I-Master Master DNS ye-LAN ku-Debian 6.0 (I)

Saqala uchungechunge lokuthunyelwe mayelana Ungayifaka kanjani futhi uyilungiselele kanjani i-Master Primary DNS ne-Cache ku-Debian Squeeze?, esizimisele ukunikeza ngayo i- Iphoyinti lokungena emhlabeni othakazelisayo wale nsizakalo ebalulekile yokusebenza kweNethiwekhi Yezinethiwekhi okuyi-Intanethi.

Zonke izindatshana zenzelwe ukuthi zisetshenziswe ngokulandelana. I- 1 y 2da ingxenye iqukethe ubuncane bolwazi lwethiyori oludingekayo ku-New noma Newbie ingaqonda futhi ithuthukise ukufakwa kwe-DNS.

Siyabancoma ukuthi bangesatshiswa. Funda futhi usebenzise okubhaliwe futhi nakanjani uzothola imiphumela emihle. Futhi kwabasolwa ngokujwayelekile bokuwela ekuphelelweni yithemba, sincoma ukuzola, ukuzola okukhulu uma ufuna ukuqonda ukuthi ungayilungisa kanjani le nsizakalo ebalulekile.

Ungixolele ukusetshenziswa kwamagama esiNgisi kanye ne-Anglicism ngezikhathi ezithile. Kwenziwe ukuthola ukucaciseleka kobuchwepheshe ngokubhala.

Izici esizozithuthukisa kule Ngxenye yokuqala yilezi ezilandelayo:

  • Isingeniso
  • Izincazelo eziwusizo
  • Izilungiselelo ezivame kakhulu ze-DNS
  • Izindawo namaRekhodi
  • Izikhathi Zokuqeda Isikhathi
  • Amathiphu

Isingeniso

Basho esigodini iWWW ukuthi iDNS ingenye yezindawo ezimnyama kakhulu zezinsizakalo zenethiwekhi. Ngenhlanhla, lokhu akunjalo - ikakhulukazi i-LAN - njengoba sizokhombisa ngezihloko ezilandelayo. Noma umuntu engayifuni, kucishe kuphoqeleke ukufunda ingxenye encane yethiyori. 

Incazelo ngokusho kwe-Wikipedia:

El DNS iyi-database esatshalalisiwe neyohlu lokulandelana egcina imininingwane ehambisana namagama wesizinda kumanethiwekhi afana ne-Intanethi. Noma njenge-database i-DNS ikwazi ukuhlanganisa izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zolwazi egameni ngalinye, ukusetshenziswa okuvame kakhulu ukunikezwa kwamagama wesizinda kumakheli we-IP kanye nendawo yamaseva we-imeyili wesizinda ngasinye.

Ukuqamba amagama kumakheli we-IP ngokuqinisekile kuyisici esaziwa kakhulu sezivumelwano ze-DNS. Isibonelo, uma ikheli le-IP lesiza se-prox.mx FTP lingu-200.64.128.4, iningi labantu lifinyelela kulo mshini ngokucacisa i-fp.prox.mx hhayi ikheli le-IP. Ngaphezu kokukhumbuleka kalula, igama lithembekile. Ikheli lezinombolo lingashintsha ngezizathu eziningi, ngaphandle kokuthi ushintshe igama.

Ekuqaleni, i-DNS yazalwa ngaphandle kwesidingo sokukhumbula kalula amagama awo wonke amaseva axhunywe kwi-Intanethi. Ekuqaleni, i-SRI (manje eyi-SRI International) ibibambe ifayela elibizwa ngokuthi ama-HOSTS aqukethe wonke amagama wesizinda aziwayo (ngochwepheshe, leli fayela likhona, futhi amasistimu amaningi wamanje wokusebenza angalungiselelwa ukuhlola ifayili lakho le-Host). Ukukhula okuqhumayo kwenethiwekhi kwenza ukuthi uhlelo lokuqamba amagama lube yimbumba olungelona olungenakwenzeka futhi ngo-1983, uPaul Mockapetris washicilela ama-RFC 882 kanye nama-883 echaza lokho namuhla okuguquke kwaba yi-DNS yanamuhla. (Lawa ma-RFC enziwe aphelelwa yisikhathi ngokushicilelwa kuka-1987 ama-RFC 1034 no-1035).

Amakhompyutha lapho le nsiza isebenza khona abizwa "Amagama Weseva". I-Debian iletha ezinqolobaneni zayo izinhlelo eziningana zokuba ne-DNS esebenzayo futhi phakathi kwazo iyona esetshenziswa kakhulu kwi-Intanethi: THOLA o "Isizinda Sokuqamba Igama se-Berkley Internet".

Bopha yi okujwayelekile njengeseva ye-DNS. I-Free Software futhi isatshalaliswa ngamapulatifomu amaningi we-UNIX ne-Linux. Baphinde babhekise ku-Bopha ngokuthi “okuthiwa”(Ibizwa nge-daemon). Ungathola lapha (iWikipedia ngesiNgisi) ukuqhathanisa izinhlobo ezahlukene zamaseva we-DNS.

