Amagciwane ku-GNU / Linux: Iqiniso noma Inganekwane?

Noma nini lapho impikiswano mayelana igciwane y I-GNU / Linux Akuthathi isikhathi eside ukuthi umsebenzisi avele (imvamisa iWindows) uthini:

«KuLinux awekho amagciwane ngoba abadali balezi zinhlelo ezinonya abachithi isikhathi benza okuthile ngohlelo olusebenzayo olungasebenzisi muntu »

Engihlale ngiphendula kukho:

"Inkinga akuyona leyo, kepha abasunguli balezi zinhlelo ezinonya ngeke bachithe isikhathi ngokwakha okuthile okuzolungiswa ngokuvuselelwa kokuqala kohlelo, ngisho nangaphansi kwamahora angama-24"

Futhi bengingenaphutha, njengoba lo mbhalo omuhle kakhulu ushicilele ku Inombolo 90 (Unyaka 2008) kusuka kuTodo Linux Magazine. Umlingisi wakhe UDavid Santo Orcero isinikeza ngendlela yezobuchwepheshe (kepha kulula ukuyiqonda) incazelo yokuthi kungani I-GNU / Linux ayinalo lolu hlobo lwe-software enobungozi.

Kunconywe i-100%. Manje bazoba nezinto ezingaphezu kokukholisa ukuthulisa noma ngubani okhuluma ngaphandle kwesisekelo esiqinile ngale ndaba.

Landa i-Article (PDF): Izinganekwane Namaqiniso: I-Linux namaGciwane

 

KUHLELWE:

Nayi i-athikili ebhaliwe, njengoba sibheka ukuthi kukhululeke kakhulu ukufunda ngale ndlela:

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Impikiswano yeLinux negciwane ayiyintsha. Njalo lapho sibona i-imeyili ohlwini sibuza ukuthi akhona yini amagciwane eLinux; futhi ngokuzenzakalela othile uphendula ngokuqinile futhi athi uma zingathandwa kakhulu kungenxa yokuthi iLinux ayandile njengaseWindows. Kukhona nokukhishwa njalo kwabezindaba kusuka kubathuthukisi be-antivirus abathi bakhulula izinhlobo zamagciwane e-Linux.

Ngokwami, ngike ngaba nengxoxo ngezikhathi ezithile nabantu abahlukahlukene ngeposi, noma ngohlu lokusabalalisa, maqondana nodaba lokuthi amagciwane akhona noma cha ku-Linux. kuyinganekwane, kepha kuyinkimbinkimbi ukudiliza inganekwane noma, kunalokho, yinkohliso, ikakhulukazi uma kubangelwa intshisekelo yezomnotho. Othile unesifiso sokudlulisa umbono wokuthi uma iLinux ingenazo lezi zinhlobo zezinkinga, kungenxa yokuthi bambalwa kakhulu abantu abayisebenzisayo.

Ngesikhathi sokushicilela lo mbiko, bengizothanda ukubhala umbhalo ocacile ngokuba khona kwamagciwane eLinux. Ngeshwa, lapho inkolelo-ze nezintshisekelo zomnotho zidla lubi, kunzima ukwakha okuthile okucacayo.
Kodwa-ke, sizozama ukwenza impikiswano ephelele lapha ukuvimbela ukuhlaselwa kwanoma ngubani ofuna ukukuphikisa.

Liyini igciwane?

Okokuqala nje, sizoqala ngokuchaza ukuthi liyini igciwane. Kuluhlelo oluzikopisha lona futhi luzisebenzele, futhi oluhlose ukushintsha ukusebenza okujwayelekile kwekhompyutha, ngaphandle kwemvume yomsebenzisi noma ulwazi. Ukwenza lokhu, amagciwane athatha indawo yamafayela asebenzisekayo afakwe amanye angenwe yikhodi yawo. Incazelo ijwayelekile, futhi isifinyezo somugqa owodwa wokufakwa kwe-Wikipedia kumagciwane.
Ingxenye ebaluleke kakhulu yale ncazelo, naleyo ehlukanisa igciwane kwamanye ama-malware, ukuthi igciwane liyazifaka, ngaphandle kwemvume noma ulwazi lomsebenzisi. uma ingazifaki, ayilona igciwane: kungaba i-rootkit, noma iTrojan.

I-rootkit isichibi se-kernel esikuvumela ukuthi ufihle izinqubo ezithile kusuka kuzinsiza zendawo yomsebenzisi. Ngamanye amagama, kungukuguqulwa kwekhodi yomthombo we-kernel inhloso yayo ukuthi izinsiza ezisivumela ukuthi sibone okwenziwayo ngaso sonke isikhathi azibonisi ngenqubo ethile, noma umsebenzisi othile.

ITrojan iyafana: kuwukuguqulwa kwekhodi yomthombo yesevisi ethile ukufihla umsebenzi othile wokukhwabanisa. Kuzona zozimbili lezi zimo, kuyadingeka ukuthola ikhodi yomthombo yenguqulo ngqo efakwe emshinini we-Linux, ubambe ikhodi, uyiqoqe kabusha, uthole amalungelo okuphatha, ufake okufakwayo okungasetshenziswa, futhi uqalise insizakalo - esimweni seTrojan- noma uhlelo olusebenzayo. ephelele - esimweni se-
impande-. Inqubo, njengoba sibona, akuyona into encane, futhi akekho noyedwa ongakwenza konke lokhu "ngephutha". Zombili zidinga ekufakweni kwazo ukuthi umuntu onamalungelo okuphatha, ngokwazi, enze uchungechunge lwezinyathelo ezenza izinqumo zobuchwepheshe.

Okungeyona i-semantic nuance engabalulekile: ukuze igciwane lizifake ngokwalo, kwanele ngathi ukuthi siqhube uhlelo olunegciwane njengomsebenzisi ojwayelekile. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ukufaka i-rootkit noma iTrojan, kubalulekile ukuthi umuntu onobungozi afake i-akhawunti yezimpande zomshini, futhi ngendlela engeyona ezenzakalelayo, enze uchungechunge lwezinyathelo ezingabonakala. igciwane lisakazeka ngokushesha nangempumelelo; i-rootkit noma iTrojan idinga ukuthi zisikhombe ngqo.

Ukudluliswa kwamagciwane ku-Linux:

Indlela yokudlulisela igciwane, ngakho-ke, iyilona eliyichaza kanjalo, futhi iyisisekelo sobukhona bayo. uhlelo olusebenzayo luzwela kakhulu kumagciwane kuba lula kakhulu ukwakha indlela yokudlulisa esebenza kahle futhi ezenzakalelayo.

Ake sithi sinegciwane elifuna ukuzisabalalisa. Ake sithi yethulwe ngumsebenzisi ojwayelekile, ngokungenacala, lapho yethula uhlelo. Leli gciwane linezindlela ezimbili kuphela zokudlulisa:

  • Ukuziphindaphinda ngokuthinta inkumbulo yezinye izinqubo, ukuzilengisa kuzo ngesikhathi sokusebenza.
  • Ukuvula okuphumelelayo kokusebenza kwefayela, nokungeza ikhodi yabo - ukulayishwa- kokusebenzisekayo.

Onke amagciwane esingawabheka njengale okungenani anenye yezindlela ezimbili zokudlulisa. O Ababili. Azisekho izindlela.
Mayelana nomshini wokuqala, masikhumbule ukwakheka kwememori ebonakalayo yeLinux nokuthi amaprosesa we-Intel asebenza kanjani. Lawa anamasongo amane, abalwa kusuka ku-0 kuye ku-3; ukwehla kwenombolo, kukhulu namalungelo ekhodi egijima kulelo ring analo. Lezi zindandatho zihambelana nezigaba zeprosesa, ngakho-ke, ngalokho okungenziwa ngohlelo olukwindandatho ethile. I-Linux isebenzisa i-ring 0 ye-kernel, ne-ring 3 ngezinqubo. ayikho ikhodi yenqubo egijima eringini 0, futhi ayikho ikhodi ye-kernel egijima eringini 3. Kunendawo eyodwa yokungena ku-kernel kusuka eringini 3: ukuphazamiseka okungu-80h, okukuvumela ukuthi weqe ukusuka endaweni lapho yikhodi yomsebenzisi endaweni lapho ikhodi ye-kernel ikhona.

