamli" phakathi kwezicelo ezivela kwiinkqubo nakwizixhobo zekhompyutha. Le kuphela, ngaphandle kwayo nayiphi na enye into, ayinakusebenza ngokupheleleyo. Oko sikusebenzisa yonke imihla kukuhanjiswa kweLinux. Oko kukuthi, i-kernel + uthotho lweenkqubo (abaxhasi bemeyile, i-automation yeofisi, njl.njl.) Ezenza izicelo kwizixhobo zekhompyutha ngokusebenzisa ikheneli.

Oko kwathiwa, sinokucinga ngokusasazwa kweLinux njengenqaba yeLEGO, oko kukuthi, iseti yamacwecwe amancinci esoftware: enye inoxanduva lokuqalisa inkqubo, enye isibonelela ngendawo ebonakalayo, enye ilawula "iziphumo ezibonakalayo" ukusuka kwidesktop, njl. Kukho abantu abadibanisa ezabo izabelo, bazipapashe, kwaye abantu banokuzikhuphelela kwaye babavavanye. Umahluko phakathi kwezi nguqulelo uqukethe, ngokuchanekileyo, kwi-kernel okanye i-kernel oyisebenzisayo, indibaniselwano yeenkqubo ezilawula imisebenzi yesiqhelo (inkqubo yokuqalisa, idesktop, ulawulo lwefestile, njl.njl. iinkqubo, kunye neseti ye "iinkqubo zedesktop" (i-automation yeofisi, i-intanethi, ingxoxo, abahleli bemifanekiso, njl.) ekhethiweyo.

Loluphi ulwabiwo endilukhethayo?

Ngaphambi kokuba uqale, into yokuqala yokuthatha isigqibo kukuba loluphi usasazo lweLinux- okanye "distro" - oza kuyisebenzisa. Nangona zininzi izinto ezisebenzayo xa ukhetha i-distro kwaye kunokuthiwa kukho enye yazo zonke iimfuno (imfundo, ukuhlelwa kweaudiyo kunye nevidiyo, ukhuseleko, njl.njl.), Okona kubaluleke kakhulu xa uqala ukukhetha I-distro "yabaqalayo", enoluntu olubanzi noluxhasayo olunokukunceda ukusombulula amathandabuzo kunye neengxaki zakho kwaye unamaxwebhu amahle.

Zeziphi ezona zixhobo zilungileyo zabaqalayo? Kukho ukuvumelana okuthile malunga ne-distros ethathelwa ingqalelo ii-newbies, phakathi kwazo zezi: Ubuntu (kunye nokuxuba kwayo Kubuntu, Xubuntu, Lubuntu, njl.), I-Linux Mint, i-PCLinuxOS, njl. Ngaba oku kuthetha ukuba zezona distros zibalaseleyo? Hayi. Oko kuyakuxhomekeka ngokusisiseko kwiimfuno zakho zombini (uza kuyisebenzisa njani le nkqubo, yeyiphi umatshini onayo, njl njl.)

Ukongeza kwiimfuno zakho kunye nokubanakho kwakho izinto ezimbini ezinokuthi ngokuqinisekileyo zichaphazele ukhetho lwakho: imeko-bume yedesktop kunye neprosesa.

InkquboKwinkqubo yokukhangela i "distro egqibeleleyo" uya kufumanisa ukuba uninzi lonikezelo luza kwiinguqulelo ezi-2: ama-32 kunye nama-64 amasuntswana (okwaziwa ngokuba yi-x86 kunye ne-x64). Umahluko unento yokwenza nodidi lweprosesa abayixhasayo. Inketho echanekileyo iya kuxhomekeka kuhlobo kunye nemodeli yenkqubo oyisebenzisayo.