Izincazelo eziwusizo

I-NetBIOS: I-Network Basic Input / Output System (NetBIOS): Uhlelo oluyisisekelo lokufaka nokukhipha inethiwekhi (NetBIOS). I-interface programming interface (i-API) engasetshenziswa yizinhlelo kunethiwekhi yendawo (LAN).

INetBIOS inikela ngezinhlelo ngemiyalo efanayo yokucela izinsizakalo ezisezingeni eliphansi ezidingekayo ukuphatha amagama, ukuqondisa izikhathi, nokuthumela "ama-datagrams”Phakathi kwezindawo zokuxhumana.

Igama le-NetBIOS: Igama le-16-bit lenqubo esebenzisa uhlelo oluyisisekelo lokufaka nenethiwekhi (NetBIOS). Igama elibonwa isevisi ye-Microsoft WINS (Windows Internet Name System), ehlanganisa noma "imephu" ikhompyutha noma igama lomphathi ekhelini elithile le-IP.

I-FQDN"Igama Lesizinda Elifaneleke Ngokugcwele" o Igama Lesizinda Elifaneleke Ngokugcwele. Njengoba ukuhumusha amagama akhiwe ngesiNgisi sobuchwepheshe kuvame ukuba kukhulu kakhulu, ngincoma ukuthi ufunde igama lesiNgisi futhi ngezinjongo ezisebenzayo ubhekise kulo njengo I-FQDN. Akuyona into ngaphandle kwegama le-DNS Domain elibekiwe ukukhombisa indawo yalo ngokuphelele esihlahleni se-namespace yesizinda.

Ngokuphikisana namagama ahlobene, a I-FQDN kwandulelwa yisikhathi sokukhombisa isikhundla saso empandeni yesikhala segama. Isibonelo: freake.amigos.cu. nguyena I-FQDN kusuka kumphathi ogama lakhe le-NetBIOS elingu-freake futhi elingelesizinda se-amigos.cu.

abangani.cu. freake.amigos.cu. othooc.amigos.cu. mail.amigos.cu.

Izilungiselelo ezivame kakhulu ze-DNS

Singakwazi ukumisa i-DNS noma i-Domain Name Server ngezindlela ezahlukahlukene zokuhlinzeka ngezinsizakalo ezahlukahlukene. Okusetshenziswa kakhulu yile:

Inqolobane Yesilondolozi ("Ukulondolozwa kwesikhashana kwe-Nameserver"Izicelo noma izicelo ezenziwe kwiseva zizoxazululwa Abadlulisi esibamemezelayo ekucushweni kwakho. Izimpendulo zizogcinwa futhi "zikhunjulwe" lapho i-Cache Server ibuzwa futhi, okwandisa kakhulu isivinini sokuphendula.

Uthisha Oyinhloko ("Umphathi oyinhloko"Izicelo noma izicelo ezenziwe kwiseva zizoxazululwa ngokufunda idatha egcinwe kumafayili wendawo amaZoni adaliwe. Njengoba igama layo likhombisa, kuzoba yi-Authoritative Name Server yeZoni exoxiwe.

Uthisha Wesibili ("Umphathi wesibili"Izicelo noma izicelo ezenziwe kwiseva zizoxazululwa ngokubonisana ngqo neseva ye-Master Master Authoritarian yendawo exoxiwe. Igcina ikhophi esesikhathini yeZones ze-Primary Master's.

Singayilungisa futhi ukuze benze imisebenzi eminingana ngasikhathi sinye, njengokuba yi-Primary Master ne-Caché ngasikhathi sinye, okuvame kakhulu kumanethiwekhi wethu webhizinisi.

Izindawo namaRekhodi

I-Las Izindawo ngamafayili wombhalo asobala asivumela ukuthi sihlele amafayela we- Amarekhodi e-DNS. Igama ngalinye lendawo lifana negama lesizinda, noma uhla lwamakheli we-IP anjenge-subnet eyodwa noma ngaphezulu. Iqukethe, ngaphezu kweminye imininingwane, ehlukahlukene Amarekhodi wamakilasi noma Izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene, lapho sizokhuluma ngokulandelayo kuphela:

SOA"Ukuqala Kwesiphathimandla". Ukuqala Kwesiphathimandla. Kuyirekhodi eliyimpoqo kuZoni ngayinye, futhi kufanele kube nelilodwa kuphela kufayela ngalinye. Kuyisingeniso kuwo wonke amafayela wezoni. Chaza indawo uqobo lwayo; yimuphi umshini noma umphathi ophuma kuwo; ngubani obhekene nokuqukethwe kwayo; okuyihlobo lefayela lezoni, nezinye izici eziphathelene nokusebenza kahle kweseva ye-DNS. Ingabe kubalulekile ukuthi kufayela ngalinye lendawo kukhona irekhodi lohlobo A ekhomba umshini noma umphathi lapho iseva ye-DNS ihlala khona.

