I-Linus Torvalds: I-Linux yayingakaze ibe yiphrojekthi yeFree Software Foundation

Umdali weLinux usitshela ukuthi emashumini amabili eminyaka ukwakhiwa kwakhe kwasuka ekubeni yinhliziyo yohlelo lokusebenza oluvulekile kwaba yindawo enobungane yedeskithophu futhi enhliziyweni ye-Android, isistimu yokusebenza yakwaGoogle enempumelelo emangalisayo kumakhalekhukhwini. Amaphilisi, njll. 

- Sekuyiminyaka engama-20 kusukela iLinux izalwe, yiluphi usuku oluqondile lokudalwa kwayo? 

Yebo, kimina kwakungekho usuku oluthile, ngoba ngangisebenza kulokhu isikhathi esithile ngaphambi kokuba lukhishwe. Kodwa-ke, ngicabanga ukuthi noma yimaphi amadethi okukhulunywa ngawo anengqondo. Ngakho-ke kuye ngokuthi kubalwa kanjani, kungaba nezinsuku ezintathu ezihlukile. Lowo engicabanga ukuthi uhambisana kakhulu ngu-Septhemba 17, 1991, lapho ngenza inguqulo ye-linux-0.01 yamafayili ahlanganisiwe futhi ngawalayisha endaweni yomphakathi, ftp.funet.fi. Kodwa-ke, angikaze ngimemezele esidlangalaleni ukukhishwa kwenguqulo engu-0.01 (ngithumele abantu abambalwa nge-imeyili ngasese), ngakho-ke, ngenxa yaleso sizathu, ezinye izinsuku ezimbili zivame ukushiwo futhi: U-Okthoba 5 waba ngowokuqala. yeLinux esidlangalaleni (isimemezelo "khumbula lezo zinsuku ezinhle ze-minix-1.1 lapho amadoda ayengamadoda futhi ebhalela abashayeli bawo amadivayisi abo?" weLinux-0.02 eqenjini lezindaba le-minix). Futhi abanye babala uJulayi 3, ngoba noma bengingakulungele ukuthumela noma yini emuva ngaleso sikhathi, usuku engikhulume ngalo okokuqala emphakathini ukuthi bengisebenza kulo msebenzi. Ngakho-ke kuyindaba yokunambitha. Ngokwami, ngithanda ukusebenzisa uSepthemba 17 njengosuku lokuzalwa.

–Ngabe wake wacabanga ukuthi iLinux ingaba nkulu kangaka? 

-Ngokusobala akunjalo. Ngasikhathi sinye, ukukhula okuningi bekuhamba kancane, ngakho-ke akuzange kube khona umuzwa wokumangala okukhulu nganoma yisiphi isikhathi esithile. Uma ubheka emuva nje, uthola lowo muzwa wokuthi "kahle, lokhu kusebenze kangcono kakhulu kunalokho obekulindelekile."

- Ngabe ucabanga ukuthi iLinux ibinomqondo wezepolitiki, ngabe bekungumnikelo wezenhlalo noma ukufaneleka kwayo kumane nje kuyakhiqiza? 

- Ngicabanga ukuthi inazo zonke lezo zingqikithi zabantu abahlukene. Ngokwami, ngenza (futhi ngisakwenza) ngezizathu zami siqu. Ngicabanga ukuthi kumnandi futhi kuyathakazelisa, futhi bengifuna uhlelo olusetshenziswayo engizisebenzisela lona. Iqiniso lokuthi abanye abantu basizile, nokuthi banezizathu ezahlukahlukene zokusiza (kusuka kulabo abafuna nje ukwenza imali kulabo abanezinhloso zezenhlalo noma ezepolitiki) kuyathakazelisa, kepha lezo zizathu azisona izizathu zokuthi kungani ngenza iLinux . Vele, iqiniso lokuthi abanye abantu babambe iqhaza ngentshiseko, kanye neqiniso lokuthi iLinux yenza umehluko kubantu abaningi kangaka, kuyangishukumisa nami. Ngiyakujabulela ukusebenza kuLinux ngenxa yayo, kepha kusobala ukuthi ngiyalithokozela iqiniso lokuthi kuwumsebenzi omuhle kakhulu owenze umthelela omkhulu emhlabeni jikelele.

