Amalayisense okuthuthukisa iFree and Open Software: Imikhuba emihle

Amalayisense okuthuthukisa iFree and Open Software: Imikhuba emihle

Amalayisense okuthuthukisa iFree and Open Software: Imikhuba emihle

Una ilayisense le-software, uma kukhulunywa kabanzi, kungachazwa njenge- isivumelwano phakathi kwe umbhali (umdali) umnikazi wamalungelo okusebenzisa nokusabalalisa umkhiqizo owenziwe nomthengi noma umsebenzisi kuwo

Ngakho-ke, konke amalayisense Ngokwencazelo, zibandakanya ukugcwaliseka kochungechunge lwe- imigomo nemibandela kusungulwe ngumbhali (umdali). Okungukuthi, a ilayisense le-software, ayikho enye into ngaphandle kwe- ilungelo lokusebenzisa wohlelo ngaphansi kwemingcele ethile eyamukelwe.

Izinhlobo Zamalayisense

Izinhlobo Zamalayisense Esoftware

Kwezinye izimo, amalayisense esoftware imvamisa ukusungula ifayela le- isikhathi esinqunyelwe nawe uzoba nokufanayo, ngoba zingaba njalo unomphela noma ulinganiselwe. Esinye isici esivame ukubumba izici zabo yi- ububanzi bezwe, okungukuthi, indawo abazosetshenziswa kuyo imigomo nemibandela kusungulwe; ngoba izwe ngalinye livame ukuba nemithetho yalo maqondana ilayisense le-software.

Amalayisense zivame ukwehluka ngokuya nge- uhlobo lweSoftware ukumbozwa, okungukuthi, uhlobo ngalunye lweLayisense kanye / noma iSoftware luchaza olunye. Phakathi kwamaLayisense aziwayo kanye / noma iSoftware esingasho:

Imikhiqizo yesoftware yamahhala, okungeyona isoftware yamahhala noma evulekile

  • Ilayisense ye-Abandonware: Ivumela umsebenzisi ukuthi asebenzise isoftware esimweni sokulahlwa (mahhala wonke amalungelo obunikazi) esidlangalaleni futhi aqinisekiswe ngumlobi wayo. Ukwenza kube lula ukutholwa kokulungiswa nokwabiwa nabanye.
  • Ilayisense ye-Careware: Ivumela umsebenzisi amalungelo afanayo nelayisense leFreeware; kepha simema okufanayo ukwenza umnikelo ongeyona isibopho noma isimo, esivuna iminikelo yokuxhasa izinhloso zosizo, isisa senhlangano neminye imikhankaso ehlobene nayo. Ngokuvamile kuvumela umsebenzisi ukuthi ayikopishe futhi ayiguqule ngaphandle kwemingcele.
  • Ilayisense yeCrippleware: Ivumela umsebenzisi ukuthi asebenzise isoftware kuzinguqulo ezilula (lite), okungukuthi, ngemisebenzi elinganiselwe ngokuqhathaniswa nenguqulo ephelele noma ethuthukile.
  • Ilayisense ye-Donationware: Ivumela umsebenzisi amalungelo afanayo nelayisense leFreeware; kepha simema okufanayo ukwenza umnikelo ongaphoqelekile noma onemibandela, esivuna ukuqhubeka nokwenziwa kwesicelo esishiwoyo.
  • Ilayisense ye-Freeware: Ivumela umsebenzisi ilungelo lokusebenzisa nokukopisha isoftware ngaphansi kwemigomo echazwe ngumbhali walolo hlelo ngaphandle kokuvumela ngaphansi kwanoma yiziphi izimo ukuguqulwa noma ukuthengiswa kwalo ngabantu besithathu.
  • Ilayisense leposikhadi: Ivumela umsebenzisi amalungelo afanayo nelayisense leFreeware; kepha ukumema okufanayo ukuthumela incwadi yeposi, ngendlela engaphoqelekile noma enesimo, esivuna ukuthuthukiswa komkhiqizo.
  • Ilayisense le-Shareware: Ivumela umsebenzisi ukuthi asebenzise isoftware isikhathi esilinganiselwe noma unomphela, kepha ngemisebenzi evinjelwe. Okungenziwa kusebenze lapho ukhokha inguqulo ephelele.

