i-badBIOS: Igciwane lekusasa lilapha ngeWindows, Mac, BSD kanye ne ... Linux!

Ama-virus, i-Malware, ikhodi egijima futhi isabalale ngokuzenzakalela futhi ingaba yingozi, ilimaze. Thina basebenzisi beLinux siyaphupha futhi sivuka sicabanga «Ngiphephile, i-99.9% ye-malware ayingitheleleli, ngiphephile, ngisebenzisa i-Linux«Ngakho-ke abasebenzisi be-BSD bacabanga, kepha ...

Ubungacabangani uma bekutshela ukuthi sekuvele kukhona okungenani i-malware ye-multiplatform eyodwa okungenani eyi-100%? Kuthiwani uma, ngaphezu kwalokhu okungenhla, bekwazi ukuthelela i-firmware yamakhompyutha? ... Yebo, konke kubonakala kukhombisa ukuthi leli phupho elibi selivele liyiqiniso.

Ngokusho a isihloko uvele ngaphakathi Ars Technica, umxhumanisi wezokuphepha uDragos Ruiu, ongumhleli wezingqungquthela CanSecWest y I-PacSec futhi umsunguli womncintiswano wabaduni I-Pwn2Own, ibike ukuba khona kwe- "badBIOS" malware, ekwazi ukuthelela amakhompyutha nge-OS X, Windows ne-BSD. I-malware okukhulunywa ngayo ithinta i-BIOS noma i-UEFI yamakhompyutha futhi kusolwa ukuthi ingathinta namanye amazinga we-firmware. Kuze kube manje, amathuluzi nezinqubo ezikhona zokuhlaziywa kwe-forensic kufakazelwe ukuthi ziyikho ayanele ukuthola ubukhona be-malware futhi ukwazi ukubhekana nale nselele.

Ngokwalokho okubikwe nguRuiu, okokuqala lapho eqaphela ukuthi kukhona okuxakayo okwenzekayo kwathi ngemuva kokufaka ukufakwa okusha kwe-OS X kwiMacBook Air, iqembu laqhubeka ngokuzenzekelayo lazivuselela i-boot firmware. Kamuva waqala ukubona ukuthi amafayela nezilungiselelo zazinyamalala ngaphandle kwesizathu nokuthi kwakungeke kwenzeke ukuthi aqale kwi-CD ROM. Ezinyangeni ezilandelayo, lokhu kuziphatha kwaqala ukusakazeka kwamanye amakhompyutha kunethiwekhi yakho, kufaka phakathi amanye ane-Open BSD nokuhlukahluka okuningi kweWindows.

Ukuzama ukususa i-malware kuqale iphupho elibi elihlale iminyaka engu-3. Ngemuva kokuvula kabusha i-BIOS yamakhompyutha nokufaka kabusha kusuka ekuqaleni ngama-disk wangempela nakuma-hard disk amasha, ukutheleleka kwaqhubeka, kwavela futhi. Khonamanjalo, ithole ukuthi amaphakethe wedatha anesizukulwane esilandelayo se-IPv6 protocol aqala ukudluliswa kunethiwekhi yawo, ngisho nakumakhompiyutha abenenketho ekhubazeke ngokuphelele. Ngemuva kokuhlukanisa ngokuphelele okokusebenza, ukunqamula intambo ye-Ethernet, ukususa amakhadi e-WiFi ne-Bluetooth nokuwaxhuma kunethiwekhi yamandla (okusho ukuthi, ukusebenza ngamabhethri), ukudluliswa kwephakethe kwaqhubeka! ... igciwane laqhubeka lisakazeka, nakumakhompyutha angenayo i-LAN, ngaphandle kwe-Wifi, ngaphandle kwe-Bluetooth !!!

Kungenzeka kanjani lokho ?; kahle, usebenzisa ukuhanjiswa kwemisindo ephezulu kakhulu. Yize lokhu kuzwakala njengokuthize okuqanjiwe kwesayensi, bekuvele kuphenywa kumalabhorethri amaningana, kufaka phakathi i- iphrojekthi okuqhubekayo eMIT. Ukuqinisekiswa kwalokhu kusola kutholwe ngokususa izipikha nemakrofoni yekhompyutha, lapho ukudluliswa kwamaphakethe kwaphela.

UDragos Ruiu

Muva nje, ngemuva kokuthenga ikhompyutha entsha, itheleleke ngokushesha ngokufaka imemori ye-USB, iphakamisa ukuthi i-malware iyakwazi ukuthelela amadivayisi e-USB nokuthi ithelele amanye amakhompyutha, yize kungakacaci ukuthi ngabe IMacBook Air yokuqala yavela endukwini ye-USB. URuiu usola ukuthi i- "badBIOS" imane nje iyisimo sokuqala sesilayidi esineziteji eziningi esikwazi ukuthelela amakhompyutha ngezinhlelo zokusebenza zeWindows, Mac OS X, BSD neLinux.

Namanje, ngemuva kweminyaka emi-3 ukulwa ne- «badBIOS», imvelaphi noma isimilo sayo akucaci ngokuphelele, ngakho-ke, engqungqutheleni elandelayo ye I-PacSec, ezoba phakathi komhla ziyi-13 kuya kwangama-14 kule nyanga eTokyo, uRuiu uthemba ukuthi uzokwazi ukufinyelela kwi-hardware yesizukulwane sakamuva yokuhlaziya amadivayisi e-USB azonikeza izinkomba ezintsha mayelana nendlela yokutheleleka.

Kusengaba khona abanye abagxekayo ababheka ukuthi lokhu akunakwenzeka, kepha empeleni akusikho okokuqala ukuthi kutholakale ukutheleleka kwe-malware okuku-firmware, ngoba okungenani icala le-Stuxnet selibonisiwe, igciwane elithinte ukulawulwa Ama-centrifuge okucebisa i-uranium e-Iranian eminyakeni embalwa edlule, kanti ngakolunye uhlangothi, ekuqaleni kuka-2008 u-Arrigo Triulzi wakha ubufakazi bomqondo lapho ebeke khona amathuba okuphatha i-firmware yezindawo zokuxhumana zenethiwekhi namakhadi wezithombe ngalezi zinhloso, ngakho-ke kwaba yisikhathi nje ngaphambi kokuba ithuba elichaziwe libe ngokoqobo.