Ukwakhiwa kwe-Unix ngokujwayelekile neLinux ikakhulukazi akukwenzi ukuthi ukusabalala kwamagciwane kwenzeke.

I-kernel ngokusebenzisa imemori ebonakalayo yenza inqubo ngayinye ikholelwe ukuthi inememori ngokwayo. Inqubo –okusebenza eringini 3– ingabona kuphela imemori ebonakalayo eyakhelwe yona, yeringi esebenza kuyo. Akukhona ukuthi inkumbulo yezinye izinqubo ivikelwe; ukuthi ngenqubo eyodwa inkumbulo yezinye ingaphandle kwesikhala sekheli. Ukube inqubo ibizoshaya wonke amakheli ememori, ibingakwazi ngisho nokubhekisa ikheli lememori lenye inqubo.

Kungani lokhu kungakhohliswa?
Ukuguqula ukuphawula - ngokwesibonelo, khiqiza amaphuzu wokungena ku-ring 0, shintsha ukuphazamisa ama-vectors, shintsha imemori ebonakalayo, shintsha i-LGDT ... - kungenzeka kuphela kusuka ku-ring 0.
Lokho wukuthi, ngenqubo ezokwazi ukuthinta inkumbulo yezinye izinqubo noma i-kernel, kufanele ibe yinhlamvu uqobo lwayo. Futhi iqiniso lokuthi kunephuzu elilodwa lokungena nokuthi amapharamitha adluliswa kumarejista kuxaka isicupho - empeleni, kudluliswa kwirejista kuze kube yilapho kwenziwa, okuzobe sekuqaliswa njengecala enkambisweni yokunaka. 80h ukuphazamiseka.
Esinye isimo yisimo sezinhlelo zokusebenza ezinamakholi amaningi angenawo amaphepha okushaya u-0, lapho lokhu kungenzeka khona - kungahlala kunekholi ekhohliwe engasetshenziswanga kahle lapho kungakhiwa khona isicupho - kepha esimweni sohlelo lokusebenza olunjalo indlela elula yesinyathelo, akunjalo.

Ngalesi sizathu, ukwakheka kwememori ebonakalayo kuvimbela le ndlela yokudlulisa; azikho izinqubo - ngisho nalabo abanamalungelo empande - banendlela yokufinyelela kwimemori yabanye. Singasho ukuthi inqubo ingabona i-kernel; ibalazwe kusuka kukheli layo lememori elinengqondo 0xC0000000. Kepha, ngenxa yendandatho yeprosesa esebenza kuyo, awukwazi ukuyiguqula; kuzokhiqiza isicupho, ngoba kuyizindawo zememori ezingokwenye indandatho.

"Isixazululo" kungaba uhlelo olushintsha ikhodi ye-kernel uma iyifayela. Kepha iqiniso lokuthi lezi ziphinde zavuselelwa likwenza kube nzima. I-kanambambili ayikwazi ukumakwa, njengoba kunezigidi zezinhlamvu ezahlukene kanambambili emhlabeni. Mane nje lapho beyiphinda babebeke noma basuse okuthile ku-kernel ephathekayo, noma babeshintshe usayizi wamanye amalebula akhomba uhlobo lokuhlanganiswa - okuthile okwenziwa kungahlosiwe - isichibi se-kanambambili besingasetshenziswa. Enye indlela kungaba ukulanda ikhodi yomthombo kwi-Intanethi, ukuyinamathisela, ukuyilungiselela i-hardware efanelekile, ukuyihlanganisa, ukuyifaka, bese uqala kabusha umshini. Konke lokhu kufanele kwenziwe ngohlelo, ngokuzenzakalela. Kuyinselelo impela emkhakheni we-Artificial Intelligence.
Njengoba sibona, ngisho negciwane njengezimpande lingeqa lo mgoqo. Ukuphela kwesixazululo esisele ukuhanjiswa phakathi kwamafayela asebenzayo. Okungasebenzi futhi njengoba sizobona ngezansi.

Okuhlangenwe nakho kwami ​​njengomlawuli:

Eminyakeni engaphezu kweyishumi bengiphethe iLinux, ngokufakwa emakhulwini emishini ezikhungweni zedatha, emalabhorethri abafundi, ezinkampanini, njll.

  • Angikaze "ngilithole" igciwane
  • Angikaze ngihlangane nomuntu oke
  • Angikaze ngihlangane nomuntu oke wahlangana nomuntu oke wehlelwa nguyena

Ngazi abantu abaningi ababone iLoch Ness Monster kunababone amagciwane e-Linux.
Ngokwami, ngiyavuma ukuthi ngibe budedengu, futhi sengisungule izinhlelo eziningi labo abazibiza "ngochwepheshe" abazibiza ngokuthi "amagciwane weLinux" - kusukela manje kuqhubeke, ngizozibiza ngamagciwane, hhayi ukwenza umbhalo ube yisisekelo -, kusuka ku-akhawunti yami ejwayelekile emelene nomshini wami, ukubona ukuthi kungenzeka yini ukuthi litheleleke igciwane: zombili igciwane le-bash elizungeza lapho - futhi, ngasendleleni, elingazange lithelele amafayela - negciwane eladuma kakhulu, lavela emaphephandabeni. Ngizamile ukuyifaka; futhi ngemuva kwemizuzu engamashumi amabili yokusebenza, ngiyekile lapho ngibona ukuthi enye yezimfuno zakhe ukuthi abe nomkhombandlela we-tmp esehlukanisweni sohlobo lwe-MSDOS. Ngokwami, angazi noma ngubani odala ukwahlukanisa okuthile kwe-tmp bese eyihlela ku-FAT.
Eqinisweni, amanye okuthiwawawagciwane engiwahlolele i-Linux adinga ulwazi olusezingeni eliphezulu ne-password yezimpande ukuthi ifakwe. Singafaneleka, okungenani, njenge- "crappy" igciwane uma lidinga ukungenelela kwethu ukuthelela umshini. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kwezinye izimo zidinga ulwazi olunzulu lwe-UNIX ne-password eyimpande; okukude kakhulu nokufakwa okuzenzakalelayo okufanele kube yikho.

Ukungenela okuphumelelayo ku-Linux:

Ku-Linux, inqubo ingamane yenze lokho okuvunyelwa ngumsebenzisi wayo neqembu elisebenzayo. Kuyiqiniso ukuthi kunezindlela zokushintshanisa umsebenzisi wangempela ngemali, kepha okunye okunye. Uma sibheka lapho okufezekiswa khona, sizobona ukuthi yimpande kuphela enamalungelo okubhala kulezi zinkomba nakumafayela aqukethwe. Ngamanye amagama, yimpande kuphela engaguqula amafayela anjalo. Lokhu kunjalo e-Unix kusukela ngama-70s, kuLinux kusukela imvelaphi yayo, nakuhlelo lwefayela olusekela amalungelo, alikho iphutha elivele livele elivumela okunye ukuziphatha. Ukwakheka kwamafayela asebenzayo e-ELF kuyaziwa futhi kubhalwe kahle, ngakho-ke kungenzeka ukuthi ifayela lalolu hlobo lilayishe umthwalo okhokhelwayo kwelinye ifayela le-ELF ... inqobo nje uma umsebenzisi osebenza kahle weqembu langaphambili noma iqembu elisebenzayo langaphambili enamalungelo okufinyelela. ukufunda, ukubhala nokwenza ku-file yesibili. Mangaki ama-executable wesistimu yefayela engayithelela njengomsebenzisi ojwayelekile?
Lo mbuzo unempendulo elula, uma sifuna ukwazi ukuthi mangaki amafayela "esingawatheleleka", sethula umyalo:

$ find / -type f -perm -o=rwx -o \( -perm -g=rwx -group `id -g` \) -o \( -perm -u=rwx -user `id -u` \) -print 2> /dev/null | grep -v /proc

Sikhipha umkhombandlela we-proc ngoba iyi-fileystem ebonakalayo ekhombisa imininingwane yokuthi uhlelo lokusebenza lusebenza kanjani. Amafayela ohlobo lwefayela anamalungelo wokusebenzisa esizowathola awanankinga, ngoba imvamisa izixhumanisi ezibonakalayo ezibonakala zifundwa, zibhalwa futhi zenziwa, futhi uma umsebenzisi ezama, akusebenzi. Siphinde siwagwebe amaphutha, maningi - ngoba, ikakhulukazi ku / proc kanye / nasekhaya, kunezinkomba eziningi lapho umsebenzisi ojwayelekile engakwazi ukungena khona - Lo mbhalo uthatha isikhathi eside. Esimweni sethu esithile, emshinini lapho kusebenza abantu abane, impendulo ibithi:

/tmp/.ICE-unix/dcop52651205225188
/tmp/.ICE-unix/5279
/home/irbis/kradview-1.2/src
/kradview

Okukhiphayo kukhombisa amafayela amathathu abengatheleleka uma ngabe kuqhutshwa igciwane lokucabanga. Eyokuqala emibili ngamafayela ohlobo lwesokhethi e-Unix ayasuswa ekuqaleni - futhi angeke athintwe yigciwane-, kanti eyesithathu yifayela lohlelo olusathuthukayo, elisuswa njalo lapho liphindwa. Leli gciwane, ngokombono osebenzayo, lalingeke lisabalale.
Ngokwalokho esikubonayo, okuwukuphela kwendlela yokusabalalisa umthwalo okhokhelwayo ngokuba yimpande. Kulokhu, ukuze igciwane lisebenze, abasebenzisi kumele bahlale benamalungelo okuphatha. Uma kunjalo, ingathelela amafayela. Kepha nakhu kufika ukubamba: ukudlulisa ukutheleleka, udinga ukuthatha okunye okuphumelelayo, ukukuthumela komunye umsebenzisi osebenzisa kuphela umshini njengezimpande, bese uphinda inqubo.
Kuzinhlelo zokusebenza lapho kudingeka khona ukuba ngumlawuli wemisebenzi ejwayelekile noma ukwenza izinhlelo eziningi zansuku zonke, lokhu kungaba njalo. Kepha ku-Unix kuyadingeka ukuthi ube ngumlawuli ukumisa umshini futhi uguqule amafayela wokumisa, ngakho-ke inani labasebenzisi i-akhawunti yezimpande elibasebenzisa njenge-akhawunti yansuku zonke lincane. Kungaphezulu; okunye ukusatshalaliswa kwe-Linux akunayo i-akhawunti yezimpande enikwe amandla. Cishe kuzo zonke, uma ufinyelela imvelo enjengaleyo, ingemuva liyashintsha libe bomvu kakhulu, futhi nemiyalezo ephindaphindwayo iyaphindwa ekhumbuza ukuthi le akhawunti akufanele isetshenziswe.
Ekugcineni, konke okumele kwenziwe njengezimpande kungenziwa ngomyalo weSudo ngaphandle kwengozi.
Ngalesi sizathu, ku-Linux okusebenzisekayo akukwazi ukuthelela abanye inqobo nje uma singasebenzisi i-akhawunti yezimpande njenge-akhawunti ejwayelekile yokusebenzisa; Futhi yize izinkampani zama-antivirus ziphikelela zisho ukuthi kukhona amagciwane weLinux, empeleni into esondele kakhulu engadalwa kuLinux yiTrojan endaweni yomsebenzisi. Ukuphela kwendlela la maTrojans angathinta ngayo okuthile ohlelweni ukuluqhuba njengezimpande nangamalungelo adingekayo. Uma imvamisa sisebenzisa umshini njengabasebenzisi abajwayelekile, akunakwenzeka ngenqubo ethulwe ngumsebenzisi ojwayelekile ukuthelela uhlelo.

Izinganekwane namanga:

Sithola izinganekwane eziningi, amanga, namanga alula nje mayelana nama-virus ku-Linux. Masenze uhlu lwazo ngokuya ngengxoxo eyenzeka esikhathini esithile esidlule nommeleli womenzi we-antivirus yeLinux owacasulwa kakhulu yindatshana eyashicilelwa kulo magazini ofanayo.
Leyo ngxoxo iyisibonelo esihle senkomba, njengoba ithinta zonke izici zamagciwane ku-Linux. Sizobuyekeza zonke lezi zinganekwane ngamunye ngamunye njengoba kuxoxwe ngazo kuleyo ngxoxo ethile, kepha eziphindaphindwe kaningi kwezinye izinkundla.

Inganekwane 1:
"Akuzona zonke izinhlelo ezinonya, ikakhulukazi ama-virus, ezidinga amalungelo ezimpande ukuthelela, ikakhulukazi esimweni esithile segciwane elisebenzisekayo (ifomethi ye-ELF) elithelela okunye okuphumelelayo".

Impendulo:
Noma ngubani owenza isimangalo esinjalo akazi ukuthi uhlelo lwamalungelo e-Unix lusebenza kanjani. Ukuze kuthinteke ifayela, igciwane lidinga ilungelo lokufundwa –kumele lifundwe ukuze liguqulwe–, bese kubhalwa –kufanele kubhalelwe ukuguqulwa ukuze kuvumeleke- kufayela elisebenzisekayo elifuna ukulisebenzisa.
Lokhu kuhlala kunjalo, ngaphandle kokuhlukile. Futhi ku-distro ngayinye, abasebenzisi okungezona izimpande abanawo la malungelo. Ngemuva kwalokho ngokungabi yimpande, ukutheleleka akunakwenzeka. Ukuvivinywa kwamandla: Esigabeni esedlule sabona umbhalo olula wokubheka ububanzi bamafayela angathinteka ukutheleleka. Uma siyethula emshinini wethu, sizobona ukuthi incane kanjani, futhi maqondana namafayela wohlelo, null. Futhi, ngokungafani nezinhlelo zokusebenza ezifana neWindows, awudingi ukuba namalungelo okuphatha ukwenza imisebenzi ejwayelekile ngezinhlelo ezisetshenziswa kakhulu ngabasebenzisi abajwayelekile.

Inganekwane 2:
"Futhi akudingeki babe yimpande yokufaka isistimu ukude, esimweni seSlapper, isibungu, esisebenzisa ubungozi ku-Apache's SSL (izitifiketi ezivumela ukuxhumana okuphephile), yakha inethiwekhi yayo yemishini ye-zombie ngoSepthemba 2002.".