- Ngabe kuzwakala kanjani ukuthi igama lakho lihlotshaniswa nomkhiqizo osetshenziswa yizigidi zabantu emhlabeni jikelele, noma ungazi ukuthi kumayelana nawe? 

"Kuhle kunjalo." Sonke sifuna ukuzizwa sifanelekile, futhi sicabange ukuthi senza umehluko kulo mhlaba. Ukuba nomsebenzi lapho uzizwa ukhiqiza, futhi nokwazi ukuthi umsebenzi owenzayo "kubalulekile" kuyinselelo enkulu.

- Siyini isimo samanje seLinux: inemigqa emingaki yekhodi, bangaki abantu abasebenzayo? 

-Isibalo sabantu kunzima ukusilinganisela. Kulula ukunikeza izinombolo ezingavuthiwe (cishe abantu abayinkulungwane banezikweletu zombhali ekukhishweni kernel ngakunye kumalogi wokulawulwa kwamakhodi), kepha kusho ukuthini lokho? Abanye balabo bantu benza iminikelo emincane yolayini owodwa, abanye babhala izinkulungwane zemigqa yekhodi. Kepha kuthiwani ngabo bonke labo bantu abenza izivivinyo nezinye izisekelo? Okwamanje, maqondana nenani lemigqa yekhodi, isihlahla somthombo se-kernel samanje sinemigqa eyizigidi eziyi-14. Akuyona yonke leyo "ikhodi", ngokusobala, efaka konke ukuphawula, imibhalo, ukwakhiwa kwengqalasizinda, namanye amathuluzi ekhodi. Cishe isigamu salokho kungabashayeli, isinqamu esikhulu salokho ukwakhiwa kokwakhiwa kwezakhiwo ezingama-20 + esizisekelayo, futhi sinamafayela wesistimu ahlukene angaphezu kwama-60, yize iningi labantu lisebenzisa okukodwa noma okubili. Ngakho-ke emigqeni eyizigidi eziyi-14 yekhodi ku-kernel, eziningi zalezo zici azithinti abasebenzisi abaningi. Inhliziyo ye-kernel incane kakhulu. Kepha kungatshelwa ngenye indlela futhi: yini iLinux? Akuyona nje inkinga ye-kernel, kepha kuyinto ehlobene nawo wonke amaphrojekthi azungezile, amanye awo angacacisiwe yi-Linux, kepha ayasetshenziswa nakwezinye izinhlelo zokusebenza. Ngakho-ke kunzima kakhulu ukunikeza inombolo elula yanoma yini.

- Yiziphi izinselelo ezinkulu zeLinux? 

-Ngokwe-kernel, enye yezinkinga ezinkulu ukumane unikeze ukwesekwa kwehardware. Ukusekela yonke i-hardware ekhona lapho yilokho esisebenzisa isikhathi esiningi nomzamo kukho njengamanje. Ngasikhathi sinye, sibe nezinselelo eziningi nasezingeni lokunakekelwa. Kungumbuzo wokuthi singasebenzisana kanjani emphakathini ohlanganiswe ngokukhululeka, sakha ingqalasizinda (ukuhlela nje ikhodi yomthombo) ukwenza ukusebenzisana kube nokwenzeka. Amanye ala mathuluzi (njengephrojekthi ye-Git yokugcina ikhodi yomthombo) ayindaba yokuphila nomphakathi ohambisanayo, izinselelo eziningi zimane nje zakhiwa ukwakha ukuxhumana kwabantu phakathi kwabantu ukuze bakwazi ukusebenza ngokubambisana.

- Obani abalingani abakhulu? 