Lezi zindaba zamukelwe ngokukhulu ukukhathazeka ngumphakathi wezokuphepha, lapho abacwaningi abaziwayo abanjengo-Alex Samos no-Arrigo Triulzi, kanye noJeff Moss - umsunguli wezingqungquthela zezokuphepha zeDefcon neBlackhat - kusukela ngo-2009 eluleka uNobhala woMnyango Wezasekhaya Ezokuphepha kwe-United States, zivume izitatimende zikaRuiu futhi zancoma ukuthi zilandele ukuthuthukiswa kwemicimbi eduze kakhulu nge @dragosr noma #badBIOS.

Okungenani ngizohlala ngisesikhathini futhi uma ngibona ukuthi noma iyiphi imishini yami iqala ukungivimba ekuqothulweni kocingo lwediski, ngizoyinikeza ukwelashwa okufanayo nerobhothi le-Terminator, yize ngivuma ezinye iziphakamiso ...


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana ayi-89, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   U-Ivan Barra kusho

    Kungakho ngesaba ukuba nezengezo ze-bionic, yize ngingomunye walabo ababathandayo, "Ghost in the Shell", "Deux Ex: Human Revolution" bakhumbula ... ingxenye yami iyabafuna , kodwa omunye uyabenqaba, ebhekisa ngokwesaba ukuthi lolu hlobo lokuthunyelwe lubangela

    Ukubingelela

  2.   izinga kusho

    Akakhulumi .. !!! U_U

    1.    UCarlos Rumiche kusho

      nami futhi…. (Ngemuva komzuzwana wokucabanga ukuthi ngabe leli gciwane lifinyelela kwinethiwekhi yami ekhaya ... imininingwane yempilo yami izonyamalala ... imisebenzi ... amadokhumenti ... amavidiyo ... konke ... cabanga uma lifinyelela ebhange ) ... uma amagama .... sina

  3.   i-francisco kusho

    "Usebenzisa ukusakazwa kwemvamisa ephezulu" U_U OO WTF ?????

  4.   Hhayi Evela eBrooklyn kusho

    Ngiyabonga ngalezi zindaba, obekungenjalo ngabe yeqe inethiwekhi yami yolwazi.

    1.    KZKG ^ Gaara kusho

      Ngiyabonga ngokusifunda 🙂

  5.   Emilio kusho

    Kungenzeka kanjani ukuthi idluliswe ngomsindo nakuma-platforms ahlukene?

    1.    KZKG ^ Gaara kusho

      Nge-ultrasound ngicabanga ukuthi uCharlie-Brown ungichazelile izolo, noma kunjalo ngoMsombuluko uzophinde axhumane futhi angasinika imininingwane eminingi ngakho.

      Ngokuphathelene namapulatifomu ahlukile, i-firmware ayihlukanisi phakathi kweMac, BSD, Linux, Windows ...

    2.    UCharlie-Brown kusho

      Uma ngithembekile kuwe, angicaci kahle ngalolu daba, ngakho-ke ngibeke ku-athikili isixhumanisi sephrojekthi esikhona okwamanje eMIT, ngicabanga ukuthi lokho kunganikeza wonke umuntu izinto eziningi zokuqonda.

      Inkinga yekhono lokuthinta amapulatifomu ahlukene inikezwa ukuthi i-malware ithinta i-firmware yezingxenye, okuyisendlalelo esingaphansi kwe-OS, empeleni, ukuxhumana okusezingeni le-BUS phakathi kwezinto akulawulwa noma iphethwe yi-OS.

  6.   Templar29 kusho

    Kunama-laptops nama-PC we-desktop akuvumela ukuthi usethe iphasiwedi ku-BIOS.
    Mhlawumbe… ukubeka iphasiwedi… leyo nkinga izogwenywa.

    1.    UCharlie-Brown kusho

      Ngiyaxolisa ukukutshela ukuthi akusona isixazululo, empeleni, uma wenza isivivinyo nganoma iyiphi ikhompyutha, ungafaka iphasiwedi ku-BIOS noma ku-UEFI, okuthi uma uzoyikhanyisa, ayikubuzi iphasiwedi nganoma yisiphi isikhathi.

      Siyabonga ngokuma futhi ubeke amazwana ...

  7.   UJuan Pablo kusho

    Okwamanje angikukholwa, nokuthi kwesinye isikhathi ngibizwa njenge-paranoid XD ngizobheka imininingwane ngakho ngokufanayo.

    Ukubingelela

    1.    UCharlie-Brown kusho

      hehe ... Nami ngiyahlanya impela, yingakho ngishicilele lezi zindaba, ukuze wonke umuntu ofuna ukuqala ukufuna ulwazi; kanti, uma uthola okuningi ngale ndaba, yabelana ngayo nawo wonke umuntu ...

      Futhi ngiyabonga kakhulu ngamazwana akho nangokudlula lapha.

  8.   i-manolox kusho

    Angiboni lutho olucacile.

    Okokuqala ngoba othelelekile ubonakala (futhi ngithi kubonakala sengathi akucaci ngokwanele), okuyi-BIOS. Uma kunjalo bekungeke kube ngamawindi, noma i-GNU, noma i-na de na. Kungaba yi-BIOS ... Noma i-UEFI njengoba kushiwo ukufaka ukudideka okuningi.

    Ngemuva kwalokho okugqame kakhulu. Usebenzisa ukuhanjiswa kwemisindo ephezulu kakhulu?
    Anginakungabaza ukuthi imisindo emide kakhulu ingathunyelwa ivela kuzipikha ze-crutre zeMacBook. Kepha iqiniso lokuthi imakrofoni zaleyo modeli noma enye emakethe ingabathola selizwakala lixaka kimi.

    Nezinye izinto ezimbili ngomsindo:
    1 - Lokho «ukusakazwa komsindo»
    Futhi kungani umuntu ozotheleleka noma othelelekayo futhi engakangenwa yilo okwamanje? Kwenzeka kanjani ukuthi "alalele" phambilini?