Imikhiqizo yesoftware ephathelene nokuthengisa

Un Isoftware yokuphathelene imvamisa ngokuzenzakalela i-a Isoftware ephathelene nokuvalwa, ngoba ilayisense layo likhawulela i- ukukopisha, ukuguqula nokwabiwa kabusha kwamalungelo kokufanayo, ngaphandle kokuthi umsebenzisi (umthengi) akhokhe inani elithile kumbhali ukuze abe nelungelo lokwenza kanjalo.

Ngenkathi i- Isoftware yezentengiso Inelayisense enikeza ngokuzenzakalela, ukukhokhwa okufanayo okuzosetshenziswa. Noma kunjalo, kukhona Isoftware yezentengiso engakhululeka noma ephathelene nokuphathwanjengoba ikhona Isoftware engakhululekile futhi engekho kwezohwebo.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, ngezinga elikhulu noma ngokuphelele, amalayisense esoftware emkhakheni we Isoftware ephathelene, evaliwe, noma ethengiswayo Lokhu kungatholwa ezinhlelweni ezahlukahlukene, esingabala phakathi kwazo:

  • Ukulayisense kwevolumu (Ivolumu)
  • Imalayisense Yomkhiqizo Oningiliziwe (Ukuthengisa)
  • Ukunikezwa amalayisense ngogesi ngomkhiqizo othile (OEM)

Futhi, lapho a Umsebenzisi wokugcina imvamisa thola i- Ilayisense eningiliziwe imvamisa yaziwa njenge: Isivumelwano Selayisense Lomsebenzisi Wokugcina (EULA) o Isivumelwano Selayisense Lomsebenzisi Wokugcina (EULA). EsiNgisini kuvamise ukubizwa Isivumelwano Selayisense Lomsebenzisi Wokugcina (i-EULA).

Ezinye izinhlobo Zamalayisense Esoftware

  • Kusuka esizindeni somphakathi: Lokho okungafaki izinto ze-copyright futhi kuvumela ukusetshenziswa, ukukopisha, ukuguqulwa noma ukwabiwa kabusha kwenzuzo noma cha.
  • I-Copyleft: Lokho kusetshenziswe emikhiqizweni yeSoftware Emahhala, imigomo yokusabalalisa okungavumeli abasabalalisi bezinto ukuthi bengeze noma yimiphi imikhawulo eyengeziwe lapho besabalalisa kabusha noma beguqula, ukuze inguqulo eguquliwe nayo ibe mahhala.
  • Kusuka kwisoftware esezingeni eliphakeme: Esetshenziswa emikhiqizweni okungeyona i-Free Software, kepha igunyaza ukusetshenziswa, ukukopishwa, ukusatshalaliswa kanye nokuguqulwa kwabantu abangenzi nzuzo.

Ezinye izincazelo ezihlobene

  • Ubunikazi: Kuyisethi yamalungelo akhethekile aqinisekiswe nguhulumeni noma igunya kumqambi womkhiqizo omusha (ophathekayo noma ongaphatheki) okwazi ukusetshenziswa kabi ezimbonini ukuze kuzuze lowo ofake isicelo isikhathi esilinganiselwe.
  • I-copyright noma i-copyright: Uhlobo lokuvikelwa olunikezwa yimithetho esebenza emazweni amaningi kubabhali bemisebenzi yoqobo kubandakanya imibhalo, amadrama, umculo, imisebenzi yobuciko neyengqondo, yomibili ishicilelwe futhi isalindile ukushicilelwa.

Isoftware yamahhala nezinqubomgomo zomphakathi: Isiphetho

Isoftware Emahhala Namalayisense Womthombo Ovulekile

Isoftware yamahhala

El Isofthiwe yamahhala yisoftware ehlonipha ifayela le- inkululeko yomsebenzisi neyomphakathi. Ngokubanzi, kusho ukuthi abasebenzisi bane inkululeko yokusebenzisa, ukukopisha, ukusabalalisa, ukutadisha, ukuguqula nokuthuthukisa isoftware.