Impendulo:
Lesi sibonelo asisho igciwane, kepha isibungu. Umehluko ubaluleke kakhulu: isibungu wuhlelo olusebenzisa insiza ye-Intanethi ukuzithumela yona. Akuthinti izinhlelo zasendaweni. Ngakho-ke, kuthinta kuphela amaseva; hhayi kwimishini ethile.
Izikelemu bezilokhu zimbalwa kakhulu futhi zibe nezigameko ezingezinhle. Abathathu ababaluleke ngempela bazalwa ngeminyaka yama-80s, isikhathi lapho i-Intanethi yayingenacala, futhi wonke umuntu wayethemba wonke umuntu. Masikhumbule ukuthi yibo abathinte i-sendmail, i-fingerd ne-rexec. Namuhla izinto seziyinkimbinkimbi. Yize singekuphike ukuthi ahlala nokuthi, uma engalawulwa, ayingozi enkulu. Kepha manje, izikhathi zokuphendula kwizikelemu zifushane kakhulu. Lokhu kuyisimo seSlapper: isibungu esenziwe ngobungozi obutholakele - futhi sanakwa - ezinyangeni ezimbili ngaphambi kokuvela kwesibungu uqobo.
Ngisho nokucabanga ukuthi wonke umuntu osebenzisa i-Linux ufake i-Apache futhi isebenza ngaso sonke isikhathi, ukumane uvuselele amaphakheji nyangazonke bekungaba ngaphezu kokwanele ukuthi ungalokothi ube sengozini.
Kuyiqiniso ukuthi i-SSL bug eyenziwe nguSlapper ibibucayi - empeleni isiphazamisi esikhulu kunazo zonke esitholakala kuwo wonke umlando we-SSL2 ne-SSL3 - futhi ngenxa yalokho salungiswa emahoreni ambalwa. Ukuthi izinyanga ezimbili ngemuva kokuthi inkinga itholakele yaxazululwa, othile wenza isibungu ephutheni eselivele selilungisiwe, nokuthi lesi yisibonelo esinamandla kunazo zonke esinganikezwa njengobucayi, okungenani kuyakuqinisekisa.
Njengomthetho ojwayelekile, ikhambi lezikelemu akukhona ukuthenga i-antivirus, ukuyifaka nokuchitha isikhathi sekhompyutha ukuyigcina ihlala. Isixazululo ukusebenzisa uhlelo lokuvuselela ukuphepha lokusatshalaliswa kwethu: ukusatshalaliswa kokusatshalaliswa, ngeke kube nezinkinga. Ukwenza izinsiza esizidingayo kuphela kuwumqondo omuhle ngezizathu ezimbili: sithuthukisa ukusetshenziswa kwezinsizakusebenza, futhi sigwema izinkinga zokuphepha.

Inganekwane 3:
"Angicabangi ukuthi umnyombo awunakuhlaselwa. Eqinisweni, kuneqembu lezinhlelo ezinonya ezibizwa nge-LRK (Linux Rootkits Kernel), ezisuselwe ngqo ekuxhaphazeni ukuba sengozini kumamojula we-kernel nokufaka esikhundleni sezinambuzane zohlelo.".

Impendulo:
I-rootkit ngokuyisisekelo i-kernel patch ekuvumela ukuthi ufihle ubukhona babasebenzisi abathile nezinqubo kusuka kumathuluzi ajwayelekile, ngenxa yokuthi ngeke zivele kumkhombandlela we / proc. Into ejwayelekile ukuthi bayisebenzisa ekugcineni kokuhlaselwa, kwasekuqaleni, bazosebenzisa ubungozi obukude ukuthola ukufinyelela kumshini wethu. Ngemuva kwalokho bazokwenza ukulandelana kokuhlaselwa, ukukhulisa amalungelo kuze kube bane-akhawunti yezimpande. Inkinga uma beyithola ukuthi bangayifaka kanjani insiza emshinini wethu ngaphandle kokutholwa: kulapho kungena khona i-rootkit. Umsebenzisi wenziwe ozoba umsebenzisi osebenzayo wensizakalo esifuna ukuyifihla, bafaka i-rootkit, futhi bafihla bobabili umsebenzisi osetshenzisiwe nazo zonke izinqubo zomsebenzisi osetshenzisiwe.
Ukufihla ukuthi ukhona umsebenzisi kusebenziseka ku-virus yinto esingaxoxa ngayo isikhathi eside, kepha igciwane elisebenzisa i-rootkit ukuzifaka ngokwalo libukeka limnandi. Ake sicabange ngemishini yegciwane (ku-pseudocode):
1) Igciwane lingena ohlelweni.
2) Thola ikhodi yomthombo we-kernel. Uma kungenjalo, uzifaka ngokwakhe.
3) Lungiselela i-kernel ngezinketho zehadiwe ezisebenza kumshini okukhulunywa ngawo.
4) Hlanganisa inhlamvu.
5) Faka i-kernel entsha; ukulungisa i-LILO noma i-GRUB uma kunesidingo.
6) Qalisa kabusha umshini.

Izinyathelo (5) no (6) zidinga amalungelo ezimpande. Kuyindida ngandlela thize ukuthi izinyathelo (4) no (6) azitholwa ngabangenwe yilesi sifo. Kepha into ehlekisayo ukuthi kukhona umuntu okholelwa ukuthi kunohlelo olungenza igxathu (2) kanye (3) ngokuzenzakalela.
Njengomphumela, uma sihlangana nomuntu ositshela ukuthi "uma kunemishini eminingi ye-Linux kuzoba namagciwane amaningi", futhi ancoma ukuthi "kufakwe i-antivirus futhi uyivuselele njalo", mhlawumbe ihlobene nenkampani emaketha i-antivirus nezibuyekezo . Yiba nokusola, mhlawumbe umnikazi ofanayo.

Igciwane le-Linux:

Kuyiqiniso ukuthi kune-antivirus enhle yeLinux. Inkinga ukuthi, abenzi lokho abaphikisi bama-antivirus abaphikisana ngakho. Umsebenzi wawo ukuhlunga imeyili edlula isuka ku-malware nama-virus iye ku-Windows, kanye nokuqinisekisa ubukhona bama-virus e-Windows kumafolda akhishwe nge-SAMBA; ngakho-ke uma sisebenzisa umshini wethu njengesango leposi noma njenge-NAS yemishini yeWindows, singabavikela.

I-Clam-AV:

Ngeke siwuqede umbiko wethu ngaphandle kokukhuluma nge-antivirus eyinhloko ye-GNU / Linux: ClamAV.
IClamAV iyi-antivirus enamandla kakhulu ye-GPL ehlanganisa iningi le-Unix etholakala emakethe. Yenzelwe ukuhlaziya okunamathiselwe ukuthumela imilayezo edlula esiteshini bese uyihluza amagciwane.
Lolu hlelo lokusebenza luhlangana ngokuphelele ne-sendmail ukuvumela ukuhlunga kwama-virus angagcinwa kumaseva we-Linux ahlinzeka ngeposi ezinkampanini; ukuba ne-database yamagciwane evuselelwa nsuku zonke, ngokuxhaswa kwedijithali. Isizindalwazi sivuselelwa kaningana ngosuku, futhi siyiphrojekthi enempilo futhi ethakazelisa kakhulu.
Lolu hlelo olunamandla luyakwazi ukuhlaziya amagciwane noma kokunamathiselwe kumafomethi anzima kakhulu ukuvula, njenge-RAR (2.0), i-Zip, i-Gzip, i-Bzip2, i-Tar, i-MS OLE2, amafayela we-MS Cabinet, i-MS CHM (i-HTML COprinted), ne-MS SZDD.
I-ClamAV futhi isekela amafayili weposi we-mbox, Maildir, ne-RAW, namafayela aphathekayo aphathekayo acindezelwe nge-UPX, FSG, nePetite. I-Clam AV ne-spamassassin pair yizimbhangqwana ezifanele ukuvikela amaklayenti ethu eWindows kumaseva weposi we-Unix.

ISIPHETHO

Kumbuzo Ingabe kukhona ukuba sengozini ezinhlelweni zeLinux? Impela impendulo inguyebo.
Akekho engqondweni yabo efanele ongabazayo; I-Linux akuyona i-OpenBSD. Enye into iwindi lokuba sengozini lapho uhlelo lwe-Linux libuyekezwa kahle. Uma sizibuza, ngabe akhona amathuluzi okusizakala ngalezi zimbobo zokuphepha, futhi sibaxhaphaze? Yebo, yebo, kepha lawa akuwona amagciwane, angukuxhaphaza.