    2 - Izipikha nemakrofoni okuthi, lapho kunqanyuliwe, kuyeke ukudlulisa amaphakethe ...
    Lokhu kufanele kwenzeke kanjani? Umthumeli (umthelela) ukhipha ngombhobho bese umemukeli (isisulu) ethola ngombhobho, kepha ngokwalokho akuchazayo, uhlobo lokuxhumana olufana nolomthetho olandelwayo we-TCP / IP lwenzeka lapho umamukeli "esho njengoba amukela" (thethelela ukwenziwa lula): - iphakethe elinje lifike kimi, linginike elilandelayo -, - iphakethe elinje lifike kimi, linginike okulandelayo–… njalonjalo. Ngokususelwe kulezi "ziqinisekiso" umhlinzeki uyaqhubeka nokuthumela.
    Futhi kungukuthi bayayeka ukuthunyelwa lapho izipikha nombhobho kususwa.
    Konje. Iminyaka emithathu ithelelekile futhi akuzange kufike kuye ukususa izipikha kuphela bese kuphela imakrofoni ukugxila kangcono "kumthombo wokukhishwa kwepakethe" kanye nendlela yokuwadlulisa. ¿? ¿?

    Enye into kuleli phuzu: i-athikili ithi:

    [… Leli gciwane laqhubeka nokusabalala, ngisho nakumakhompyutha ngaphandle kwe-LAN, ngaphandle kwe-Wifi, ngaphandle kwe-Bluetooth !!!…. Kungenzeka kanjani lokho ?; kahle, usebenzisa amaza omoya omvamisa kakhulu …… «Ukuqinisekiswa kwalokhu kusola Wenze lokhu ngokususa izipikha nemakrofoni kwikhompyutha, ngaleyo ndlela wayeka ukudluliswa kwamaphakethe. "

    Lokhu kungcono kakhulu ukukhohlisa. Ukuqinisekiswa kokuhanjiswa kwemisindo ephezulu kakhulu kukhonjiswa NGOKUTHOLA lokho kudluliswa. Akulandisi ukuthi akukho ukudluliswa kwepakethe lapho izipikha nemibhobho kususwa.

    Lokhu akubambeki. Okungenani hhayi njengoba kuchaziwe lapha.

    1.    UCharlie-Brown kusho

      Hhayi-ke, sesivele sibabili, ngoba angikuboni kucace ngendlela engingathanda ngayo, manje, kubonakala kimi ukuthi ukuqonde kahle lokhu engikuphakamisayo futhi, nokuthi uma ungabaza, usifundile isihloko sokuqala engabeka kuso isixhumanisi; Ngiyachaza:

      Akukho lapho ngike ngasho khona ukuthi i-malware ithelele i-OS, empeleni, okuthikameza i-firmware, engaphansi kwe-OS, okuthi uma ngiphakamisa ukuthi ithinte amakhompyutha anama-OS ahlukile, lokho kungenye into.

      Ngokuqondene nokudluliswa kwamaphakethe wedatha ngomsindo, kusuka kulokho engikufundile nengikubukezayo, kwenziwa phakathi kwamakhompiyutha asevele engenwe yilesi sifo, ngakho-ke kusobala ukuthi akuyona indlela yokudlulisa ukutheleleka kepha indlela yokuziphatha ehambisana nakho. Manje, kuyiqiniso ukuthi ukuqinisekiswa "kwesayensi" kwalokhu kungaba ngemishini ethola imvamisa yomsindo lapho kwenziwa khona ukuhanjiswa, kepha kubonakala sengathi babengenayo le mishini, ngakho-ke ukuqinisekiswa okwenziwe kubonakala kuvumelekile kimi.

      Uma okushoyo ukuthi ucabanga ukuthi akunakwenzeka ukusebenzisa amaza omsindo ekudlulisweni kwedatha yenethiwekhi, ngiyaxolisa ukukutshela ukuthi bekungelinye lamazinga okuqala aphenyiwe nokuthi njengamanje kwenziwa uphenyo oluningi ngalolu daba, kufaka phakathi Ngicaphuna ku-MIT nokuthi ungabonisana kusixhumanisi esihambisanayo.

      Kunoma ikuphi, ngiyabonga kakhulu ngokuma ngaphawula kwakho ...

    2.    Robert kusho

      Ukulalelwa kwemakrofoni kungenzeka uma bekuyi-USB. Ukulingisa konke ukuxhumana okungenziwa yi-micro nge-bios, futhi kucatshangwe ukuthi kuvuliwe, sengathi kuyinkumbulo. Vele, ngalokho, kungadingeka ukubona ngqo ukuthi kungenzeka yini ukuphatha imininingwane ethunyelwa yi-micro kulelo zinga futhi uma le datha ngokuphelele ingakhishwa kumvamisa ongazwakali.

      Kunoma ikuphi, ekuboneni kuqala kubonakala njengomqondo othathwe kwi-opera yesepha embi. Futhi noma ngabe bekuyiqiniso, kuzodingeka ukuthi ubeke ama-mics e-USB esikhundleni sejwayelekile futhi kuphelele lapho.

    3.    I-DArio kusho

      Engqondweni yami kuyezwakala lapho ufunda lezi zindaba, ukuxhumana okudala ngemodemu, ukuhambisa nokwamukela, akwenzeki kuwe

    1.    UCharlie-Brown kusho

      Yebo, noma kunjalo, emasontweni ambalwa sizokwazi ukuqinisekisa iqiniso noma amanga alokho okushiwo, ngoba ingqungquthela ye-PacSec ingomhla ka-13 no-14 kule nyanga, ngakho-ke ake silinde ...

  9.   Templar29 kusho

    http://www.fayerwayer.com/2009/08/intel-alerta-sobre-una-vulnerabilidad-en-la-bios-de-algunas-placas-madres/

    http://www.forospyware.com/t287974.html
    Ngokusobala akuzona zonke i-BIOS ... kuphela i-INTEL .. lokho kwaziwa.
    Angazi ukuthi ama-LINKS wezocansi avunyelwe kepha ngikushiyela imininingwane ethile ewusizo.

    1.    KZKG ^ Gaara kusho

      Inqobo nje uma ziwusizo, izixhumanisi ezithakazelisayo, kunjalo!

      Ngiyabonga ngamazwana nezixhumanisi, ngiyakwenza ngempela!

  10.   Staff kusho

    XD Kubukeka njengeHalloween HOAX.
    (Ikakhulukazi ngokufuna ukuqala iMacbook Air kusuka ku-CD !!!)
    Ukuze lolu hlelo lokuxhumana lwe-ultrasonic lusebenze ngempela, kufanele kube yinto ejwayelekile esetshenzisiwe evela efektri, lapho kungafanele isimangaze khona kakhulu, khumbula ukuthi i-US isivele ivote i-Huawei ngezinsolo zokuthi amadivayisi ayo ayihlola ezingeni le-firmware-firmware.

