Ukuboniswa kwi-Debian: Intshayelelo-IiNethiwekhi zekhompyuter zee-SMB

Isalathiso ngokubanzi sothotho: Iinethiwekhi zekhompyuter zee-SMEs: Intshayelelo

Ukunyanzeliswa

Eyona ilula yeyona ilungileyo

Kumfanekiso okwiphepha lephepha eliphambili le- XtratuM, IHypervisor eyilelwe ngokukodwa iiNkqubo eziMiselweyo okanye eziMiselweyo kwiXesha langempela, Sifumana umfanekiso olandelayo: xtratum

"Wethu Umgaqo osisiseko yofakelo, ubumbeko, kunye nolawulo lweenkonzo, kubandakanya nokwenza into ngokuchanekileyo, uyavumelana ngokupheleleyo nomyalezo «Elula, ngcono", yiyo i, Eyona ilula yeyona ilungileyo. "

Intshayelelo

La Ukunyanzeliswa  sisihloko esikhulu kwaye sinzima. Asizukubhala kakhulu ngaye. Siza kuveza kuphela ezinye iinkcazo kunye nokunxibelelana namaphepha esiphakamisa ukuba afundwe kunye / okanye afundwe, ngokomdla anawo umfundi ngamnye. Siyacebisa funda amaphepha e Wikipedia ngesiNgesi, nakweminye imithombo.

  • Asifuni ukuya kunikezelo lwesiqhelo Njani ngemiyalelo eliqela, njl.njl, ngaphandle kokuqala unike okungenani isikhokelo sokwazisa ngesihloko. Siyazi ukuba abanye Abafundi abangenamonde Abazifundi iintshayelelo kwaye baye ngqo kwindlela eyenziwe ngayo. Isenzo esibuhlungu, emva koko kuza imibuzo eqiqayo apho amaxesha amaninzi singenakuphendula ngokwaneleyo, kuba akunakwenzeka ukuba sazi yonke into.

Siyathemba ukuba, emva kokufunda nokuba libhalwe ngocoselelo eli nqaku, umfundi uya kuba nembono yokuba iyintoni na Ukunyanzeliswa yeyakhe Imeko yangoku. Kwakhona, ukuba inothotho lweekhonkco ezikuvumela ukuba wandise ngakumbi kulo msebenzi wemihla ngemihla wakhe nabani na osebenzisa ikhompyuter okwangoku.

Iinkcazo kunye nokunxibelelana ngokweWikipedia kunye neminye imithombo

Ukunyanzeliswa

KwiNzululwazi yeKhompyutha, Ukunyanzeliswa ibhekisa kwisenzo sokwenza uguqulelo lwe into ethile virtual endaweni ye- into ethile yokwenyani, ebandakanya izixhobo zekhompyutha ezibonakalayo, iinkqubo zokusebenza, izixhobo zokugcina, kwaye izixhobo zonxibelelwano ngekhompyutha. Ukuboniswa kwezinto kuqale nge60s, njengendlela eyahlula izixhobo kwinkqubo ye ikhompyuter ephambili, phakathi kwezicelo ezahlukeneyo. Ukususela ngoko, intsingiselo yekota Ukunyanzeliswa ihlala isanda.

La Ukunyanzeliswa o Iplatifomu yokuQiniseka ibhekisa ekudalweni komatshini obonakalayo, osebenza njengowokwenyani, ngenkqubo yokusebenza. Isoftware esebenza koomatshini ababonakalayo yahlukile kwizixhobo ezisisiseko okanye izixhobo ezibonakalayo. Umzekelo: umatshini ophathekayo osebenza nge-Debian 8 "Jessie" unokubamba umatshini obonakalayo ngenkqubo yokusebenza ye-Ubuntu Trusty 14.04.

KuNgcaciso ibizwa ngokuba «Umbuki zindwendwe host»Kwikhompyuter yokwenyani okanye ebonakalayo apho ubuchule buqu buqhubeka khona. Ukuya umatshini ohleliyo Ibizwa ngokuba "Undwendwe - undwendwe«. Imigaqo host y undwendwe zisetyenziselwa ukwahlula isoftware esebenzayo kumatshini wokwenene kwisoftware eqhuba koomatshini ababonakalayo. Kwisoftware okanye firmware Oko kudala oomatshini ababonakalayo kwizixhobo zeHost, ibizwa ngokuba Isilumkiso - Hypervisor.