Igciwane kufanele linqobe ubunzima obuningi obulokhu bubekwe njengephutha / inkinga ye-Linux ngabavikeli beWindows, futhi okwenza kube nzima ukuba khona kwamagciwane angempela - izinhlamvu ezibuyisiwe, izinhlobo eziningi zezinhlelo zokusebenza eziningi, ukusabalalisa okuningi, izinto ezingekho ngokuzenzakalela kudluliselwe ngokusobala kumsebenzisi, njll. Ama- "virus" wamanje okucatshangwa ukuthi kufanele afakwe ngesandla kusuka ku-akhawunti yezimpande. Kepha lokho ngeke kuthathwe njengegciwane.
Njengoba ngihlala ngitshela abafundi bami: ngicela ningangikholwa. Landa bese ufaka i-rootkit emshinini. Futhi uma ufuna okuningi, funda ikhodi yomthombo yama- "virus" emakethe. Iqiniso likukhodi yomthombo. Kunzima ukuthi igciwane "elizimemezele" liqhubeke nokuliqamba ngaleyo ndlela ngemuva kokufunda ikhodi yalo. Futhi uma ungayazi ukuthi ungayifunda kanjani ikhodi, isilinganiso esisodwa esilula sokuphepha engisincomayo: sebenzisa i-akhawunti yezimpande ukuphatha umshini kuphela, futhi ugcine izibuyekezo zokuphepha zisesikhathini.
Ngalokho kukodwa nje, akunakwenzeka ukuthi amagciwane angene kuwe futhi mancane kakhulu amathuba okuthi izibungu noma othile azohlasela ngempumelelo umshini wakho.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana ayi-85, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   Mthandeni_sa kusho

    Ngezibuyekezo zansuku zonke ze-Distro Linux i-OS yakho ivikelwe ngokuphelele.

    1.    I-elav <° Linux kusho

      Le yi-UU

  2.   I-Kharzo kusho

    Ngemuva kokufunda lokhu, ukuphakama maqondana nobuthakathaka nokuphepha okujwayelekile kuqhathaniswa neWindows kucace bha, kulokhu engikufundile kunzima ukusebenzisa ubungozi ku-GNU / Linux, iqiniso ukuthi kule OS isivinini naleso izinkinga zokuphepha ziyalungiswa, njengaleso sikhathi ukutholwa kwama-40 kutholakele ku-Ubuntu Linux kernel, futhi ngalo lolo suku zase zixazululiwe ...

    1.    I-elav <° Linux kusho

      Siyakwamukela Kharzo:
      Yebo, lezi zinto kufanele zifundwe yilabo abazibiza ngeGurus neComputer Scientists futhi abakaze bashiye iWindows. Lapho thina abasebenzisi be-GNU / Linux sikhuluma ngezinzuzo ze-OS, akukhona ukuhlasela iWindows, kungenxa yokuthi sazi ngokusobala ukuthi yini ubuhle / ukungalungi kwalowo nalowo kubo 😀

      1.    Perseus kusho

        OO, incazelo engcono yesihloko esithi "ukushunyayelwa kwevangeli" I-Linux -> Win engenakwenzeka.

        + 100

    2.    nngibhabhi kusho

      incazelo elula kakhulu ...
      yize ngingumsebenzisi ojwayelekile, nginokungabaza nolwazi njenganoma ngubani, kepha nakanjani ngihlala ne-linux, kusukela ngo-2006 ...

  3.   bhekumuzi kusho

    Ukuxoxa nabangane! Bahlala behlupha uma ku-linux lokhu, ukuthi uma okunye ...

  4.   KZKG ^ Gaara kusho

    Ngincoma impela ukuthi ufunde i-PDF ... impela, ubuciko, ubukhali, uphelele ...

  5.   Yoyo kusho

    Ukuyehlisa !!! 🙂

    1.    KZKG ^ Gaara kusho

      Empeleni ... ngiyayibhala njengamanje, ukuyenza ikhululeke kakhulukazi ukuze wonke umuntu ayifunde 😀
      Esikhathini esithile ngivuselela okuthunyelwe bese ngishiya isixhumanisi siye ku-PDF yebo, kepha ngizobeka nokuqukethwe lapha.

      Phendula ngokucaphuna

      1.    Izembe kusho

        Sawubona! Ngiyabonga kakhulu ngombhalo!
        I-athikili ethakazelisa kakhulu!

    2.    USergio Esau Arámbula Duran kusho

      Bengingazi ukuthi ufunda kusuka ku-linux Yoyo 🙂 njengami kanye noMuylinux namanye ama-XD

      1.    KZKG ^ Gaara kusho

        UYoyo wabelana ngama-athikili ethu nge-G + haha… siyambonga ngalokho
        Empeleni… ubenesikhathi eside esifundeka 🙂

        1.    USergio Esau Arámbula Duran kusho

          Ngijabule ngayo, leli khasi lihle kakhulu

          1.    I-elav <° Linux kusho

            Siyajabula ukuthi uzizwa kahle ngebhulogi yethu ^ ^

  6.   eMoscow kusho

    Ngazi abantu abaningi ababone iLoch Ness Monster kunababone amagciwane e-Linux

    Hahahahaha ephawulekayo.

    1.    engaziwa kusho

      Ngangiyithanda nenkulumo ethi hehehe

  7.   I-Rayonant kusho

    Ngaphandle kokungabaza kunconywe i-100%, ngokusobala ngokungenakwenzeka, ngiyabonga kakhulu ngokwabelana ngayo nge-elav!

  8.   UManuel Villacorta kusho

    I-athikili enhle kakhulu. Futhi bengicabanga ukuthi uma ngivezwa ngokungabi nayo i-antivirus.

    Kokunye konke, kusho ukuthi uma kungaba yisithwali segciwane le-Windows, vele bekungeke kusithinte thina, kepha uma singakudlulisela kwabanye abasebenzisi beWindows, akunjalo?

    Ngokwengeziwe, kuthiwani uma siqhuba uhlelo olungenwe yiwayini? kwenzenjani ngalokho

    1.    I-elav <° Linux kusho

      Uyemukelwa uManuel Villacorta:
      Yilokho abasebenzisi abaningi bavame ukucabanga. Lapha ezweni lami ezinye izinkampani zize zafaka iKaspersky (inguqulo yeLinux) kumaLinux PCs (kuwufanele lo msebenzi).

      Mayelana newayini, angikwazanga ukukutshela, kepha ngicabanga ukuthi uma kuthinta okuthile, kufanele kube isicelo uqobo ngaphakathi kwewayini .. 😕

  9.   3ndriago kusho

    I-athikili enhle kakhulu, ikakhulukazi ngoba inika izimpikiswano ngokususelwa kudatha yezobuchwepheshe hhayi ukukhuluma nje kuphela

    1.    I-elav <° Linux kusho

      Ngokufanayo .. Ubucabangani? Ngicabanga ukuthi lokho kulungile? Lapho kufanele ube lapho uxoxa nomuntu othile ku-Fb ngale ndaba 😀

  10.   Ren434 kusho

    Kuhle kakhulu ukuthulisa noma ngubani othi kunamagciwane e-juajua ku-GNU / Linux.

    Ngizoba nayo kumaka lapho kufanele nginikeze ipela nge-hasefroch.

  11.   ULucas Matias kusho

    Bekufanele ukufundwa 😀

  12.   Isibindi kusho

    Lokho engicabanga ukuthi ukuvimbela akukaze kulimaze, ukuxhashazwa akunakusingena kepha iTrojan ilula.

    Ngokuphathelene nephesenti, kubangelwa futhi uhlelo lwemvume ye-Linux

  13.   Alba kusho

    I-LOL ne-Loch Ness monster xD

    Hhayi ... bengiyisono ngokufuna ukukholisa ozakwethu ukuthi basebenzise iLinux ngesizathu esifanayo sokuthi abasebenzisi beWindows balahle ama-distros: cishe akekho noyedwa oyisebenzisayo, mancane amathuba okuthi kukhona okuzokwenzeka kubo ... Ngiyazi, iphutha lami. Kepha ngalokhu ngizokwazi ukusho ukuthi kungani kukuhle… Yize kuzofanele ngikuchaze ngamapheya nama-aphula ngoba ababaningi ozakwethu abebengakuqonda lokho futhi njengoba kuhamba lol

    ngiyabonga kakhulu ngokusindisa lolu lwazi: 3

  14.   Perseus kusho

    Kuhle kakhulu, ngiyabonga ngolwazi

  15.   Izinwele kusho

    Empeleni ngingathanda ukuthola ibhulogi enjengale kepha yamawindi….