  11.   Mario kusho

    Kuzwakala kunengqondo impela. Kukhona izinhlelo ezingabuyekeza i-bios / uefi ngokuchofoza okukodwa, ukulanda i-firmware ekhasini lomkhiqizi. Igciwane nalo lingakwenza lokho. Uhlelo olusebenzayo luyisoftware yokulamula phakathi kwehardware nomsebenzisi. Kodwa-ke, noma ngabe kuhamba, kunezinhlelo ezisezingeni eliphansi, njengokulawula izinga lokushisa, isivinini sabalandeli ne-processor. Leli gciwane lingasebenzisa ubungozi obusezingeni eliphansi, noma ngabe kusetshenziswa ini i-OS, ngoba uhlelo lwe-BIOS lukhona, ngaphansi. Imakrofoni ihlala ivuliwe futhi ixhunywe ku-3.5mm plug, enye into ukuthi nge-software ilawulwa futhi ithulisiwe. Kubukeka sengathi kuzofanele sibuyele emuva ku-UV light BIOS ukugwema lezi zifo.

  12.   Templar29 kusho

    Yonke imishini kagesi ikhipha ukudlulisa.
    Uma kulokho ... ungeza ... izimpondo zangaphakathi ze-wifi zama-laptops, uhlobo lwekhadi oluhlanganisiwe lwe-wifi antenna kanye ne-USB.
    ingasetshenziselwa ukuthumela nokwamukela idatha ...
    yingakho ... uma ukwazi ukubamba i-BIOS ... ungakwenza lokho ... futhi ungene endaweni yakho ... kube sengathi unesithwebuli semvamisa ... ukulalela izingcingo ...
    njengoba kwenziwa kudijithali ... ungaxhumana nenye i-pc ... endaweni yangakini kanye ne-loop engapheli ..

    1.    mss-devel kusho

      Ukwamukela amaphakethe adluliswayo, kufanele wenze umthetho olandelwayo phakathi komamukeli kanye nomthumeli. Lelo gciwane lingathumela yonke imisindo eliyifunayo, kodwa empeleni kuyinganekwane ukuthi ikhompyutha ingatheleleka ngombhobho. Ngakho-ke ngikholelwa ngokuqinile ukuthi lokhu kungumbombayi.
      Lezi zinto ziyabuzwa kuleli khasi:
      http://news.softpedia.es/El-malware-badBIOS-Realidad-o-engano-396277.html

      1.    UCharlie-Brown kusho

        Akukho lapho ithi ithelela amanye amakhompyutha ngama-ultrasonic transmissions, lokho ekushoyo ukuthi amakhompyutha asevele enegciwane ayaxhumana ... ...

        1.    ihlengethwa kusho

          Ikhishwe ngokoqobo kule ndatshana. Isigaba 5, umugqa 6
          «Ngemuva kokuhlukanisa ngokuphelele okokusebenza, unqamule ikhebula le-Ethernet, ususe amakhadi e-WiFi nawakwa-Bluetooth futhi uwaxhuma kunethiwekhi yamandla (okungukuthi, esebenza ngamabhethri), ukudluliswa kwepakethe kuqhubekile nokusabalala, ... amakhompyutha ngaphandle kwe-LAN, ngaphandle kwe-Wifi, ngaphandle kwe-Bluetooth !!!
          Kungenzeka kanjani lokho ?; kahle, sisebenzisa ukuhanjiswa kwemisindo evama kakhulu. "
          Futhi angikholwa ngempela ukuthi leli gciwane lisakazeka kanjani.

          Phendula ngokucaphuna

          1.    UCharlie-Brown kusho

            Uxolo, kube yiphutha lami, ngiyabonga ngokucaciselwa.

        2.    I-HTOch kusho

          Kepha kukhulunywa ngokusakazeka, noma ngabe amakhompyutha ayehlukanisiwe (ngaphandle kwe-ethernet, i-wifi, i-bluetooth, noma isebenza kuphela ngamabhethri), lokhu kuphakamisa (okungenani njengoba ngikuqonda), ukuthi igciwane lingena ngokudluliswa kwe-ultrasonic okukhulunywe ngakho.

          Saludos !!

  13.   u-jamin-samuel kusho

    ??

  14.   Templar29 kusho

    Akukho okuqanjiwe kwesayensi.
    uma wazi ezokuxhumana ngocingo nekhompyutha kungenziwa.
    kulokho engeza ... izengezo zemvamisa zomsakazo ...
    amakhibhodi, amagundane, amaphrinta ... sebenzisa i-2.400 MHZ ecishe ifane nenethiwekhi ye-wifi ejwayelekile.

    1.    mss-devel kusho

      Usifundile yini isixhumanisi engisibekile? Kusenama-glitches ambalwa okwenza lokhu kwenzeke. Futhi kunezinye izinto ezingeke zivalwe, njengochwepheshe wezokuphepha ahlaziye ukulahlwa kwe-BIOS, futhi akatholanga lutho olungalungile

      1.    Templar29 kusho

        1.Ngicabanga ukuthi lolu hlobo lokutheleleka luqondiswe kothile ikakhulukazi ...
        Izwe, isikhungo noma inkampani ezinikele… ezindabeni ezibucayi.
        IBM Ngiyaqonda ukuthi nguyena owadala futhi unelungelo lobunikazi le-BIOS.
        bese kuthi abanye babo baphume nelayisense ... kepha njengoba kunjalo IKHODI IVALIWE.
        njengoba umuntu engazi ukuthi angayihlaziya kanjani ... ngeke sazi ukuthi baneminyango engemuva yini.
        ngolwazi oluhlelekile ... singacabanga nje kuphela ...
        kepha ngubani onemininingwane efanele..akusiyo thina..i-IBM ne-NSA?

        1.    mss-devel kusho

          Uma kunjalo, iningi lethu liphephile. NjengaseStuxnet eyingozi, akekho kithi onohlelo lokulawula i-Nokia noma ama-uranium centrifuges ...
          Kepha… uyafuna ukuyifaka i-IBM? Lokho kunganuka njenge- Micro $ oft

          1.    Templar29 kusho

            Namuhla.
            awusakwazi ukwethemba.
            ongalindeli ukuthi uyisephulamthetho.

          2.    UPablo Honorato kusho

            "awusengethemba."