Iindidi ezahlukeneyo zokwenza ubuchule:

  • Ubumbeko olupheleleyo- Ugcino olupheleleyo: Ibhekisa kwi Phantse iyonke i-Real Hardware Simulation, evumela isoftware ebonakalayo-enesistim yokusebenza-ukuba isebenze ngaphandle kotshintsho.
  • Ulungelelwaniso oluyinxalenye- Ulungelelwaniso oluyinxalenyeImeko ekujoliswe kuyo ayilingiswanga ngokupheleleyo, kodwa ngokuyinxenye. Ngenxa yoko, ezinye iinkqubo ezisebenza kwiNdwendwe zinokufuna ukulungiswa.
  • Ukulungiswa kweparavirtualization - Ukucwangciswa kweparavirtualization: Akukho bume behardware bulingisiweyo. Inkqubo nganye yeNdwendwe- undwendwe ibaleka kwi Ummandla oQhelekileyo, ngokungathi zibaleka kwiinkqubo ezahlukeneyo. Uhlengahlengiso oluthile lwenkqubo nganye yeendwendwe luyimfuneko ekusebenzeni kwayo kolu hlobo lwendalo.

La izixhobo zekhompyutha ezincedisayo Yindlela yokuphucula ukusebenza ngokukuko kwenkqubo yokwenyani. Kuthetha ukuba iiprosesa okanye ii-CPUs kufuneka zibenenkxaso eyimfuneko yokwenza ubuchule, kunye nezinye izinto zekhompyuter uqobo.

Ukusebenza kwe-Hardware Virtualization akufani ne-Hardware Emulation. Kwi-Emulation, elinye icandelo lezixhobo lixelisa elinye, ngelixa ubuNgcali, iHypervisor- isoftware- ilingisa isiqwenga esithile sehardware okanye yonke.

Umatshini oqinisekileyo

Kwikhompyuter, a umatshini enembonakalo yenyani Isoftware efanisa ikhompyuter kwaye inokuqhuba iinkqubo ngokungathi yikhompyuter yokwenyani. Le software yayiqale ichazwe njenge- "ikopi ephindiweyo esebenzayo neyodwa yomatshini ophathekayo." Okwangoku, intsingiselo yekota ibandakanya oomatshini ababonakalayo abangenakulinganiswa ngokuthe ngqo kunye nayo nayiphi na into eyiyo.

Isilumkiso

Un Isilumkiso - Hypervisor o Ukujonga uMatshini oSebenzayo - Ukujonga uMatshini oBonakalayo weVMM liqonga elivumela ukusetyenziswa kweendlela ezahlukeneyo zolawulo lobuchwephesha ukuba zisebenzise, ​​ngaxeshanye, iinkqubo ezahlukeneyo zokusebenza (ezingalungiswanga, okanye eziguqulweyo njengakwimeko yeparavirtualization) kwakwikhompyuter enye.

Umanyano oluVulekileyo loBumbano (OVA)

La Umanyano loVano oluVulekileyo, Ukuhlonipha isihloko sayo ngesiNgesi, yiProjekthi yokuSebenza yeLinux Foundation. Le Consortium izimisele ekwamkelweni kweSoftware yasimahla kunye neSoftware yoMthombo ovulekileyo- Vula Umnikezi kwizisombululo ezibonakalayo kubandakanya KVM, kunye nesoftware eyimfuneko kuLawulo lwayo, njenge oVirt. I-Consortium inyusa amabali empumelelo abaxhasi abohlukeneyo, ikhuthaza ukusebenzisana, kwaye ikhawulezisa ukwandiswa kwendalo yezisombululo zeQela lesithathu, malunga ne-KVM.