Ngokusho Isofthiwe yamahhala futhi ikakhulukazi mayelana Amalayisense avunyelwe (aqinisekisiwe / aqinisekisiwe) igunya eliphakeme kulokhu yi Isoftware yamahhala (FSF). Esigabeni sayo esinikezelwe Amalayisense avunyelwe nasengxenyeni ye- Amalayisense avunyelwe o Uhlu Lwamalayisense (yeSoftware, iMibhalo neminye imisebenzi, iyahambisana noma cha ne Ilayisensi Yomphakathi Jikelele (GPL), hhayi mahhala), ye- Inhlangano ye-GNU kuyakhulunywa phakathi kwabanye abaningi, labo abachazwe ngezansi:

Izinhlobo

  • Ilayisense Yomphakathi Jikelele ye-GNU: Imvamisa ibizwa ngokuthi yi-GPL - GNU, isetshenziselwa izinhlelo eziningi ze-GNU nangaphezulu kwengxenye yamaphakeji weSoftware Amahhala. Eyokugcina yinguqulo engu-3, ​​noma ngabe inguqulo 2 yangaphambilini isasetshenziswa.
  • Ilayisense Yomphakathi Ejwayelekile ye-GNU: Imvamisa ibizwa ngokuthi yi-LGPL - GNU, futhi isetshenziselwa eminye (hhayi yonke) imitapo yolwazi ye-GNU. Eyokugcina yinguqulo 3, noma ngabe inguqulo yangaphambilini engu-2.1 yayo isasetshenziswa.
  • I-Affero General Public License: Imvamisa ibizwa ngokuthi i-AGPL - GNU, isuselwa ku-GNU GPL, kepha iqukethe isigatshana esingeziwe esivumela abasebenzisi ukuthi bahlanganyele nohlelo olunelayisense ngenethiwekhi ukuthola ikhodi yomthombo yalolo hlelo. Okwakamuva yinguqulo 3.
  • Ilayisense Lezincwadi Zamahhala le-GNU: Imvamisa ibizwa ngokuthi yi-FDL - GNU noma i-GFDL, iyindlela yelayisensi yeCopyleft eyenzelwe amabhukwana, izincwadi noma eminye imibhalo. Inhloso yalokhu ukuqinisekisa ukuthi wonke umuntu unenkululeko yokukopisha nokusabalalisa umsebenzi kabusha, noma kungashintshiwe lutho, ukuhweba noma ukuhweba. Okwakamuva yinguqulo engu-1.3.

Umthombo ovulekile

Isoftware Umthombo ovulekile isho isoftware kabani ikhodi yomthombo ibekwe ku isimo mahhala okuvela kuwo wonke umhlaba futhi unikezwa ngamalayisense alungiselela ukusetshenziswa kwawo kabusha noma ukuzivumelanisa nezimo ezahlukahlukene. Ihluke kakhulu ku- Isofthiwe yamahhala, njengoba eyokugcina ivikela inkululeko yabasebenzisi nomphakathi oyihlanganisayo, ngenkathi i- Umthombo Ovulekile amanani ikakhulu izinzuzo ezisebenzisekayo hhayi kakhulu imigomo yenkululeko enikezwa yi Isofthiwe yamahhala.

Ngokusho Umthombo Ovulekile futhi ikakhulukazi mayelana Amalayisense avunyelwe (aqinisekisiwe / aqinisekisiwe) igunya eliphakeme kulokhu yi I-Open Source Initiative (OSI). Esigabeni sayo esinikezelwe Amalayisense avunyelwe kuyakhulunywa phakathi kwabanye abaningi, labo abachazwe ngezansi:

Izinhlobo

  • I-Apache 2.0
  • I-BSD - Isigaba sesi-3
  • I-FreeBSD - Isigaba 2
  • I-GPL - GNU
  • I-LGPL - GNU
  • MIT
  • IMozilla 2.0
  • Ilayisense ejwayelekile yokuthuthukisa nokusabalalisa
  • Uhlobo lwe-Eclipse 2.0

I-OSI nayo ine- Uhlu lwamalayisense we-OSI nakho konke okuvunyiwe. Eziningi zalezi Amalayisense Womthombo Ovulekile athandwa kakhulu, asetshenziswa kabanzi noma anemiphakathi eqinile futhi nawo avunyelwe yi Isoftware yamahhala (FSF).