            Kuthiwani uma lowo owenza igciwane kwakunguTorvalds? I-LOL

  15.   Rafa kusho

    Kubukeka njengokukhohlisa kimi njengomqhele wesihlahla sikaphayini. I-mit athikili ikhombisa ukuthi kufanele usebenzise ama-transducers e-ultrasound, hhayi isikhulumi se-laptop esihlwabusayo.

    Ngokobuchwepheshe kungenzeka ukuthelela i-BIOS, kepha lokhu kutheleleka kufanele kuqale kusuka ohlelweni lokusebenza ngamakhala, ayikho enye indlela. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi lapho amabhuzu e-BIOS ikhompyutha ingekho ezingeni lokusebenza ukuthola ukutheleleka. Ngemuva kwalokho, uma usebenzisa ifayela elinegciwane kusuka ku-OS, kungenzeka ukuthi uthelele i-BIOS, ngaphandle kwama-BIOS athile anokuvikelwa kokubhala okuvela ku-OS. Kepha noma kunjalo sizobe sikhuluma ngohlelo olusebenzayo, futhi namuhla ama-binaries awahambisani phakathi kweWindows, Linux, freeBSD, OS X, ..., kuzofanele usebenzise izilimi ezihumushiwe, futhi kulokhu kufanele ube nohlaka oluhambisanayo olufakiwe.

    Ngamafuphi, hhayi ukuzelula kakhulu, kunemininingwane eminingi ku-athikili engangezi lutho. Kunuka inganekwane ekude.

    1.    Xerdo kusho

      Ngiyavuma ngokuphelele, kuzwakala kukuhle kokulandelana kwe-movie yeHackers. Kade nginekhompiyutha isikhathi esithile ukuba nezizathu ezanele zokuphika i-athikili.

    2.    Yo kusho

      Ngiyavuma, le "supervirus" ayizwakali ikholisa.

  16.   edebianite kusho

    O futhi manje ngubani ongasisindisa? ... Angikaqondi, bengingaluthumela kuphi ulwazi olutholwa yigciwane kukhompyutha yami. Ngemuva kwalokhu ngizoya ku-wikipedia ukuze ngizibhale phansi ngokusakazwa kwemisindo ephezulu kakhulu. Ngiyabonga ngolwazi ... Futhi uma uqinisile kuzwakala sengathi kuyindaba eqanjiwe yesayensi.

  17.   truko22 kusho

    Futhi ucwecwe lwe-aluminium lubekwe ku-pc → http: //www.revistaesnob.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/tin-foil-hat-600 abadala350.jpg

  18.   UJuanVP kusho

    o Ngicabanga ukuthi yilokhu okwenzekile kwi-laptop yami isikhathi esingangenyanga, akuqali noma ngabe isistimu ifakiwe nje 😛 kwesinye isikhathi angikwazi ngisho ukuqala kwi-CD. Ngizokhala: '(

  19.   yezimg kusho

    yindiza! cha! ijuba! cha! kubi! …. benze abadali abafanayo "besandla sesela"? …….

    1.    eliotime3000 kusho

      Ngicabanga ukuthi kungafana nokuthi "Isandla Sesela" njengoba kungekho bufakazi obucacile. Ngaphezu kwalokho, i-HotT ibilokhu isisulu sokugconwa yizinkampani "zama-antivirus".

  20.   ULenin Morales kusho

    Ngingenza ukuskena kokubalwa kwewashi okwenziwe yi-microprocessor, kungaba ukuthi ibhala kabusha iwashi bese iba nephuzu ekuqaleni kwe-bios, nganginecala elifanayo futhi ngesaba lokho, ngakho ngashintsha i-micro + ram bese ukhanyisa i-bios (kepha bekufanele ngivule i-linux distro ku-usb ngokumelene nokubhala ukuze ngifinyelele) kuphela ukuze ngiyinqande, uma kunjalo, angazi ukuthi ixazululiwe yini, kepha cha kususa amafayili isikhathi eside, angazi noma ngabe bekuyilelo gciwane elibusisekile yini noma bekuyiphutha lasefektri kwimishini.

  21.   Mauricio kusho

    Imininingwane ethokozisayo, ebingaziwa kuze kube manje.

    Okwamanje, kuzofanele sizame i-jumper ebhodini evimbela i-BIOS ekuvuseleleni, ubone ukuthi lokhu kuyasebenza yini.

    Ukubingelela

  22.   I-carlos kusho

    Ngiyacela!!!!!! ikhodi enonya nge-ultrasound? haha !!!!!!! lapho-ke ngiyazi ukuthi kungani ukuhlanza kuyisicefe, kufakwa nalobulongwe !!!!

  23.   eliotime3000 kusho

    Noma ngubani oqhamuke naleyo ndlela yokuthumela ama-PC ethu komunye umhlaba ufanelwe ukushiswa esigxotsheni (ngikubhekile !!!).

  24.   sephiroth kusho

    Uma ngikhuluma iqiniso, angikholwanga lutho ... ikakhulukazi ukudluliswa kwedatha ngamaza omsindo ...: S kubukeka njengokuthile okuvela kumovie yesayensi

  25.   gonzalezmd (# Bik'it Bolom #) kusho

    Kuyathakazelisa ukuthi sizobe silinde izimemezelo ezizayo.

  26.   umagazine kusho

    MMM…
    Ngicabanga ukuthi sonke sesizobe sesithelelekile manje. Iminyaka emithathu? ayikho indlela yokuthola noma yokumisa ukutheleleka? … Usb ungenwe yi-ultrasound?…
    x2: mmmmm ...

    1.    UCharlie-Brown kusho

      «Usb ungenwe yi-ultrasound? ...» WAOH !!!
      Kukuphi lokho? ... ndoda, shintsha izibuko ...

  27.   U-Essaú kusho

    Kwakungumqondo omuhle kakhulu ovela ku-Intel + IBM + NSA ukuklama uhlelo lwe-BIOS ngezinjongo zeTrojan. Sifakiwe.

    1.    Amaketanga kusho

      paaa, bengicabanga ukuthi i-T_T

  28.   nenubuenu kusho

    Sawubona, ngiyabonga kakhulu ngolwazi, kuze kube namuhla bengilokhu ngikholelwa ukuthi i-linux ayinalo igciwane kodwa ngiyabona ukuthi akunjalo.
    Kuzofanele ngihlale ngisesikhathini ukubona ukuthi yiziphi izindaba ezintsha eziphuma ngale ndaba.
    Un saludo

  29.   josepzz kusho

    Kuzwakala kuyindaba eqanjiwe yesayensi, noma ngabe igciwane lihlala kuma-bios ukuze liliqede, lenziwa kanjani? Reflash to the bios? Ukube belikhona ngempela, ngicabanga ukuthi umdali angavimba ama-bios ukuvimbela ukuthi igciwane lingagcwaliswa futhi lisuswe.