Isoftware yasimahla ekhuthazwe yi-OVA:

  • KVM yi-hypervisor. Yenziwe ngu IQumranet, Inc., Inkampani yesoftware yakwa-Israyeli ngelo xesha eyatsala ingqalelo enkulu ekwamkelweni ngokukhawuleza kwemodyuli ye-KVM efakwe kwi-kernel yeLinux. Inike i «Iqonga le-desktop ye-ICE eqinileyo»Ngokusekwe kwii-Kernel-based Virtual Desktop Machines, kwaye idityaniswe ngomgaqo wayo ISIPHUMO. NgoSeptemba 4, 2008 inkampani Red HatInc ifunyenwe Qumranet ngexabiso le- $ 107 yezigidi.
  • libvirt Yiyo API «IsiNxulumanisi soLungiselelo lweNkqubo" Vula Umnikezi, idemon - daemon, kunye nesixhobo sokulawula amaqonga okubonisa. Ungayilawula KVM, Xen, VMware ESX, QEMU kunye nobunye ubuchwephesha bokubona. Ii-API zayo ezahlukeneyo zisetyenziswa ngokubanzi kuludwe lwe-hypervisorlibvirt Ithala leencwadi elibhalwe kwi ulwimi C, kwaye unokunxulunyaniswa nezinye iilwimi ezinje Python, Perl, OCaml, ilitye elinqabileyo elibomvu, Java, JavaScript (nge Node.js) kunye PHP.
  • oVirt yisoftware yokulawula amaqonga okubonisa. Isoftware yasimahla nevulekileyo. Yasekwa yi Red Hat njengeprojekthi yoluntu apho i UkuSebenza koShishino oluBomvu. I-oVirt yenza ukuba ulawulo oluphakathi koomatshini ababonakalayo, izixhobo zenethiwekhi, ukugcinwa, kunye nekhompyuter, ekusebenziseni i-web interface ekulula ukuyisebenzisa, nge iqonga elizimeleyo ukufikelela kuyo. Ukuphela kwehypervisor exhaswa ngokusesikweni kulwakhiwo lweX86 64 yiKVM, nangona kwenziwe iinzame zokuxhasa uyilo PPC y ARM kwiinguqulelo zayo ezilandelayo.
  • mzantsiweb Ithala leencwadi elibhalwe kwi ulwimi C kunye neseti yezixhobo zokufikelela kunye nokuguqula i- imifanekiso yediski ebonakalayo kwiqonga lokwenyani. Izixhobo zingasetyenziselwa ukujonga kunye nokuhlela oomatshini ababonakalayo abalawulwa yi-libvirt kunye neefayile ezihlala ngaphakathi kubo. Ingasetyenziselwa ukubhala iskripthi-scriptUkulungisa okanye ukwenza oomatshini ababonakalayo.
  • Umphathi woomatshini oSebenzayo - Umphathi woMatshini oBonakalayo Isoftware yeRed Hat ekwabizwa ngokuba yi umphathi we-virt, igama ukuba iphakheji inayo kwii-repositories zeDebian. Yisicelo seDesktop sokulawula oomatshini ababonakalayo. Isetyenziselwa ukudala, ukumisela kunye nokulungelelanisa imimandla emitsha. Inomthengi we-VNC apho sinokufikelela kwi-graphical console yedomeyini yeendwendwe. Kwiphakheji yomphathi we-virt eziswa nguDebian Jessie, umthetho olandelwayo we-SPICE ukwabandakanyiwe ukufikelela kwi-graphical console yoomatshini ababonakalayo.

xen

xen Sisiphathamandla esisebenzisa uyilo olusisiseko esincinci, kwaye sibonelela ngeenkonzo eziyimfuneko kwiinkqubo ezininzi ezisebenzayo ukuba zisebenze ngaxeshanye kwizixhobo ezifanayo zekhompyuter. Yena ILebhu yeKhompyutha yeYunivesithi yaseCambridge, Iphuhlise iinguqulelo zokuqala zeXen, ekwayisoftware yasimahla. I-Debian 8 "uJessie" inendawo yayo yokugcina izinto I-xen-hypervisor-4.4-amd64.

OpenVZ

OpenVZ sisisombululo esikwinqanaba lokusebenza lesisombululo seLinux. Ikuvumela ukuba wenze iiseva ezizimeleyo, ezikhuselekileyo nezizimeleyo kwiseva efanayo ebonakalayo, enikezela usetyenziso olungcono lwezixhobo zehardware. Ikwaqinisekisa ukuba usetyenziso olusebenza kwiseva nganye alungqubani. Nganye Iseva yabucala eyiyo - Iseva yangasese yangasese (VPS), ibaleka ngokuchanekileyo njengesealone ezimeleyo. Banokuphinda baqale, kwaye bavumele ukufikelela kumsebenzisi wengcambu kunye nabanye abasebenzisi abaqhelekileyo. Zineedilesi zazo ze-IP, inkumbulo, iinkqubo, iifayile, usetyenziso, iilayibrari zenkqubo, kunye neefayile zoqwalaselo.