-Ukukhethwa kwamagama owenzayo kuyaxaka. Kunabantu abaningi engisebenza eduze kakhulu futhi engibathembayo mathupha. Bajwayele ukusebenza ezinkampanini eziningi zobuchwepheshe, ezibandakanyeka neLinux. Kepha ngisebenza nabo njengabantu nje, hhayi "njengabamele izinkampani zabo." Ngakho-ke ngiyabethemba uqobo, hhayi ngoba basebenza kule noma kuleyo nkampani esebenza odabeni oluthile. Ngokusobala, kunezinkampani eziningi eziye zasiza kakhulu ekusizeni ukusekela i-Linux. Benza izinto ezihlukile, bathambekele ekugxileni ezindaweni ezahlukahlukene, futhi konke lokhu akugcini nje ngokubhala ikhodi. Ngaphezu konjiniyela engisebenza nabo, izinkampani ezenza ukumaketha, zihlola amaphutha, ukusekelwa ngabasebenzisi. Konke kubalulekile. Futhi angizukubabiza ngamagama ngabodwana noma ngezinkampani zabo, ngoba bengingeke ngibe sesimweni sokusho ukuthi ngubani obaluleke ngaphezu komunye: lokho kuncike entshisakalweni yakho nasekusebenziseni kwakho.

- Siyini isitha esikhulu seLinux?

"Angicabangi kanjalo." Ngenza iLinux ngezinhloso zami ezinhle, futhi uma ngiqhathanisa nenye into ngokukhethekile, iphikisana nathi. Ngifuna ukuthuthukisa iLinux ukuze ibe ngcono kunalokho okukhona manje, hhayi ukuncintisana nanoma ngubani omunye umuntu. Ngangivame ukwenza amahlaya ngeMicrosoft, kepha empeleni kwakungeyona ngabo, noma enye inkampani yobuchwepheshe.

- Kodwa amalungelo obunikazi abazimele, isibonelo, akuzona yini izitha zokuhamba "umthombo ovulekile"? 

-Ahh yebo. Amalungelo obunikazi ayinkinga. Amalungelo obunikazi amaningi ahlekisa ngokuphelele, kodwa ukulwa nawo kuyinkimbinkimbi futhi kuyabiza. Izindaba ezinhle ukuthi izinkampani eziningi ziyazizonda nazo, ngakho-ke kunethemba lokuthi uhlelo luzoshintsha, noma okungenani lushintshe kancane.

-Yikuphi ukusatshalaliswa kweLinux okuncomayo?

Ngokwami, ngivame ukusebenzisa iFedora, kepha igama elibalulekile lithi “inhlabathi”. Kungenxa yezizathu eziningi zomlando ezingahleliwe. Ngikhathazeka ngokuhlela inhliziyo, ngakho-ke kimi ukusatshalaliswa kuyindlela nje yokuba nomshini omusha ozosiza. Angikhathazeki kakhulu ngoba ngizothatha indawo yezingxenye engibhekana nazo ngokujulile. Imayelana ne-kernel, i-git, nangokomlando amanye amaphrojekthi uma kudingeka. Ukusatshalaliswa okunconyiwe kugcina kungumbuzo wokuthi yikuphi ukusetshenziswa okunikezwayo esimweni ngasinye. I-Android isetshenziselwa amafoni, Ubuntu bejika lokufunda eliphansi, nokunye ukwabiwa okwenziwe ngokwezifiso, okuzoncika kuwe. Kwabaningi babantu laphaya, i-distro enhle kakhulu igcina iyilabo abaseduze kwabantu abafuna ukusebenzisa i-Linux, ngaleyo ndlela ungabelana ngamava futhi ufunde kwabanye.

- Awucabangi ukuthi Ubuntu bushesha kakhulu ekuvuseleleni futhi kwesinye isikhathi kungaphazamisa? 

-Angicabangi kanjalo. Ufuna ukusatshalaliswa okunqenqemeni, ukuzama izinto ezintsha, ngendlela efanayo nokuthi ufuna ukwabiwa okuzinzile okuphelelwe yisikhathi isikhathi eside ngoba abafuni ukuzamazamisa isikebhe. Njengoba ngingumuntu oqhamuka ezweni lobuchwepheshe, ngicabanga ukuthi ukwabiwa kwamaphethelo kunesithakazelo esikhulu, kunjalo. Futhi kubasebenzisi abaningi kuyindlela efanele yokuqhubeka futhi. Unokufinyelela kwangaphambi kwesikhathi kuzici ezintsha namakhono. Vele, lokhu kuza nemiphetho ebukhali, esukela odabeni lokucwebezela nokuba semusha, ngakho-ke abanye abantu nakanjani bazokhetha indlela ethulile.