    1.    Isibindi kusho

      Akunjalo ngoba uMuy uhlushwa ukushiseka ngokweqile

    2.    Alf kusho

      Kukhona eyodwa, http://www.trucoswindows.com/ Babucayi kakhulu, ababona abalandeli.

      Kwesinye isikhathi ngifunde umnikeli ukuthi uncoma kanjani ukusebenzisa ubuntu ukuxazulula inkinga yamawindi, kepha kudala.

  16.   pvv92 kusho

    Ama-virus afana nayo yonke into, amabi kodwa okungenani ondla abantu abaningi i-XD ukuthi kungenjalo ngiyangabaza ukuthi bazosebenza, kusobala ukuthi ku-Linux kunzima noma cishe akunakwenzeka ukuthi uthole eyodwa, kepha leyo mpikiswano ayanele sebenzisa i-Linux, ngoba lokho kuzosebenza naku-Mac osx.
    Kukhona ezinye izinto ezibaluleke kakhulu kunalezo zokusebenzisa i-Linux.

    1.    Izembe kusho

      Yini futhi mahhala? i-xD

  17.   UGiorgio grappa kusho

    I-athikili enhle kakhulu, ngiyabonga ngokuyixhumanisa, izosisiza kakhulu.

    Ngingathanda ukufaka okubonwayo:

    "KuLinux awekho amagciwane ngoba abasunguli balezi zinhlelo ezinonya abachithi sikhathi benzela okuthile i-Operating System okungekho muntu oyisebenzisayo"

    Empeleni, lesi sitatimende asiqondile ngqo: iningi lamaseva akwi-Intanethi - asetshenziswa izigidi zabantu - asebenza ezinhlelweni ze-GNU / Linux (ngokwesibonelo, amaGoogle; futhi ngabe abamele inyamazane enhle yabakhiqizi? Igciwane?) ; I-91% yamakhompiyutha amakhulu kunawo wonke angama-4 emhlabeni, futhi [http://i.top500.org/stats]

    Ngamafuphi, uma engekho amagciwane "angempela" alwa ne-GNU / Linux, akubangelwa ukuntula isifiso, kepha kungenxa yobunzima bezobuchwepheshe (kuchazwe kahle endimeni).

  18.   kanye nezinye izinhlelo ezenzelwe i-UNIX? kusho

    Xola ukungazi kwami, kepha ziphi ezinye izinhlelo ezincike ku-Unix, XNU noma i-BSD? Ekugcineni i-GNU / Linux isuselwa ku-UNIX futhi ngiyazi ukuthi amasistimu afana ne-AIX angamaseva angcono nakakhulu ngenxa yokuphepha kwawo, futhi ngikhuluma ngeMacOs X neFreeBSD.
    Ngicabanga ukuthi i-athikili, noma ngabe yinhle kangakanani, akufanele isuselwe ku-Linux kuphela, yize le yiwebhusayithi ezinikele

  19.   ubuntero kusho

    bekungumagazini omuhle kakhulu (yonke i-linux), kubuhlungu okwenzekile, ngiyabonga ngokusindisa lesi sihloko! Halala!

    1.    I-elav <° Linux kusho

      Futhi yini ejabulisayo? : S

  20.   ErunamoJAZZ kusho

    Thu ... ngigijimise umyalo find ukuthi banikela lapho futhi ngicabanga ukuthi akukapheli, kukhona abangaphezu kuka-2000 "okungenzeka batheleleke" (?)

    I-athikili enhle kakhulu.

    1.    OmarHB kusho

      Hehe, angisusi ku-Ubuntu, empeleni ngaleyo distro ngiqale ukusebenzisa i-GNU / Linux ngedwa, futhi ngathanda ukutholwa okubizwa nge-Oz Unity, ngaze ngabona ukuthi angizidingi izinhlelo eziningi abazifakayo ngokuzenzakalela, futhi kunalokho, bakhuphule ubungozi ku-OS yami. Ngalesi sizathu, futhi ngemuva kokufunda ngokwanele nokuzama ama-distros amaningana, nginqume ukuthuthela eDebian, enginethezekile ngayo, futhi kuphela ngalokho engikudinga ngempela. Futhi uma ngidinga enye into, akunankinga, impela ngizoyithola ezinqolobaneni ezisemthethweni, uma kungenjalo, ukuhlanganisa imithombo. Ah! Futhi ngendlela eya kumbhali, i-athikili enhle kakhulu. Ozithobayo.

    2.    U-Andrelo kusho

      Eziningi zazo nazo ziyavela kimi, kepha zingamafolda, ngaphandle kwento kuphela umyalo owenzayo, ukubheka amafayela anezimvume zokutheleleka, kungadingeka ukususa izimvume ezithile kubo, akunjalo? I-linuxero ingiphonsela ukungcola, ngiyisebenzisela ukubulala amagciwane amayunithi ngamawindi

  21.   edwar kusho

    funa ukubonga ngolwazi kepha kuphambene nomkhiqizo ukukutshela ukuthi akekho umuntu osebenzisa i-linux lapho thina esazi iqiniso nge-microsoft silisebenzisa

  22.   U-Eduardo Natali kusho

    Sawubona, mlingani wami! Kuthiwani, ngizinikele ezinhlelweni ezinjengawe, ngibhala ukuhalalisela wena, udaba lwakho luyiqiniso elimsulwa, futhi LIHLE kakhulu !!! futhi okukhazimulayo !! nazo zonke izisekelo. kuhle ukuyifunda! Ngiyabonga kakhulu, Ozithobayo, u-Eduardo Natali

  23.   UJorge Manjarrez Lerma kusho

    Unjani.

    IMicrosoft futhi ikakhulukazi izinhlelo zayo ezisebenza okungenani iminyaka eyi-10 ngemuva * kwezinhlelo ze-NIX (qonda i-Unix, iLinux neMacOS), yize kufanele futhi kwaziwe ukuthi ezimweni eziningi kuyiphutha labasebenzisi nekhono leMicrosoft lokunikeza ubuncane imibhalo edingekayo yokuphepha kohlelo lokusebenza. * Izinhlelo ze-NIX zinezimpawu zomdabu ngokwemvelo zazo ezenza ukuthi ukusakazeka kwezilwane ezinolwazi eziyingozi kucishe kungenzeki (hhayi okungu-100% kungaphumeleli). Akukhona ukuthi kunabantu abambalwa abasebenzisa * i-NIX futhi ikakhulukazi iLinux, kepha amandla alezi zinhlelo ahle kakhulu futhi asezingeni, into i-windows brand engenayo njengeyona ebaluleke kakhulu (khumbula iWin Vista ngokwesibonelo).

  24.   UFelipe Salazar Schlotterbeck kusho

    Njengoba ngibonile i-ubuntu 7.04 ne-clam ngangazi ukuthi kufanele kube khona amagciwane we-gnu / linux

  25.   Miguel kusho

    Iqiniso ukuthi i-athikili ihle kakhulu. Kunomsebenzi nesikhathi sokuphendula imibuzo eminingi kakhulu ekhona maqondana nalokhu ... ngiyakuhalalisela.

  26.   i-jhoedram kusho

    Iqiniso ukuthi ngake ngathola amanye amagciwane kuhlelo kepha kwakuyiphutha lami, konke kwaxazululwa ngokuvuselelwa.

  27.   pvv92 kusho

    AmaTrojans kuLinux, akhona njengoba ekhona ku-Mac OSX futhi ngezinga elikhulu ku-Windows, ngomehluko wokuthi ku-Linux kunzima kakhulu, futhi uma sikhuluma nge-bsd evulekile, kunzima kakhulu.