I-Debian isuse iinkozo eziguqulwe ngenkxaso ye-OpenVZ ukusuka koovimba bayo njenge-Debian 7 "Wheezy"

Iziqulatho zeLinux LXC

Izikhongozeli ziindawo ezizimeleyo ngaphakathi kwenkqubo yokusebenza. Indawo nganye inegama layo lendawo yefayile, uthungelwano, i-PID, i-CPU, kunye nolwabiwo lwenkumbulo. Banokwenziwa ngamaQela oLawulo kunye neempawu zeendawo ezinamagama afakwe kwi-kernel yeLinux. I-LXC Itekhnoloji efanayo kwezinye esekwe kubuchule kwinqanaba le-kernel njenge-OpenVZ kunye I-Linux-VServer.

Kwisiqithi

Kwisiqithi sisisombululo kulawulo kunye nokubekwa esweni koomatshini ababonakalayo abasebenza kwi-KVM, Xen, OpenVZ okanye VMware. UDebian Jessie uyifaka kwimithombo yayo yokugcina ngokusebenzisa iipakeji ezahlukeneyo ezibonisa iiarhente zayo okanye iArchipel kernel. Ngolwazi oluthe kratya, khangela i- "archipel" ngeSynaptic okanye nge Ukukhangela ubuchwephesha kwiziqithi.

Olunye unxibelelwano olunomdla

  • Vula i-vSwitch-Isoftware evulekileyo evumela ukwenziwa kotshintsho olubonakalayo.
  • I-OpenStack:
  • Vula iQRM: Iplatifomu yoMthombo ovulekileyo woLawulo lweZiko ledatha- Umbindi data.
  • Docker: Umthombo weprojekthi ovulekileyo okwazi ukwenza ukuthunyelwa kwezicelo ngaphakathi kwezikhongozeli zesoftware.
  • nextmox: Umthombo ovulekileyo womncedisi weendawo ezibonakalayo.
  • VMwareInkxaso ye-EMC Corporation (eyeDell Inc) ebonelela ngesoftware ebonakalayo ekhoyo kwiikhompyuter ezihambelana neX86
  • VirtualboxIsoftware yasimahla yokudala oomatshini ababonakalayo. I-Debian ihambise iipakeji ezinxulumene nale software kwisebe layo «umxholo«.
  • I-OpenNebula: OMNYE wandisa izibonelelo zamaqonga okubonisa ukusuka kwizixhobo ezibonakalayo ukuya kwibhanki yezixhobo, ngokudibanisa iserver, kungekuphela kwiziseko zophuhliso, kodwa nakwindawo eyiyo.

Abafundi ababenobubele ngokwaneleyo ukuba balisebenzise eli nqaku ukuza kuthi ga ngoku baya kuba beqondile ukuba bukhulu kwaye bunzima kangakanani indalo yangoku ye-Virtualization. Siyathemba ukuba isebenza njengesikhokelo kuhambo lwakho.

Ukuhanjiswa okulandelayo?

Ngoku iQemu-KVM iya kwiDebian!

Khumbula ukuba oku kuya kuba luthotho lwamanqaku ngu Iinethiwekhi zekhompyuter zee-SMEs. Siza kukulinda!


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  1.   Zodiac Carburus sitsho

    Intshayelelo elungileyo kakhulu kulwakhiwo ngokubanzi. Enkosi ngomsebenzi wokubhala le posi. Silindele ezizayo.

  2.   mario sitsho

    Enkosi Fico ngentshayelelo.

    Icaciswe kakuhle kwaye inonxibelelwano olwaneleyo lokungena nzulu emxholweni.

  3.   UFrederick sitsho

    Yinjongo ka Mario leyo. Ndicinga ukuba uninzi alucacanga malunga nomda wangoku womcimbi wobunyani.