- Iyiphi imvelo yedeskithophu okufanele isetshenziswe? 

- Akukho "okufanele". Kuyindaba yezintandokazi zakho nokuthi ujwayele ukwenzani. Ngibe nokuhlangenwe nakho okubi kakhulu nabantu abenze ideskithophu abacabanga ukuthi bangashintsha umhlaba. Ngisukile ku-KDE lapho benza ushintsho lwabo olukhulu baya ku-KDE-4. Futhi manje ngisuka kude neGnome-3 ngesizathu esifanayo. Ideski, ngaphezu kwanoma yini enye, yinto umuntu asetshenziselwa yona maqondana nayo. Lokhu kusobala ukuthi kungani imakethe yama "desktops" ngokuvamile kunzima ukuyiguqula.

- Ingabe igama elithi "umthombo ovulekile" lishiya umnyango uvulekele ukuvumela isoftware ephathelene ne-Linux kernel?

Cha. Umthombo ovulekile ungaphezulu kakhulu kokungabi ngumnikazi. Leli iphuzu eliyinhloko legama "vula".

- Iyiphi imibono iLinux enayo? 

- Angicabangi ukuthi kunemibono "eyodwa". Angicabangi ukuthi kufanele kube nemibono ethile. Ingxenye ebalulekile yalokho igama elithi "munye": Ngicabanga ukuthi kungahle kube nemibono "eminingi". Ngikwenzela izizathu zami, abanye abantu bakwenza ngezizathu zabo. Ngicabanga ukuthi umhlaba uyindawo eyinkimbinkimbi, futhi abantu bayizilwane ezithokozisayo, ezenza izinto ngezizathu eziyinkimbinkimbi. Ngakho-ke angicabangi ukuthi kufanele kube nemibono "eyodwa". Kuyaqabula ngempela ukubona abantu basebenza kwiLinux ngoba bakholelwa ukuthi bangenza umhlaba ube indawo engcono ngokusabalalisa ubuchwepheshe nokwenza ukuthi itholakale kubantu kabanzi. Abaningi bakholelwa ukuthi umthombo ovulekile uyindlela enhle yokwenza lokho. Lowo "umbono". Ngicabanga ukuthi umbono omuhle. Akusikho ngempela ukuthi kungani ngiqale ukwenza iLinux, kepha kungigcwalisa ngenjabulo ukubona ukuthi iLinux isetshenziswa kanjani ngalowo mqondo. Kepha ngicabanga nokuthi kupholile ukubona zonke izinkampani zentengiso zisebenzisa umthombo ovulekile ngoba nje zilungele ibhizinisi labo. Lo ngumbono ohluke ngokuphelele, futhi ngicabanga ukuthi umbono omuhle impela futhi. Umhlaba ubuyoba yindawo embi kakhulu ukube besingenazo izinkampani ezenzela izinto ngemali. Ngakho-ke okuwukuphela kombono engiwudelela futhi engingawuthandi ngempela uhlobo lomcabango ozama ukukhipha amanye. Ngiyabadelela abantu abanemibono emayelana "nombono weqiniso okuwukuphela kwawo", futhi labo abangayilandeli le ndlela ethile yokuziphatha kungaba "usathane" noma "akulungile". Laba ngabantu abanomqondo omncane futhi abayiziphukuphuku, kimi. Ngakho-ke ingxenye ebalulekile ngomthombo ovulekile akuyona imibono, kungukuthi noma ngubani angayisebenzisela izidingo zakhe kanye nezizathu zakhe. Ilayisensi ye-copyright ikhona ukugcina lokho kuvuleka kuphila, nokwenza isiqiniseko sokuthi iphrojekthi ayihlukani phakathi kwabantu abafihla ukuthuthuka kwabo komunye nomunye futhi kufanele basebenzise kabusha izinguquko ezenziwa abanye, kepha ayikho lapho ukuhambisana nokunye imibono.