Ngokubanzi, ukhetho olukhuselekileyo luhlala luguqulela uguqulelo olunama-32-bit, nangona oomatshini abatsha (beneprosesa zangoku) kunokwenzeka Inkxaso engama-64. Ukuba uzama ukuhambisa amasuntswana angama-32 kumatshini oxhasa amasuntswana angama-64, akukho nto imbi eyenzekayo, ayizukuqhushumba, kodwa ngekhe "ufumane lukhulu kuyo" (ngakumbi ukuba une-2GB ye-RAM).

Imeko yedesktop: Ezona distros zidumileyo ziza, ukuyibeka kakuhle, kwi "flavour" ezahlukeneyo. Ngalunye lwezi nguqulelo lusebenzisa oko sikubiza ngokuba "yindawo yedesktop." Ayikho enye into ngaphandle kokuphunyezwa komzobo womsebenzisi obonelela ngokufikelela kunye noqwalaselo lwezixhobo, iziqalisi zesicelo, iziphumo zedesktop, abaphathi befestile, njl. Ezona ndawo zidume kakhulu ziGNOME, KDE, XFCE, kunye neLXDE.

Ke, umzekelo, ezona "flavour" zaziwa kakhulu ze-Ubuntu zezi: Ubuntu bendabuko (Ubunye), Kubuntu (Ubuntu + KDE), Xubuntu (Ubuntu + XFCE), Lubuntu (Ubuntu + LXDE), njl. Kuyafana nolunye usasazo oludumileyo.

Sele ndikhethile, ngoku ndifuna ukuyizama

Ewe, xa usenzile isigqibo, kuhlala kuphela ukukhuphela i-distro ofuna ukuyisebenzisa. Olu lutshintsho oluqinileyo kwiWindows. Hayi, awophuli mthetho kwaye akuyi kufuneka ukhangele amaphepha anokuba yingozi, yiya kwiphepha elisemthethweni le-distro oyithandayo, ukhuphele Umfanekiso we-ISO, uyikopa kwiCD / DVD okanye kwi-pendrive kwaye yonke into ikulungele ukuqala ukuvavanya iLinux. Esi sesinye sezibonelelo ezininzi ze software free.

Kuxolo lwakho lwengqondo, iLinux inesibonelelo esibalulekileyo ngaphezulu kweWindows: ungazama phantse zonke ii-distros ngaphandle kokucima inkqubo yakho yangoku. Oku kunokufezekiswa ngeendlela ezininzi nakumanqanaba ahlukeneyo.

1. CD / DVD / i-DVD ebukhomaEyona ndlela idumileyo neyona ilula yokuvavanya i-distro kukukhuphela umfanekiso we-ISO kwiwebhusayithi esemthethweni, uyikopishe kwi-CD / DVD / kwi-USB, emva koko uqalise ukuqalela apho. Oku kuyakuvumela ukuba usebenzise iLinux ngqo kwiCD / DVD / USB ngaphandle kokucima iota yenkqubo oyifakileyo. Akukho sidingo sokufaka abaqhubi okanye ukucima nantoni na. Kulula nje.

Konke okufuneka ukwenze: khuphela umfanekiso we-ISO we-distro oyithandayo, uyitshise kwi-CD / DVD / USB usebenzisa isoftware ekhethekileyo, qwalasela i-BIOS ukuze ibhuqe kwisixhobo esikhethiweyo (i-CD / iDVD okanye i-USB) kwaye, ekugqibeleni, ukhethe ukhetho "Uvavanyo lwe-distro X" okanye olufanayo oluza kuvela kuqaliso.

Abasebenzisi abaphambili ngakumbi banokudala I-USB eziphilayo ze-multiboot.

2. Umatshini ochanekileyoInye umatshini ohleliyo sisicelo esivumela ukuba sisebenzise enye inkqubo yokusebenza ngaphakathi kwenye ngokungathi yinkqubo eyahlukileyo. Oku kunokwenzeka ngokudala uguqulelo olubonakalayo lwezixhobo zehardware; Kule meko, izixhobo ezininzi: ikhompyuter epheleleyo.