NSImephu igama ku-Name Server. Isizinda ngasinye kufanele okungenani sibe nerekhodi elilodwa le-NS. Leli rekhodi likhomba kuseva ye-DNS engaphendula imibuzo ephathelene nesizinda. Ungakhomba uthisha oyinhloko noma uthisha wesibili.

A“Ikheli” - (Ukuqondiswa). Leli rekhodi lisetshenziselwa ukuhumusha amagama aphethwe kumakheli e-IPv4.

Be My Valentine“Ikheli” - (Ukuqondiswa). Leli rekhodi lisetshenziselwa ukuhumusha amagama aphethwe kumakheli e-IPv6.

I-CNAME:  "Igama le-Canonical" - (Igama le-Canonical). Uhlobo lwerekhodi esinganikeza ngalo amagama ambalwa kumsingathi ofanayo noma sakhe alias kwe. Masithi sine-web host.amigos.cu. lapho sifake khona iseva yewebhu futhi sifuna ukuthi bayibhekise kuyo njengo-www.amigos.cu. Lapho-ke eZikeni zeFriends.cu kufanele sibe phakathi kwamanye amarekhodi:

iwebhu KU-192.168.10.20 www IN CNAME web.amigos.cu.

MX"Ukushintshaniswa Kwemeyili" o Iseva yemeyili. Imininingwane esetshenziswa ngamanye amaseva weposi ukwazi ukuthi ungayithumela kuphi i-imeyili enikezwe ikheli le-IP. Irekhodi ngalinye le-MX libaluleke kakhulu, lapho irekhodi eliphakeme kakhulu kunenombolo ephansi kakhulu. Izibonelo:

10 imeyili1.amigos.cu. 20 imeyili2.amigos.cu.

PTRUkuhlela ikheli le-IP egameni. Izinhlobo zamarekhodi agcinwe kulokho okubizwa nge- "Reverse Zones". Isibonelo, iZone 10.168.192.in-addr.arpa yiyo equkethe imephu eguquguqukayo yawo wonke amakheli ebangeni lekheli le-IP le-192.168.10.0 / 24.

Vele uhlu lwezinhlobo zamarekhodi luyaqhubeka ...

Ukuphelelwa yisikhathi kwendawo noma izikhathi zokuphelelwa yisikhathi

Lapho sakha amafayela wezindawo zamarekhodi e-DNS, kufanele silungiselele i-Expired Times ngemizuzwana. Noma kunjalo, singazichaza ngendlela emfushane ngokusho kwetafula elilandelayo:

Segundos	Unidades	Descripción
60		1M		A un minuto
1800		30M		A 30 minutos
3600		1H		Una Hora
10800		3H		3 horas
21600		6H		6 horas
43200		12H		12 horas
86400		1D		Un día
259200		3D		3 días
604800		1W		Una semana

Amathiphu

Kufanele siqaphele lapho sibhalela amafayela wezoni. I-Los I-FQDN kufanele kugcine ngo "." (leyo, ichashazi), futhi asikwazi ukushiya izikhala ezingenalutho ekugcineni komugqa ngamunye. Ngaleso sizathu sincoma ngokuqinile ukusetshenziswa kwabahleli be-console abanjengo vi noma i nano. Sizosebenzisa i- nano, okuthi ngokombono wethu kulula ukuyisebenzisa. Vele singaphinda sisebenzise abahleli bombhalo abangenalutho ngemvelo yokuqhafaza noma ye-GUI.

Ngiyethemba awuzange ube nesithukuthezi ngoba kusekuncane okuzokwenziwa kulolu daba.

Kukhona okunye "Ukubuyela emuva" kwamaseva we-DNS njenge-LDAP, MySql, PostgreSQL, SQLite, njll.

Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana ayi-8, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   umhlaziyi kusho

    I-athikili ibukeka yinhle futhi iphelele, ngiyethemba ukusifunda kungekudala.

  2.   Rots87 kusho

    Kubi kakhulu ukuthi ngisemsebenzini ngoba ngingathanda ukukufunda ngokucophelela ...

  3.   Ukufa_ okukhanyelayo kusho

    Umnikelo omuhle kakhulu.

  4.   KZKG ^ Gaara kusho

    Kuhle ukuthi ubeke lezi zihloko lapha ... ngiyabonga ngosizo lwakho Fico 😀

  5.   Mnu kusho

    Kuhle kakhulu! Ilinde ezinye izingxenye, lokhu okuthunyelwe nge "substance" kufanelekile, ngiyabonga

  6.   Julio Cesar kusho

    I-athikili enhle kakhulu umngani wami omkhulu uFICO

  7.   phico kusho

    Ngiyabonga nonke ngemibono yenu .. 🙂

  8.   Francisco kusho

    Sawubona, sawubona, futhi ucabanga ukuthi unganginika izeluleko zokufaka insiza ye-Linux DNs yenethiwekhi yami, ngisekusha kulokho futhi abanginikezi ezinye izinsizakalo njengoba bekulindelwe abasebenzisi bami.

    Phendula ngokucaphuna