    Futhi uma kungenjalo? Sifaka ama-PC ensimbi encibilikisiwe? XD

  30.   Isikebhe kusho

    Ngiqale ukucabanga: IBios Khohlwa yikho konke okulungiselelwe ukususa nokugcina ibhethri elinika amandla inkumbulo yayo yamahora ambalwa. Ingakusinda lokho?

  31.   Sawubona kusho

    kimi kumane kuyinkohliso enkulu, akunakwenzeka, okushiwo konke kahle kuze kube »ukuhanjiswa kwemisindo evama kakhulu» kufanele ubone ukuthi umsindo usebenza kanjani futhi uqonde ukuthi akunakwenzeka

    1.    eVeR kusho

      Akunakwenzeka ukudlulisa idatha ngemisindo engazwakali. Empeleni imisakazo isebenza kanjena.
      Engikubona kungeke kwenzeke ukuthi i-PC engathelelekile "iyayilalela" imisindo elenziwa yigciwane futhi "ingayiqonda" inqubo elisebenzisayo, kanjalo nje.

  32.   eVeR kusho

    +1 kulokhu ukuthi lokhu kuyinkohliso kakhulu kunedola ku-violet gradient.
    Igciwane le-BIOS: kunemikhiqizo eminingi ye-BIOS (i-AmiBIOS, i-Phoenix, njll) esebenza ngezindlela ezihlukile futhi i-hardware yehlukile, igciwane kufanele libe nekhodi yokubhekana nanoma imuphi umkhiqizo.
    Ukudluliswa ngemisindo yemvamisa ephezulu: kungenzeka ngokomzimba, kepha isihloko sezivumelwano asikho.
    Ukutheleleka kwe-Firmware: idivayisi ngayinye yomkhiqizo ngamunye ohlukile ine-firmware yayo esebenza futhi ibukeka yehlukile komunye nomunye. Ngakho ukuthelela i-FW ye-hard drive igciwane kufanele libe nohlu lwezinto ezithile ezihambisanayo nezinhlobo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, amandla okugcina ama-ROM wamadivayisi anqunyelwe, imiyalo eminingi enonya ayikwazanga ukungena kuma-firmwares aguquliwe. Futhi, lokho engikwaziyo ngamakhadi enethiwekhi nezinye izinto eziningi ezingenawo ama-firmwares ahlelwe (zingamaROM ngokusobala).
    Nqamula endaweni kagesi: ehhhh? Ucabangani, ukuthi bezizodlulisa ngentambo kagesi? Ngabe bazokwakha ukuthi amafonti anama-firmwares nawo?
    Ukutheleleka nge-USB: Idatha yegciwane izodinga ukulondolozwa ngandlela thile kwi-USB ukuze idluliswe. Ngakho-ke ukuze utheleleke, uhlelo kufanele lufunde okuqukethwe yi-USB, alikwazi ukutheleleka ngokuluxhuma.
    Futhi leyo yokuthi "Kuze kube manje, izinqubo namathuluzi akhona okusetshenziswa kwe-forensic akhombise ukuthi awanele ukuthola ubukhona be-malware nokubhekana nale nselele" kungikhumbuza lawo maketanga eposi athi ungavuli i- "Life is bella.ppt »ngoba uma kungenjalo isibani se-Olimpiki besingakuvulela bese sishisa i-hard drive yakho (sic) nokuthi uCarlos McAfee noJosé Norton bamangele ...

    Phendula ngokucaphuna

  33.   Cesar kusho

    Ngiyaqonda ukuthi uma i-firmware yenziwa buthakathaka, kungatholwa ukulawulwa kwe-pc, futhi nokuthi imishini emibili enegciwane ingaxhumana ngamasiginali womsindo (kungaba yindlela enhle yokuthola imininingwane kuma-PC noma amanethiwekhi ahlukanisiwe), okungacaci kimi yindlela i-firmware ephindaphindwa ngayo futhi yonakaliswe, okuwukuphela kwento engingayicabanga ukuthi ixhaphaza ukuba sengozini kwe-OS.

    Ukubingelela

  34.   Wisp kusho

    Nikeza ubuqili kuma-windowslwedos we-paranoid we-paranoid futhi uzoba namahora namahora wokuzijabulisa nokuhleka kunoma yisiphi isithangami.

    1.    Wisp kusho

      IWindowslerdos, enye i- "w" yangishiya. Kuyinto embi ngokubuka i-tv engaka kanye nama-movie we-hacker we-class B kusukela ekhulwini leminyaka elidlule.

      1.    eliotime3000 kusho

        Ngokungafani ne- "Hand of the Thief", leli gciwane lokucabanga kungenzeka. Kodwa-ke, njengenjwayelo, lolu hlobo lwe-malware luncike ekutheni umsebenzisi wazi kanjani ngezenzo zabo.

        1.    Wisp kusho

          Futhi bakukholwa noma kunjalo. Abamsulwa ngaphezu kobuhlakani. Usuku lokukhohlisa kwesitayela sosuku Lwembubhiso njengalezi Zandla Zamasela noma ama-Bad Bios kuliqiniso, uSteve Jobs uzovusa futhi asebenzise i-Arch Linux Bledding Edge kukhompyutha ephathekayo yaseToshiba.

  35.   IMartial del Valle kusho

    Sikufisela usuku oluhle luka-Ephreli weziwula !! ????????????