Obu buchule busetyenziswa rhoqo ukuvavanya ezinye iinkqubo zokusebenza. Umzekelo ukuba ukuWindows kwaye ufuna ukuzama iLinux distro okanye ngokuchaseneyo. Iluncedo kakhulu xa sifuna ukusebenzisa usetyenziso oluthile olukhoyo kuphela kolunye uhlobo esingalusebenzisi rhoqo. Umzekelo, ukuba usebenzisa iLinux kwaye kufuneka usebenzise inkqubo ekhoyo kwiWindows kuphela.

Kukho iinkqubo ezininzi ukulungiselela le njongo, phakathi kwazo Ibhokisi eyiyo , VMWare y IQEMU.

3. Ukuqalwa kabiniXa uthatha isigqibo sokufaka iLinux, ungalibali ukuba kunokwenzeka ukuyifaka kunye nenkqubo yakho yangoku, ukuze xa uqala umatshini ikubuze ukuba yeyiphi inkqubo ofuna ukuqala ngayo. Le nkqubo ibizwa ngokuba kabini-boot.

Ngolwazi oluthe kratya malunga nokusasazwa kweLinux, ndincoma ukufunda la manqaku:

Ukucaciswa kwangaphambili ngaphambi kokubona ezinye ii-distros.

{Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} = Khangela izithuba ezinxulumene nale distro usebenzisa ibhlog yokukhangela.
{Indawo esemthethweni ye-distro} = Yiya kwiphepha elisemthethweni le-distro.

Isekwe kwiDebian

  • Debian. {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distro}: ibonakaliswa ngokhuseleko kunye nozinzo. Kunokuthiwa yenye yezona ndawo zibaluleke kakhulu, nangona namhlanje ingadumanga njengezinye zazo (Ubuntu, umzekelo). Ukuba ufuna ukusebenzisa ezona nguqulelo zihlaziyiweyo kuzo zonke iinkqubo zakho, ayisiyiyo i-distro yakho. Kwelinye icala, ukuba uxabisa uzinzo, akukho mathandabuzo: I-Debian yeyakho.
  • Mepis. {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distro}: ijolise ekuphuculeni nasekwenzeni lula uyilo lweDebian. Unokuthi lo mbono ufana kakhulu no-Ubuntu, kodwa ngaphandle "kokuphambuka" kakhulu kuzinzo kunye nokhuseleko olunikezelwa nguDebian.
  • I-Knoppix. {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distro}: I-knoppix yathandwa kakhulu njengoko yayiyenye yeedros zokuqala ukuvumela ukusasazwa ngokuthe ngqo kwi-cd ebukhoma. Oku kuthetha ukuba nakho ukuqhuba inkqubo yokusebenza ngaphandle kokuyifaka. Namhlanje, oku kusebenza kuyafumaneka phantse kuzo zonke ii-Linux distros. IKnoppix iyaqhubeka nokuba yenye indlela enomdla njenge-CD yokuhlangula nakweyiphi na imeko.
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Ngokusekwe ku-Ubuntu