  28.   Lunatic_Barrington kusho

    Ngiyabonga kakhulu ngale ndatshana! Ngicabanga ukuthi ilusizo kakhulu kubo bonke labo newbies abanjengami abanentshisekelo yokufunda kancane ngokuthi iLinux isebenza kanjani. 🙂

  29.   IGhermain kusho

    Yize le ndatshana isishicilelwe izinsuku ezimbalwa, ayikapheli, ngakho-ke, ngemvume yakho, ngiyakopisha futhi nginamathisele amakhredithi akho. 😉

  30.   UFernando MS kusho

    Kuyathakazelisa kakhulu, ngaphandle kokungabaza kuzofanele ngilande i-athikili ye-PDF ukuze ngikwazi ukuyifunda futhi ngaleyo ndlela ngithole iziphetho zami.

  31.   Angamo1998 kusho

    Uma nami ngangingacabangi, nganginekhompyutha yebhodi futhi ilande amagciwane ayingozi kakhulu kwi-intanethi futhi lutho, kepha ngelinye ilanga ngalandela i-kernel yami futhi ngiphenya ngakha igciwane, njengoba bengicabanga ukuthi akukho okuzokwenzeka, ngakuqhuba, ngoba konke ukungcola esikoleni bazama ukungilungisa, inja yehluleka.
    Igciwane lami likhiphe abashayeli, amaphakheji futhi ngasusa izinhlelo, lapho ngililungisa ngangokunokwenzeka njalo lapho ngiqala iseshini, lingibuyisela kwimenyu yeseshini yokuqala.
    ZAS EN TODA LA BOCA
    i-postcript (ikhompyutha yami nayo bekukholelwa ukuthi yi-samsung futhi iyi-toshiba, ibuyekeziwe)

  32.   Gabriel kusho

    Lo mbhalo mdala kakhulu, kepha imininingwane isasebenza, ngakususa ukungabaza okuningi ... Ngiyabonga

  33.   i-vania kusho

    Yebo, ngicabanga ukuthi i-linux ayibi kangako njengoba besho, ngoba womabili amawindi ne-linux athanda ukuba namagciwane, kepha lokhu akusho ukuthi i-linux ayinayo imisebenzi engcono kune-windows ...

  34.   sergio kusho

    Ngiyabonga ngobuciko bakho bungisizile kakhulu ngisanda kuqala ku-debian futhi ngibona izinto eziningi ngivuna le nkinga ibalulekile kubantu abangayazi le-OS futhi abangazi kahle ngizoncoma ukuyifunda ngiyabonga ngokuphelele

  35.   USolomon Benitez kusho

    Mina nge-Mint ngafaka i-Rootkit Hunter. Ngiyisebenzise ngokuyisisekelo futhi angibonanga i-rootkit eyodwa etholakele kusuka ku-terminal. Ngakho-ke bekumnandi kakhulu kunesidingo sokuyisebenzisa.
    Manje njengoba ngisebenzisa i-OpenSUSE angikhathalelanga ukuyifaka. Kuyindaba yomqondo ojwayelekile: lapho uqala emhlabeni we-Linux, uyazi ngesidingo sokushiya i-akhawunti yezimpande yezidingo ezibaluleke kakhulu futhi wakhe olunye uhlobo lomsebenzisi. Ngokufanayo, ngeke ubeke iphasiwedi yezimpande kuwo wonke amawindi aqhamukayo ngaphandle kokwazi ukuthi izokwenzani.
    Ngicabanga ukuthi inganekwane yamagciwane kuLinux ingenye yezithiyo eziningi ezingokwengqondo okufanele zinqotshwe kwabanye abantu, ezinjengezimbili eziyinhloko: "Angiyizwa i-Linux, angazi ukuthi ngiyisebenzisa kanjani i-Linux" futhi ngifuna ukuvimbela yonke into, silindele ukuthi uhlelo olusebenzayo lweLinux lufane noma lufane nalolo lweMicrosoft.

  36.   Liher kusho

    I-athikili imnandi nje, bengicabanga ukuthi yinhle, ngiyabonga kakhulu ngokuyibhala. Ngiwufundile ngaze ngakuhlanganisa. Halala, ngale ndatshana konke kuchaziwe futhi, ngokwengxenye yami, kwaxazululwa 😀

  37.   desikoder kusho

    Amagciwane angenziwa kuzo zonke izinhlelo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ngingabeka ikhodi yangemuva ye-linux kusuka kulayini owodwa wekhodi. Umbuzo akukhona ukuba khona kwamagciwane, kodwa kungenzeka ukutheleleka.

    Izimpendulo (ngombono wami)

    Amagciwane angenziwa ku-linux: Yebo
    Kunamagciwane ku-Linux: Ambalwa, futhi ngaphandle kwempumelelo
    Kunamathuba okutheleleka: Ambalwa kakhulu

    1.    desikoder kusho

      Ngendlela, kwirekhodi, ngiyazonda amawindi, futhi angikuvikeli. Uma livela ku-agent-agent yami kungenxa yokuthi ngisegumbini lefoni ngoba anginayo i-intanethi ekhaya manje.

      Sanibonani

  38.   UMatías Demarchi kusho

    Ngifunde yonke into, ngiyabona ukuthi akuyona kuphela inani elincanyana lezimbobo zokuphepha, kepha ukwakheka kwe-kernel uqobo, kepha kungani i-Android ihlupheka cishe njenge-Windows ezinkingeni zamagciwane kanye nokwehla kwesikhathi eside?

    1.    kuk kusho

      ngoba abasebenzisi be-Android imvamisa abazi ukuthi bangaluphatha kanjani uhlelo lwabo futhi bafake noma yini kusuka kwenye indawo ngaphandle kwalokhu i-google ayinandaba nokuvikeleka ku-Android ngoba ibhizinisi elinamanzi alivikelekile kangako futhi kunomehluko omkhulu phakathi kwe-OS GNU / I-Linux ne-android noma ngabe zine-kernel efanayo

      1.    Sebas kusho

        "Ngoba abasebenzisi be-android ngokuvamile abazi ukuthi bangaluphatha kanjani uhlelo lwabo futhi bafake noma yini kusuka noma ikuphi"

        Leyo yimpendulo ebizosebenza uma singakusho nganoma isiphi isistimu yokusebenza.
        Ngakho-ke isikweletu asikaze sibe ekwakhiweni kohlelo futhi iphutha belilokhu lisetshenziswa (ab) komsebenzisi.

    2.    UGabo kusho

      Cha cha, kufanele uphinde ufunde yonke into, ubhekisise futhi ungangeni emdlalweni oyisilima wokukhiqiza amagciwane, udle noma yikuphi ukwehluleka kwekhompyutha. Le engenhla ilungile kancane kepha ngokujwayelekile ukuthelelekela idivayisi esebenzisa i-linux kernel nge-spyware ne-malware kuhlala kuyiphutha lomsebenzisi onikeza izimvume kukho konke akufakayo, kungaba ku-android noma kumawindi. I-Google yenza okusemandleni yingakho kunganikezwa amatheminali anokufinyelela kwezimpande.

      1.    kuk kusho

        Iqiniso ukuthi iGoogle ayinandaba noma ayisoze yakhathazeka ngendlela engathi sína ngokuphepha kwe-Android futhi kubuhlungu ngoba i-Android ibizoba nethuba lokuba uhlelo oluhle kepha ayibenzi badideke kakhulu kusuka kufektri ye-Android ngenxa ye Ukulawulwa kwe-Google kufaka phakathi ngemuva ukuze izikhungo ezinjenge-NSA zikwazi ukufinyelela kwimininingwane yakho eyimfihlo. Ngabe lokho kuyakhathaza ngokuphepha kohlelo? futhi uGabo uqinisile abasebenzisi abaningi kepha hhayi bonke baqeda uhlelo lwabo ngaphandle kokwazi kaningi ukuthi le yinkemba esika nhlangothi zombili, okufanele isetshenziswe kuphela ngabantu abakwaziyo abakwenzayo.

    3.    Roberto kusho

      Ngoba eziningi ze-Android zizisebenzisa njengezimpande. Kodwa amagciwane aseyivelakancane. Kuliqiniso impela ukuthi i-Galaxy ayikuvumeli ukuba ube yimpande, ngakho-ke angikaze ngithole igciwane, kanjalo namaphilisi ami.