  36.   federico perales kusho

    Futhi uma sibeka izihlungi ezinemvamisa ephezulu kuzipika, ukuvuza kolwazi kuzokwenziwa ize

  37.   mss-devel kusho

    Futhi, abantu… .. uma ingekho inqubo elandelwayo phakathi komthumeli nomamukeli, ngeke kube khona ukuxhumana. Ngakho-ke, ukutheleleka nge-ultrasound akuyona into engokoqobo

  38.   UCarlos David Correa Santillan kusho

    Kuyinganekwane ephelele, akukho divayisi ekwazi ukukhipha lawo mazinga e-ultrasound ku-PC, ngisho nasezipikheni, ama-transducers ayadingeka futhi ngenhlanhla enye ikhompyutha ukuyilayisha kwimemori idinga umhumushi ofakwe ngaphambili engiqonde ukuthi bekufanele ngabe ungenwe izindlela zendabuko ukuze uqhubeke nokutheleleka, kuyahlanya, kubangela ukuhleka okuningi ukuthi abantu ababucayi abaqinisekisi umthombo walezi zindaba futhi bathola iziphetho ezisheshayo ngaphandle kweseluleko sobuchwepheshe, i-firmware ayifani kuwo wonke amakhompyutha, igciwane elinohlu olukhulu kangaka lwamasiginesha bekungaba lula kakhulu ukuluthola, yingakho kuyinganekwane emsulwa, kusobala ukuthi lo mfana akazi noma uhleka wonke umuntu njengamanje 🙂

  39.   Ingelosi uCarlos kusho

    Uff, impela, ngingumfundi nje kukho konke lokhu, kepha kusobala, amaphakethe abethunyelwe ngezipika abephakathi kwamakhompyutha anegciwane, ikhompyutha engathelelekile, bekungeke kutheleleke ngaleyo ndlela. Noma angicabangi ukuthi kungenzeka ... Awu ... Enye into ukuthi igciwane elizosebenza kuwo WONKE amakhompyutha kufanele libe nemiyalo yebhodi ngalinye lomama elithile, bese-ke liningi kakhulu, kahle ... Lokho akuyona inkinga, inkinga ukuthi igciwane kufanele iphathe imininingwane nge-firmware ngayinye kanye nemiyalo yokutheleleka lapho ... Imininingwane eminingi inesisindo kufayela * noma ngabe yini igciwane elikhona ... Futhi usuvele uyazi ukuthi amandla amaROM anciphise kakhulu ukugcina yonke imininingwane Yini oyidingayo ... Ngokubona kwami ​​igciwane lilinganiselwe ekusebenzeni kwamabhodi womama wohlobo oluthile ... Njengoba kukhonjisiwe ku-fayerwayer ... ngizoba sengibhekile futhi ngiyabonga ngokwabelana ... ngisebenzisa i-phoenix bios ukuze sizobona lol

    1.    Ingelosi uCarlos kusho

      Yebo, bebevele bekhulume ngakho kodwa ngizokusho ngamagama alula, Akunakwenzeka ukuthi ikhompyutha itheleleke ngombhobho nangezipikha, uzilalele uyifunda uzobona ukuthi izwakala ingenangqondo! Ukube le ndlela ibingenzeka, bekungaba phakathi kwamakhompyutha amabili asevele enalesi sifo, kungenjalo bekungafana nokukhuluma nomuntu ongakulaleli wena hehe

  40.   isiqephu 05 kusho

    Ngokuvamile, ngokwethiyori, uma kungenzeka, kepha uma kungenzeka, bekungeke kube namacala amaningi abhalisiwe?

  41.   HuntEr! kusho

    Kwakuyihlaya elivela eDragos, ulume wonke unkulunkulu xD

    https://twitter.com/dragosr/status/397777103812194304

  42.   Windóusico kusho

    Ngokwazi kwami, angiboni kungenzeka ukuthi ikhompyutha engathelelekile ithole igciwane ngemisindo. Ngingakholelwa ukuthi amakhompyutha athelelekile ayaxhumana ngomsindo, kepha ukutheleleka kokuqala kufanele kwenzeke ngendlela "ejwayelekile" kakhulu.

    1.    Windóusico kusho

      Kufundwa ukuphawula kuka @ HuNtEr! Sengivele ngikuqonda konke i-XD.

  43.   pikachu kusho

    Ngikuthola njengombhalo wezindaba i-xddd kwesinye isikhathi iyenzeka

  44.   yo kusho

    Iqanda ELIKHULU KAKHULU ENGINGALIFUNDI.

  45.   I-LinuxeroGT kusho

    Akunakwenzeka.
    Nginomqondo (wemfundo yaseyunivesithi) kanye nesipiliyoni esisebenzayo (isipiliyoni se-elektroniki sobunjiniyela) kulo mkhakha.
    Njengoba abanye bekhombisile ngaphambili emibhalweni yabo, kungenzeka ukuthi leli "gciwane", "i-malware" noma i- "spyware" liyiqiniso. Ngendlela ejwayelekile nokwehlisa, ngenxa yokushoda kwesikhala, ngibala lezi zizathu ezilandelayo:
    1) Lapho uqala i-BIOS (ngaphandle kokulayisha isistimu yokusebenza okwamanje), umsindo, abashayeli benethiwekhi abalayishwa. njll. Ikhodi kuphela yokufinyelela i-hardware * ilayishiwe, kepha azikho izandiso ezisebenza njengabashayeli bakulawo ma-BIOS. Okungenani ezitholakalayo ezentengiselwano. Ukuze umqondo wokuxhumana okungenantambo usebenze, igciwane ngokwalo kuzodingeka lifake i-modulator ne-demodulator ku-BIOS ROM ukuze ikwazi ukudlulisa imininingwane ngezipika. 1.1) Izipikha nemibhobho akukwazi ukukwenza nge- «ultrasound». Kuzokwanela ukuzama nge-oscilloscope ne-generator yesiginali ngemakrofoni ejwayelekile ye-laptop (nge-pre-amplifier yayo) nezinye izipikha ezine-generator yesiginali, ukufakazela leli phuzu.
    2) Ukube lokhu okungenhla bekungenzeka - okuyinto enzima-, lapho ufaka i- «software» ukuxhumana ngenethiwekhi yomsindo, i-BIOS checksum ibizoshintshwa. Indlela yokubhala ngaphezulu kufanele yenziwe ezindaweni ezingakuvumeli ukubhala, ukufaka esikhundleni sayo YONKE i-firmware ye-BIOS.
    3) Uma lokhu kungenzeka, i-malware - noma yini ofuna ukuyibiza ngayo - kufanele ibe neqoqo eliphelele le-firmware ye-BIOS (Basic Input / Output System), ukuze ikwazi ukwenza ikhompyutha ngayinye enegciwane. Ngichaza kabanzi: 'i-motherboard' ngayinye inokulungiselelwa okuhlukile namakheli wokufaka / wokukhipha wamadivayisi alayishwe yi-BIOS. Yize uhlobo lwe-chip lufana (i-AWARD noma i-American megatrends, njll), kanye ne-interface ye-BIOS (enesizinda esivamile esiluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka) ibukeka ifana, idatha yangaphakathi yehluke ngokuphelele nakumaMotboard wamabhrend ohlobo olufanayo.
    I-4) Kusuka kokungenhla, kungenzeka ukuthelela i-BIOS, kepha lokho kuzonikeza ikhompyutha ukuthi ingakwazi ukuqalisa ezimweni eziningi kakhulu, uma kungenjalo konke.
    I-5) Ama-BIOS amadala (> iminyaka eyi-10) kungenzeka asengozini, futhi kufanele kube khona imali ehambisana ne- <Windows 2000 operating system ukuze kutheleleke.
    6) Ubufakazi bomqondo wegciwane elithethe ngempumelelo le-bios kwenziwa ngonyaka we-2009 engqungqutheleni yeCanSecWest Security eCanada (Sacco nase-Ortega), kepha ibigxile enhlotsheni ethile ye-BIOS, make, model (manje engasasebenzi) futhi wayedinga ukulawula ngokomzimba ikhompyutha ukuze ayifake. Bona okuningi kumasilayidi e- "proof of concept" ngesiNgisi, ngo: http://i.zdnet.com/blogs/core_bios.pdf
    Ngingaqhubeka ngichaze izizathu eziningi zokunqoba lokhu okusongelwa okusha, okungaba yiqiniso kuphela uma kune-BIOS eqanjiwe neqanjiwe eyayinamandla amakhulu futhi ilawula i-motherboard yekhompiyutha. Kepha lokho kungokwenhlobo yezinganekwane zesayensi. Mhlawumbe umcwaningi we-yore (i-Ruiu) uyi "Jules Verne" futhi ubuka ngeso lengqondo i-BIOS ka-2100 ... kunjalo, ezweni lapho i-EFI noma ubungcweti besikhathi esizayo bungekho futhi ukwakhiwa kwamakhompiyutha kungaqhubekeli phambili.