  • Ubuntu. {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distro}: Yeyona distro ithandwayo namhlanje. Ifumene udumo kuba, kwixa elidlulileyo bathumele i-CD yasimahla endlwini yakho nenkqubo yokuba uzame. Ikwayathandwa kakhulu kuba ifilosofi yayo yayisekelezelwe ukwenza "iLinux yabantu", ukuzama ukusondeza iLinux kumsebenzisi oqhelekileyo wedesktop hayi kwiinkqubo "zeekeksi". Yinto elungileyo distro kwabo baqala ukuqala.
  • Linux mint. {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distro}: ngenxa yeengxaki ezinxulumene namalungelo awodwa omenzi wechiza kunye nefilosofi yesoftware yasimahla uqobo, Ubuntu abuzi ngokungagqibeki ngezinye iikhowudi kunye neenkqubo ezifakiweyo. Banokufakwa ngokulula, kodwa kufuneka bafakelwe kwaye baqwalaselwe. Ngeso sizathu, iLinux Mint yazalwa, esele iza nayo yonke loo nto "isuka kumzi-mveliso". Yeyona distro icetyiswayo kwabo baqala nje kwiLinux.
  • Kubuntu. {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distro} Ngumahluko Ubuntu kodwa nge KDE desktop. Le desktop ijongeka ngakumbi njenge-Win 7, ke ukuba uyayithanda, uya kuthanda uKubuntu.
  • Xubuntu. {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distro} Luhlobo loBuntu kodwa nge desktop yeXFCE. Le desktop inedumela lokusebenzisa izixhobo ezincinci kuneGNOME (okungagqibekanga ku-Ubuntu) kunye ne KDE (okungagqibekanga ku-Kubuntu). Nangona oku kwakuyinyani ekuqaleni, akusenjalo.
  • Edubuntu. {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distro} Luhlobo loBuntu olujolise kwicandelo lezemfundo.
  • Ukubuyela umva. {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distro}: distro ejolise kukhuseleko, uthungelwano kunye neenkqubo zokuhlangula.
  • gNewSense. {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distro}: yenye yeendlela ezikhululekileyo ngokupheleleyo, ngokwe FSF.
  • Ubuntu Studio. {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distro}. Okona kulungileyo, nangona kunjalo, kunjalo Imusix.
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Isekwe kwiRed Hat

  • Red Hat. {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distro}: Olu luguqulelo lwentengiso olusekwe kwiFedora. Ngelixa iinguqulelo ezintsha zeFedora ziphuma rhoqo kwiinyanga ezi-6 okanye njalo, iRHEL ihlala iphuma rhoqo kwiinyanga ezili-18 ukuya kwezi-24. I-RHEL inothotho lweenkonzo ezongezwe ngexabiso apho isekela khona ishishini (inkxaso, uqeqesho, ukubonisana, ukuqinisekiswa, njl.njl.).
  • Fedora. {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distro}: Ekuqalekeni kwayo ngokusekwe kwiRed Hat, imeko yayo yangoku itshintshile kwaye eneneni namhlanje iRed Hat ityisiwe emva okanye isekwe kakhulu okanye ngaphezulu kweRad Hat's Fedora. Enye yezona ndawo zithandwa kakhulu, nangona kungekudala ilahlekelwa ngabalandeli abaninzi ezandleni zeBuntu kunye neziphumo zayo. Nangona kunjalo, kuyaziwa ukuba abaphuhlisi beFedora benze igalelo elingaphezulu kuphuhliso lwesoftware yasimahla ngokubanzi kunabaphuhlisi be-Ubuntu (abajolise ngakumbi kwimicimbi yokubonwayo, uyilo kunye nobuhle).
  • CentOS. {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distro} Eli linqanaba le-binary clone ye-Red Hat Enterprise Linux RHEL Linux distribution, equlunqwe ngamavolontiya asuka kwikhowudi yemithombo ekhutshwe nguRed Hat.
  • Inzululwazi yeLinux. {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distro}: distro ejolise kuphando lwenzululwazi. Igcinwe yiLebhu yeCERN kunye neFermilab Physics.
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Isekwe kwiSlackware

  • Slackware. {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distroLulwabiwo oludala lweLinux olusemthethweni. Yenzelwe iinjongo ezimbini engqondweni: ukusebenziseka lula kunye nozinzo. Yeyona nto ithandwayo zii "geeks" ezininzi, nangona namhlanje ingadumanga.
  • I-Zenwalk Linux. {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distro} Kukukhanya okukhanya kakhulu, okucetyiswayo kwikhompyuter endala kwaye kugxilwe kwi-Intanethi, kwimultimedia, nakwizixhobo zenkqubo.
  • I-Linux Vector. {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distro} Le yi-distro efumana ukuthandwa. Isekwe kwi-slackware, eyenza ikhuseleke kwaye izinzile, kwaye ibandakanye izixhobo ezinomdla kakhulu.
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Isiseko seMandriva