    4.    Sebas kusho

      Ngoba yonke into ephikisiwe kule ndatshana ingumbhedo wobuchwepheshe mbumbulu.

      Bakuthengisela umqondo wokuthi "ukungabikho" kwamagciwane akubanga ngenxa yamasheya emakethe aphansi kodwa kungenxa yokuthi i-Linux kernel enamandla amakhulu ivimbela ukusabalala kwayo, kodwa-ke i-Operating System ivela nge-kernel esetshenzisiwe futhi isetshenziswa kakhulu futhi kukhona amagciwane, ukwehla kancane , avale ucingo nazo zonke izinhlobo zezinkinga.

      Awukho umklamo ovimbela ubukhona nokusabalala kwamagciwane, ngoba afinyelela kuWindows ngendlela efanayo yokuthi angafinyelela kunoma yiluphi uhlelo: Umsebenzisi uyayifuna, ayifake kukhompyutha yakhe futhi ayenze ngokunganaki noma yiluphi uhlobo lwesexwayiso. Uma lezo zimo zingenzeki, ukutheleleka kuvame ukungena ku-zero ngisho naku-Windows.

      Ukwehla kwenzeka lapho ufaka / ukhipha i-crap. Alukho uhlelo nokuklama okungavikelekile ekukhuleni. Lapho uhlelo oludumile lukhona, intuthuko iba ningi, noma ikhwalithi nokuzinikela kwabo kungakanani.

      Futhi ukubona ukwehla esikhathini eside, kuyadingeka ukuthi uhlelo lufakelwe isikhathi eside!, Isimo esivame ukwenzeka nakwi-linux ngenxa yefomethi yansuku zonke efomethwe ngayo, kungaba ukushintsha i-distro, "ukuvuselela" i-distro noma ukuyibuyisa kunoma yikuphi ukuphumula kwansuku zonke ebikade inakho.

  39.   U-Emilio Moreno kusho

    Imininingwane emikhulu, icacise okuningi ngamagciwane kanye neLinux

  40.   Is kusho

    Okuhamba phambili, ngiyincoma!

  41.   kuk kusho

    Yebo, alukho uhlelo oluphephe nge-100% futhi olufaka i-GNU / Linux

  42.   Indoda ezacile kusho

    Kepha ukuthi i-antivirus ayikuvikeli kuphela kuma-virus, kune-malware yonke indawo, futhi i-AV enhle ingakuvikela kuyo. Noma ngubani ongasebenzisi i-antivirus ngoba une-GNU / Linux (ngiyayisebenzisa futhi), kepha uchayeka ezinsongweni eziningi.

    1.    UGabo kusho

      Kufanele ucabange ukuthi i-antivirus ezinhlelweni ze-unix ayilusizo kakhulu, uma mhlawumbe lokho abangahlupheka kakhulu kuzovela kuma-xploits futhi ngezibuyekezo ezenziwayo kuzokwanela, impela uma sibheka ukuthi amanye ama-distros (ku icala le-GNU / Linux) bavuselela i-kernel yabo kuze kube izikhathi ezi-2 ngonyaka.

  43.   daryo kusho

    kukhona okuthile amagciwane angakunaki ngokuphelele amaphakheji we-deb noma we-rpm, abantu abawahlaziyi lawa maphakeji futhi badinga ukufinyelela kwezimpande ukufaka.

    1.    UThomas Sandoval kusho

      Kuyiqiniso, kepha iningi lethu lizosebenzisa ikhosombe elihambisanayo. Kunabantu abazinikele kulokhu isikhathi eside futhi abanomlando osebenza eLinux, kwesinye isikhathi lezo ziqinisekiso zisiza ukwazi ukuthi kufanele uthembe noma cha.

  44.   oscar lopez kusho

    okuthunyelwe okuhle kakhulu, bengingazazi lezi zinto mayelana ne-linx, ngiyabonga kakhulu ngokwabelana.

  45.   Manuel Fernando Marulanda kusho

    I-athikili enhle kakhulu, ingisize kakhulu ukuqeda ukungabaza okuthile ekhanda lami.

  46.   Pabulu kusho

    Ngiyabonga, angazi kangako ngale ndaba futhi lo mbhalo ungisize kakhulu. Ukubingelela!

  47.   Miguel kusho

    Iwebhusayithi enhle, bengingazi.
    Ngiyithandile impela incazelo yakho yamagciwane.
    Ngikuxhumanisa kuwebhusayithi yami,
    Ukulawula,
    Miguel

  48.   UJuan Rojas kusho

    Sawubona, ngiphatha amawebhusayithi e-Linux ahlukene angaphezu kwe-3000, namuhla ngiyakutshela ukuthi uma ngike ngaba nama-virus futhi ngawanciphisa nge-clam av, yize ngine-firewall enemithetho emihle, ayizange isabalale. Kuyafana kodwa uma bekhona
    Inkinga, ama-imeyili nezifanekiso zekhasi lokushintshana okungagunyaziwe

    Phendula ngokucaphuna

    1.    izinga kusho

      Ubuneliphi igciwane? Ngoba igciwane lingena eposini, ikakhulukazi livela kumthumeli osebenzisa iWindows, akuyona into engavamile, kodwa ukusuka lapho ukuthinta uhlelo kuhamba ibanga elide kakhulu. Ngakho-ke ngiyabuza futhi ukuthi bekuyini igciwane?

  49.   aiko kusho

    ulwazi oluhle kakhulu, oluhle kakhulu

  50.   Roberto kusho

    Kuyathakazelisa. Mhlawumbe ngenxa yokusetshenziswa okubanzi kwezimpande ku-Android, kukhona amagciwane e-Android. Kepha hheyi kunalokho bayindlala.

  51.   G kusho

    Ngicabanga ukuthi i -hlengwareware ayenzi umsebenzi wayo kwiLinux.

    Ukubingelela nokuhalalisela okuthunyelwe. Kuhle kakhulu !!!

    G

  52.   ihlazo kusho

    "NGEKE BAMOSHELE ISIKHATHI EKUDALWENI KOKUTHI OKUZOLUNGISWA NGESIKHATHI SOKUQALA SOKUQALA, NGISHO, NGAPHANSI KWEHORA ELINGU-24"
    lokho kuzoba uma kutholakala futhi kwenziwa umphakathi.
    Hhayi, awekho amakhompyutha athelelekile futhi abasebenzisi bawo abatholi kuze kwephuze kakhulu.
    Kukhona ngisho nama-virus aqhamuka efektri ku-BIOS, i-firmware, njll ... ngisho akhiqizwa ngama-ejensi kahulumeni. Akunakuphikwa ukuthi kunamagciwane amaningi asebenzayo we-Linux noma i-OSX, noma engewona amaningi njenge-Windows, kunjalo.

  53.   Daniel kusho

    Konke okushoyo kuneqiniso noma okuncane, kepha hhayi okuningi. Uthembele ezinganekwaneni ukuqeda ezinye izinganekwane….

    Iba nesiphakeli se-Debian esine-Kernel 4 yezinyanga eziyi-6 exhunywe kwi-inthanethi esebenza nge-static html (into elula kunazo zonke) bese ususa okungaphezulu kuka-80% kokuthunyelwe kwakho.

  54.   Umzala kusho

    Akunakwenzeka ukuthi isigenci singene ku-os ngamagciwane aso kanye ne-spyware.

  55.   Yoshiki kusho

    Ngicabanga ukuthi eminyakeni eyi-12 kamuva, besizofanela ukuphindwaphindwa kwalesi sihloko. Xoxani ngobuchwepheshe obusha, izinsongo ezintsha ... futhi uma manje singenalo igciwane ngokoqobo noma cha.

    Ngaphandle kwalokho, i-athikili enhle kakhulu (engivele ngiyifundile eons edlule).

  56.   Khanyisile Alvarez placeholder image kusho

    Uma ngifakwe iWindows neLinux, ingabe igciwane lingangena kwi-pc yami lapho ngisebenzisa iLinux bese ngishintshela kuWindows?