- Ngabe inkinga yamazwe omhlaba ibe yithuba lokukhula lenhlangano evulekile? 

"Angeke ngithande ukusho kanjalo." Ngicabanga ukuthi kokunye kunezikhathi ezinzima ukukhombisa izizathu zokwenza okuthile (inkulumo ethi "isidingo ngumama wezinto ezisunguliwe" imayelana nokuthi isidingo nezikhathi ezinzima kungaba kanjani ithuba elihle lemibono emisha nezinto ezintsha). Kepha ngasikhathi sinye, ngicabanga ngempela ukuthi intuthuko yangempela yenzeka ngaphandle kwenkinga. Ngakho-ke manje, ngezikhathi zokwehla komnotho emhlabeni, izinkampani eziningi zifudukela eLinux nasemthonjeni ovulekile ngoba azikwazi ukukhokhela imali yokuthola amalayisense, nezinto ezinjalo. Kepha ngasikhathi sinye, uma sibheka emuva okwamanje ngaphambi kwenhlekelele, abantu bebesebenzisa iLinux ngezindlela ezintsha nezijabulisayo, futhi.

- Ngabe ucabanga ukuthi isimanga se-Android, isistimu yokusebenza yakwaGoogle yamaselula, ngesinye isibonelo samandla wesoftware yamahhala? 

-Kunjalo. Umbono wokuthi ungathatha isoftware yomthombo ovulekile, futhi wenze izinto ngawo ongakaze uhlelwe ngabadali bawo bokuqala, futhi uwasebenzise ngezindlela ezimangazayo kungumbono oyinhloko womthombo ovulekile. I-Android iyisibonelo esihle sendlela iLinux - abantu abaningi ababecabanga ngayo njengohlelo olusebenzayo lweseva eminyakeni eyishumi edlule - manje ibuye icabange ngathi njengohlelo lokusebenza lweselula. Futhi kunjalo ngoba abantu bakwazile ukusebenzisa isoftware futhi bazenzela okwabo.

- Ucabangani ngencwadi yokubhalela ye-Google Chromebook? Akumangalisi yini ukuthi isoftware yomthombo ovulekile yenze uhlelo olushiya umsebenzisi abe “yisigqila” senkampani eyodwa? 

"Kodwa unombono omubi kakhulu ngomhlaba, angithi ...?" 

- Cha, akuwona umbono ongemuhle… Ngimane ngiyintatheli, futhi ngikubuza imibuzo.

-Hey, ingxenye enhle yomndeni wami iyintatheli (umama wami, ubaba wami, umalume nomkhulu wami). Angicabangi ukuthi kunesidingo sokuba umuntu ongenathemba lokuba yintatheli.

"Kodwa ayixaka yini?"

"Anginasiqiniseko sokuthi i-Chrome iyaphi." Kepha ngasikhathi sinye kucace bha (bheka nje omakhalekhukhwini kanye namathebulethi) ukuthi iningi "labangewona amakhono" alifuni ikhompyutha ejwayelekile. Kunabantu abaningi abangafuni ngempela ukwenza isondlo kukhompyutha yabo, kepha bafuna ukufinyelela ezintweni ezijwayelekile, njengokuphequlula i-Intanethi, i-imeyili, ukucubungula amagama, ukuphathwa kwezithombe, njalonjalo. Futhi ngenkathi amaphilisi ebonakala emuhle kakhulu kulezi zinsuku, ngicabanga ukuthi abantu abaningi bafuna ikhibhodi negundane kuphela. Ukuthayipha izinto kuthebhulethi akukuhle impela. Ngakho-ke ngicabanga ukuthi i-Chromebook inengqondo kulolo hlobo lwendawo yabathengi. Kungani ezokwenza abantu babe "yizigqila"? Kuyindaba elula. Ingabe uyisigqila sikagesi ngoba nje uthembele kuzo, futhi usuzikhokhele yini ukuze ugesi utholakale?