  • UMandriva. {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distro}: Ekuqaleni isekwe kwiRed Hat. Injongo yayo ifana kakhulu no-Ubuntu: ukutsala abasebenzisi abatsha kwihlabathi le-Linux ngokubonelela ngenkqubo ekulula ukuyisebenzisa nenomdla. Ngelishwa, iingxaki ezithile zemali zenkampani engemva kwale distro zibangele ukuba ilahlekelwe kukuthandwa.
  • Mageia. {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distro}: Ngo-2010, iqela lababesebenza eMandriva, ngenkxaso yamalungu oluntu, labhengeza ukuba benze ifolokhwe yeMandriva Linux. Ulwabiwo olutsha olukhokelwa luluntu olubizwa ngokuba yiMageia lwenziwa.
  • PCLinuxOS. {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distro}: isekwe kwiMandriva, kodwa kule mihla ukude kakhulu kuyo. Iya ithandwa kakhulu. Ibandakanya izixhobo ezizezakho (isifaki, njl. Njl.).
  • Tinyme. {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distroOlu luhambiso-mini lwe-Linux esekwe kwi-PCLinuxOS, ejolise kwizixhobo ezindala.
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Zimele

  • VulaSUSE. {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distro}: Olu luguqulelo lwasimahla lweSUSE Linux Enterprise, enikezelwa nguNovell. Yenye yezona ndawo zithandwa kakhulu, nangona iphulukana nomhlaba.
  • Puppy linux. {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distro}: Yi-50 MB kuphela ngobukhulu kwaye ikwabonelela ngenkqubo esebenzayo ngokupheleleyo. Kucetyiswa ngokupheleleyo ikhompasi yakudala.
  • Arch Linux. {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distroIfilosofi yakhe kukuhlela kunye nokumisela yonke into ngesandla. Umbono ngowokwakha inkqubo yakho "ukusuka ekuqaleni", oko kuthetha ukuba ufakelo luyinkimbinkimbi. Nangona kunjalo, xa uxhobile yinkqubo ekhawulezayo, ezinzileyo nekhuselekileyo. Ukongeza, yi "rolling release" distro ethetha ukuba uhlaziyo lusisigxina kwaye akukho mfuneko yokuba usuke kuguqulelo olukhulu uye kolunye njengakwi-Ubuntu nakwezinye ii-distros. Kunconywe iigeek kunye nabantu abafuna ukufunda ukuba iLinux isebenza njani.
  • Gentoo. {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distro}: ijolise kubasebenzisi abanamava athile kwezi nkqubo zokusebenza.
  • sabayon (esekwe kuGentoo) {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distro}: I-Sabayon Linux yahlukile kwi-Gentoo Linux kuba unganakho ukufakela okupheleleyo kwenkqubo yokusebenza ngaphandle kokuba uqokelele zonke iipakeji zokuba nayo. Ukufakwa kokuqala kwenziwa kusetyenziswa iipakeji zebhonari esele zenziwe kwangaphambili.
  • ILinux encinci yeCore. {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distro}: I-distro efanelekileyo yecompus endala.
  • watts. {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distro}: "green" distro ejolise ekugcineni amandla.
  • ISlitaz. {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela} {Indawo esemthethweni ye-distro}: "ukukhanya" distro. Inomdla kakhulu kwikhompyuter yakudala.
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Ezinye izithuba ezinomdla

Isikhokelo samanyathelo ngamanyathelo sokufaka

Kufuneka wenze ntoni emva kokufaka ...?

Ukubona ezinye ii-distros (ngokwenqanaba lodumo) | I-Distrowatch
Ukubona zonke izithuba ezidityaniswe nedros \ {Fumana iiposti ezinxulumene neNjini yokuKhangela}