  46.   Jose Luis kusho

    Ngingathanda ukufunda ukusebenzisa i-linux

  47.   wesker kusho

    Ngicabanga ukuthi bangama-gringos. Khumbula, izinhloli zika-Obama kuwo wonke umuntu. kepha hey, uma "i-badware" ingokoqobo, ingaxazululwa ngokufaka esikhundleni sebhodi yomama, ukuvimbela imakrofoni (nokulahla yonke imikhiqizo ye-Intel?).

  48.   UFrank Davila kusho

    Yebo, iqiniso noma iphupho, into ukuthi bayasihlola futhi balimaze imishini yethu, kuwo wonke amadivayisi afanayo, futhi le nto ibingasakwazi ukuphuma nxazonke, ngoba lokho abasinikeza kona njengesikhungo sokuzijabulisa nomsebenzi basebenzisa bona usibuke, noma ngabe kuyimilayezo yombhalo kuphela, esikhathini esithile esedlule ngifunde encwadini, angikhumbuli ukuthi ngiyibone kuphi uma ngabe iku-intanethi noma ngokomzimba, ukuthi i-intanethi ihlose ukuyisabalalisa ngenethiwekhi kagesi, uma befunda ngenethiwekhi efanayo kagesi, ngakho-ke noma yini abangitshela yona ngizokukholelwa ukuthi iyizinhloli ne-elekthronikhi, konke kungenzeka.

  49.   nobhoni kusho

    nikela nge-hdp eyadala lelo gciwane

  50.   Eduardo kusho

    Ngendlela efanayo bathelele amagundane eminyakeni eyi-8 eyedlule, isikhombi sahamba sengathi sinempilo yaso futhi okuwukuphela kwendlela yokusiqeda kwakuwukufaka i-OS, i-winodws, nokuphonsa igundane kudoti. noma kunjalo…

    1.    MOL kusho

      Ngiyixazulule ngokushintsha umata owodwa ngombala ofanayo ngaphandle kwezithombe noma ukuphrinta.

  51.   UMnu E kusho

    Futhi ngicabanga ukuthi abaningi abakholelwa ukuthi kukhona ukushaja ibhethri okungenantambo ... Into eyodwa iholela kwenye, uma unomqondo ovulekile. Izinto eziqanjiwe zesayensi ezivela eminyakeni engu- + 20 edlule manje seziyinto engokoqobo. Ubani ongathi i- "QRCode" igcina imininingwane, iyizikwele, noma mhlawumbe ikhodi ye-morse ".-.–." amanga?
    Kuzwakala sengathi kuyinganekwane, kepha esikhathini esedlule-samanje-esizayo sekhompyutha kususelwa ezinganekwaneni.

  52.   MOL kusho

    Indaba exakile, ekugcineni ukungafaki izipikha ukonga ugesi nokungafaki imakrofoni kuzoba yindlela yokuphepha 😀

  53.   IPlukia kusho

    Kungenzeka ukuthi ukutheleleka kuhamba ngomsindo ... idatha isivele idluliswa ukukhanya futhi akukho okumangazayo ... okungacaciswa muntu ukuthi igciwane lizolitheleleka kanjani iLinux ... lokho kuzoba umsebenzi onzima kakhulu nganoma iliphi igciwane elizama ukukwenza nokutheleleka kwaleli gciwane ... Kulungile… lizokusa futhi sizobona…

  54.   mj kusho

    Ozithobayo;
    Kuyinkinga enkulu, ngaphandle kokungabaza ngentuthuko yamanje yezobuchwepheshe ukuthi kungenzeka, kepha ngabe yini inhloso yokwenza lokho, futhi ngubani ongaba nezindlela zezomnotho, ezokusebenza nezobuchwepheshe ukwenza lesi senzo sobuphekula, engikuqondayo ukuthi kungaba njalo; Noma umuntu ebekwazi ukuthi angakwenza kanjani, bazodinga izindlela engishilo ngaphambili.

    Angikholwa ukuthi izimboni zobuchwepheshe noma yimuphi uhulumeni uzinikele ekucekeleni phansi impahla yangasese.

  55.   UFrancisco Medina kusho

    Ukuthi ngikudele, manje kuzofanele ngivikele inethiwekhi yendawo yendlu yami, ngiqaphele ama-bios, amafayela, i-hard disk futhi-ke, i-pendrive yami ye-8GB, futhi, ukudluliselwa ngezipikha nemibhobho? lelo kumele kube yiphupho elibi, lena impi, i-hdp.
    ngokuzayo "ngethemba" sigcina amakhompyutha avela kuleli gciwane okuthiwa alinakonakala ...