–Ucabanga ukuthi iqiniso lokuthi abathuthukisi abaningi abenze uhlelo lwe-OpenOffice ukubhala balwehlukanisa nephrojekthi yokwakha i-LibreOffice (lokhu kubizwa “ngemfoloko”) kukhombisa ukuqina komnyakazo womthombo ovulekile kanye “nobushiqela” bemiphakathi, noma ngabe icala elihlukile? 

-Ngokweqiniso ngicabanga ukuthi i-OpenOffice ngesinye isibonelo ochungechungeni lwamaphethini aboshwe ngamaketanga lapho abantu bezama "ukulawula" iphrojekthi ngokweqile futhi ekugcineni yehle ngoba "iqembu" elilawulayo lalingahambisani nabasebenzisi. Ukusuka ku-OpenOffice kuya e-Oracle nokuqiniswa kwalolo lawulo yikhona okwakuqeda ngokuphelele, kwaba namahemuhemu iminyaka yokuthi i-OpenOffice yathuthukiswa kanjani. Futhi cha, angicabangi ukuthi kuyicala elihlukile nganoma iyiphi indlela. Amaphrojekthi amaningi abekade ekulesi simo futhi okugcina sekwenzeka ukuthi lapho inkinga iba nzima kakhulu, othile "afake imfoloko" iphrojekthi (athathe ikhodi yamahhala enze inguqulo enegama elisha).

Kuyisinyathelo esikhulu, esibuhlungu, futhi amafoloko awaphumeleli ngaso sonke isikhathi, kepha nakanjani ayaphumelela. Futhi kwesinye isikhathi imfoloko igcina ingeyesikhashana, kepha kungumcimbi okhombisa iqembu lasekuqaleni ukuthi abakwazi ukungazinaki ezinye izinhlobo zengcindezi. Kulezo zimo izimfoloko zibuyiselwe emuva futhi lokho kuvame ukufaka ukuvulwa kwenhliziyo yeqembu lonjiniyela. Futhi kwezinye izimo imfoloko iba igebe elibanzi elingavali, noma ngenxa yezizathu zobuchwepheshe (ushintsho lube lukhulu kakhulu ukubuyela emuva), noma ikakhulukazi ngoba amaphrojekthi womabili anezindawo zokubuka ezahlukahlukene lapho kufanele aye khona. Ama-XEmacs aqhathaniswa nama-GNU emacs yisibonelo esingumlando esaziwa kakhulu salokho, kepha amaphrojekthi amaningi adlule kuleso sigaba. Futhi ngicabanga ukuthi izimfoloko ziyinto enhle. Yilokho okugcina abantu bethembekile emhlabeni womthombo ovulekile. Noma ngubani ogcina iphrojekthi yomthombo ovulekile uyazi ukuthi badinga ukugcina ingqondo yabo ivulekile ngoba uma kungenjalo omunye umuntu angavele eze afake iphrojekthi yakhe. Ngakho-ke imfoloko ingaba buhlungu kakhulu futhi ibuhlungu, kepha ngicabanga ukuthi iyingxenye yayo yonke imodeli yomthombo ovulekile.

-Ingabe iLinux izoyigcina ilayisense ye-GPLv2 noma izothuthela ku-GPLv3? 

-Oh, iLinux izohlala kunguqulo ye-GPLv2.

- unjani umsebenzi wakho wansuku zonke njengamanje? 

"Ngibhala ikhodi encane kakhulu kulezi zinsuku." Ngifunde ama-imeyili, ngihlanganisa amakhodi avela kwabanye, ngixoxa ngezinguquko bese ngitshela abantu ukuthi kungani ngingeke ngihlanganise ikhodi yabo. Ngakho-ke amaphesenti angama-99 alokho engikwenzayo ahlobene nokuxhumana, nokugcina okusemaphakathi kwekhodi yomthombo we-kernel, ngaphandle kokuzihlelela mina uqobo. Ngenza ushintsho oluthile, futhi ekukhishweni kwekhodi ngayinye imvamisa kunemibono embalwa ebhalwe yimina (ngaphezu kwamakhulu wamazwana ahlanganisiwe engiwenzayo), kepha akuyona imali enkulu leyo ngomqondo wangempela.

Ikhishwa nini i-kernel version 3? 