Imikhuba Emihle: Isoftware Yelayisense

 

Imikhuba emihle

Esihlokweni sethu, sithathe njengesibonelo i- Imikhuba emihle ikhulelwe futhi yadalulwa yi "Code for Development Initiative" i-del Ibhange leNtuthuko yaseMelika, kububanzi be- Isoftware Yelayisense, okumele ithathwe lapho kwenziwa imikhiqizo yesoftware (amathuluzi edijithali), ikakhulukazi mahhala futhi evulekile.

Phakathi kwe imikhuba emihle enikezwa yibo, Mayelana Isoftware Yelayisense yibo okukhulunywe ngabo ngezansi:

a) Faka ilayisense yomthombo ovulekile

Ukucaphuna isincomo sakho, kungukuthi:

"... MIT, enikeza inkululeko kwabanye abasebenzisi inqobo nje uma bethi umdali wokuqala; ilayisense I-Apache 2.0, ifana kakhulu ne-MIT kepha futhi inikezela ngokunikezwa okucacile kwamalungelo obunikazi avela kubaxhasi kubasebenzisi; kanye ne- Amalayisense we-GNU GPL, edinga noma ngubani osabalalisa ikhodi yakho noma umsebenzi osuselwe ekwenzeni lokho ngenkathi egcina umthombo namagama afanayo. Abakhokhi bentela banikela ngokunikezwa okucacile kwamalungelo obunikazi".

b) Faka nelayisense lemibhalo

Ukucaphuna isincomo sakho, kungukuthi:

"Sincoma ukusetshenziswa kwamalayisense we-creative commons wokuthola amalayisense wemibhalo yamathuluzi. I- I-CC0-1.0, i-CC-BY-4.0 ne-CC-BY-SA-4.0 isibonelo ngamalayisense avulekile asetshenziselwa izinto ezingezona ezesoftware, kusuka kumasethi wedatha kuya kumavidiyo. Qaphela ukuthi I-CC-BY-4.0 ne-CC-BY-SA-4.0 akufanele zisetshenziselwe isoftware. Ngamathuluzi akhiqizwe yi-IDB okwamanje, sincoma ukusebenzisa i- I-Creative Commons IGO 3.0 Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivative (CC-IGO 3.0 BY-NC-ND)".

Ekugcineni, uma ufuna ukufunda ifayili lethu le- Izindatshana ezi-2 ezihlobene ezedlule Nengqikithi sikushiya izixhumanisi ezingezansi: "Imikhuba emihle yokwakha iSoftware yamahhala nevulekile: Imibhalo" y "Ikhwalithi Yezobuchwepheshe: Imikhuba emihle ekwakhiweni kweSoftware Emahhala".

Isiphetho

Isiphetho

Siyethemba ukuthi lokhu "okuthunyelwe okuwusizo okuncane" cishe «Buenas prácticas» emkhakheni we «Licencias» ukuzisebenzisela yena «Software libre y abierto» ithuthukisiwe, inentshisekelo enkulu nokusetshenziswa, kwayo yonke «Comunidad de Software Libre y Código Abierto» kanye negalelo elikhulu ekusabalalisweni kwesimangaliso semvelo, esikhulu futhi esikhulayo sokusebenzisa kanye nokwenzelwe «GNU/Linux».

Futhi ukuthola eminye imininingwane, unganqikazi njalo ukuvakashela noma yikuphi Umtapo wolwazi oku-inthanethi njengoba I-OpenLibra y I-JedIT ukufunda izincwadi (ama-PDF) ngalesi sihloko noma ezinye izindawo zolwazi. Okwamanje, uma ukuthandile lokhu «publicación», ungayeki ukuyaba nabanye, ku- Amawebhusayithi ayizintandokazi, iziteshi, amaqembu, noma imiphakathi zokuxhumana nabantu, okungcono mahhala futhi evulekile njenge I-mastodon, noma ukuphepha nokuyimfihlo kwangasese yocingo.

Noma mane uvakashele ikhasi lethu lasekhaya ku- KusukaLinux noma ujoyine iSiteshi esisemthethweni Yocingo kusuka ku-DesdeLinux ukufunda nokuvotela lokhu noma ezinye izincwadi ezithakazelisayo ku- «Software Libre», «Código Abierto», «GNU/Linux» nezinye izihloko ezihlobene ne- «Informática y la Computación»kanye «Actualidad tecnológica».


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

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