Ngicabanga ngokucabangisisa ngokukhipha uhlobo olulandelayo njengo-3.0, ngokwengxenye ngenxa yalo lonke lolu daba lweminyaka engama-20, kodwa futhi ngoba izinombolo ziya ngokuya zanda: inguqulo 2.6 isiyikhulu kakhulu, kanti ingxenye yama-39 yenguqulo yamanje ithi inani lonke kunzima kakhulu ukulikhumbula.

- Yiziphi izinkampani zehadiwe ezingafuni kakhulu ukusekela iLinux? 

Izinkampani eziningi zehardware zisekela iLinux. Kepha abaningi babo abanayo imibhalo emihle (futhi okubaluleke kakhulu, abanalo isiko lokubhala imibhalo yomphakathi yanoma yiluphi uhlobo) futhi iningi labo lisahleli phezu "kothango" lwabo. Izinkampani eziningi zibonakala zinqikaza ikakhulukazi. UNvidia, emhlabeni wePC, ube yinkinga, njengoba abenzi bezingcingo abangenantambo bebelokhu bekhona. Abantu emhlabeni ongenazintambo babonakala belahlile, kepha abenzi be-chip chip bayinkinga. Ngakho-ke umhlaba weLinux ngokuvamile uyinkinga ukuthola abashayeli be-3D abashesha kahle. Futhi ngoba? Kwazi bani. Mhlawumbe banovalo lokuthi kuzokhonjiswa ukuthi impahla yomuntu onobuhlakani yake yantshontshwa, nokuthi ngokwenza ukuthi kube sesidlangalaleni bazokwaziwa futhi bamangalelwe. Angazi ngempela ukuthi kungani. Lokhu kushiwo njengesinye sezizathu ezingaba khona, zokuthi ikhodi ivaliwe ne-hardware ivaliwe. Esinye isizathu esijwayelekile, ikakhulukazi njengoba singumthombo ovaliwe, ukuthi senziwe kabi futhi sigcwele izimbungulu kangangokuthi banamahloni okukukhombisa.

- Ekugcineni, ungahlala phansi noRichard Stallman - umakhi weFree Software Foundation, kanye nomqondo wesoftware yamahhala - ukuxazulula ukungaboni ngaso linye, noma ngabe asevele angahlangani manje? 

"Hawu, ngihlangane neRMS kaningi futhi sinemibono eyehlukene kakhulu yokuthi izinto kumele zenziwe kanjani." Ugxile kakhulu embuzweni wonke wokuthi "umbono" wokuthi izinto kumele zenziwe kanjani. Futhi ngimelene nalokho.

- Ucabanga ukuthi kungani abantu basebenzisa igama elithi GNU kuncane ukukhuluma ngeLinux? 

Angikaze ngisebenzise igama elithi GNU. ILinux ayikaze ibe iphrojekthi yeFree Software Foundation, kanti iFSF ayikaze ihlangane ngalutho nayo. Iningi lamathuluzi akuyona i-GNU, noma, yize i-GNU C compiler yayisunguliwe futhi iyinto enhle. Ngakho-ke igama elithi GNU / Linux alikaze lenze mqondo omkhulu. Sengikushilo lokho, angikaze ngicabange ukuthi abantu ngeke bakwazi ukuyibiza nganoma yini abayifunayo. Ukusabalalisa okuningi kunikeza uhlelo uhlelo igama lalo: Fedora, SuSE, Ubuntu, Android, Mandriva, uhlu luyaqhubeka. Ngakho-ke uma i-FSF ifuna ukuyibiza nge-GNU / Linux, kungani kufanele ngikhathazeke? Akunangqondo kakhulu kunokubiza uhlobo lwesigqoko, ngemuva kwakho konke.

Umthombo: ikhasi 12


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana ayi-9, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   IGermail86 kusho

    Umbiko muhle kakhulu futhi ngiyavumelana ezintweni eziningi, yize ngicabanga ukuthi umbono kaRichard Stallman nawo muhle kepha ngaphandle kokungena ekushisekeleni okukhulu: yize ngihlala ngisebenzisa Ubuntu kuyo yonke imisebenzi yami, bekufanele ngenze ikhasi futhi bekufanele ngisebenzise i-DreamWeaver ne-Photoshop, futhi ngijabule kakhulu ngemiphumela, kepha iLinux nakanjani uhlelo lwami lokusebenza lwansuku zonke. Kuyingxenye yenkululeko yokukhetha kepha ukuze wenze kanjalo kufanele ube nethuba lokukhetha.

    Ngikubona kukuhle ukucasula izinkampani ukuthi ziqale ukukhipha ikhodi yazo ngoba kunethuba elikhulu lokuthi zakhiwe kabi. Kukhompyutha efanayo enesiphequluli se-Chrome / Chromium esifanayo, amakhasi ahamba kancane ku-Windows hhayi ku-Linux. Kungani? Impendulo ngonjiniyela abanamakhodi abo avaliwe.

    Okokugcina, ngikholelwa ukuthi iLinux isivele idlula umuntu wayo, ukuthi umphakathi ubaluleke kakhulu maqondana nomnikelo kepha kuyisipho esihle kulowo otshala imbewu lapho izihlahla eziningi namaqabunga amaningi azalwa khona ... ngiyahamba ukugubha ngomhlaka 17 Septhemba.

  2.   Guest kusho

    Kube kungukuqonda kwami ​​ukuthi uStallman wayehlanganise i-GNU + Linux futhi wakhiqiza "ukusatshalaliswa kokuqala" (yingakho efuna isikweletu kuphrojekthi ye-GNU). Ngemuva kwalokhu kusatshalaliswa kokuqala ingabe u-Debian wagcina evelile?

  3.   U-Eduardo Battaglia kusho

    Ngiyaqonda ukuthi bobabili uLinus nabanye abahlole iLinux ezinhlotsheni zayo zokuqala, basebenzise amathuluzi we-GNU (umhlanganisi, njll.) Ukuyihlola nokwenza ukuthi isebenze. Kepha, ngicabanga, lokho akuhlangene nokwamukela igama elithi GNU / Linux.

  4.   Guillermo kusho

    Kuyiqiniso, i-linux ayikaze ivele kuphrojekthi ye-gnu noma ye-fsf, i-kernel ye-GNU yi-HURD, okuthi uma ibisesigabeni esisebenza kakhudlwana (kuyi-alpha okwamanje), isebenza kahle kakhulu futhi ihlelekile kune-linux.
    Ukube bekukhona uHurd osebenzayo namhlanje ngabe ngisebenzisa i-debian gnu / hurd http://www.debian.org/ports/hurd/

  5.   Masisebenzise iLinux kusho

    Hhayi lokho kuphela. Ngisho nanamuhla, i-kernel isahlanganiswa ne-GCC, umqambi we-GNU Project's C.

  6.   Oliver kusho

    Uh! yinhlolokhono enkulu kangaka. Ungumuntu othakazelisa kakhulu, lo Mnu Linus ...

  7.   U-Adan Arturo Bravo Guzman kusho

    Imibono ethokozisayo kaMnu Linus, ngicabanga ukuthi ngizothatha uSepthemba 17 ukugubha iminyaka engama-20 yeLinux, okuphelele lapha eMexico yonke leyo nyanga kuyimigubho 😀

  8.   I-LinuxYya! kusho

    Ngiyavuma ngokuphelele, nami ngimelene nemibuzo eminingi yemibono kaMnu. UStallman, ekugcineni egcina "egqilaza" yize engikushoyo kubonakala kungakholeki! ILinus Torvalds ibumbene futhi ilinganisiwe ngaphandle kokuningi, futhi uqinisile nalokho Ithemu GNU / Linux, nawo wonke la mathuluzi we-GNU, okufunwa uStallman ukuthi umuntu abone kancane namanje !!!

  9.   Ngobe91 kusho

    "Uyazikhumbula lezo zinsuku ezinhle ze-minix-1.1 lapho amadoda ayengamadoda futhi ebhalela abashayeli bawo amadivayisi abo?"
    Ngifuna ukuba yindoda ngelinye ilanga 🙂