Bakhombe uhlobo olusha lokuhlaselwa oluthinta amaprosesa we-Intel ne-AMD

I-Bug Inside logo Intel

Iqembu Abaphenyi baseYunivesithi yaseVirginia naseCalifornia bethule uhlobo olusha lokuhlaselwa kuzakhiwo ezincanyana ze-processor I-Intel ne-AMD.

Indlela yokuhlasela ehlongozwayo kuhlotshaniswa nokusetshenziswa kwesilondolozi esimaphakathi semisebenzi emincane (i-micro-op cache) kuma-processor, angasetshenziswa ukukhipha imininingwane esime lapho kwenziwa imiyalo yokuqagela.

Kuyabonakala ukuthi indlela entsha idlula kakhulu iSpecter attack v1 maqondana nokusebenza, kwenza kube nzima ukuthola ukuhlaselwa futhi akuvinjelwe izindlela ezikhona zokuzivikela ekuhlaselweni ngamashaneli asemaceleni enzelwe ukuvimbela ubungozi obubangelwa ukwenziwa kokuqagela kwemiyalo.

Isibonelo, ukusetshenziswa kwesitatimende se-LFENCE kuvimbela ukuvuza ezigabeni zakamuva zokwenza okucatshangelwayo, kepha akuvikeli ekuvuzeni ngokusebenzisa izakhiwo ezincanyana.

Le ndlela ithinta amamodeli weprosesa we-Intel ne-AMD akhishwe kusukela ngo-2011, kufaka phakathi uchungechunge lwe-Intel Skylake ne-AMD Zen. Ama-CPUs anamuhla adiliza imiyalo eyinkimbinkimbi yeprosesa ekusebenzeni okulula okufana ne-RISC, ezifakwe kunqolobane ehlukile.

Le cache ihluke ngokuyisisekelo kunenqolobane esezingeni eliphakeme, ayitholakali ngqo futhi isebenza njengesiphazamisi sokusakaza ukufinyelela ngokushesha imiphumela yokunquma imiyalo ye-CISC kufakwa i-RISC microinstruction.

Kodwa-ke, abacwaningi bathole indlela yokwakha izimo ezivela ngesikhathi sokungqubuzana kokufinyelela kwesilondolozi futhi uvumele ukwahlulela okuqukethwe kwesilondolozi se-microoperations ngokuhlaziya umehluko ngesikhathi sokwenziwa kwezenzo ezithile.

Isilondolozi se-micro-op kuma-processor we-Intel sihlukaniswe isihlobo ngokuya ngemicu ye-CPU (Hyper-Threading), ngenkathi ama-processor I-AMD Zen isebenzisa isilondolozi esabiwe, okudala izimo zokuvuza kwedatha hhayi kuphela ngentambo eyodwa yokwenza, kepha naphakathi kwemicu ehlukene ku-SMT (ukuvuza kwedatha kungenzeka phakathi kwekhodi esebenza kuma-cores we-CPU ahlukile).

Abaphenyi bahlongoza indlela eyisisekelo ukuthola izinguquko kunqolobane yama-micro-ops nezimo ezahlukahlukene zokuhlasela ezivumela ukudala iziteshi zokudlulisa idatha ezifihlekile futhi zisebenzise ikhodi esengozini ukuhlunga idatha ebucayi, zombili ngaphakathi kwenqubo eyodwa (ngokwesibonelo, ukuhlela inqubo yokuvuza kwedatha lapho isebenza okwesithathu ikhodi -party kuzinjini ze-JIT nemishini ebonakalayo) naphakathi kwekhenela nezinqubo esikhaleni somsebenzisi.

Ngokubeka okuhlukile kokuhlaselwa kweSpecter besebenzisa i-micro-op cache, abacwaningi bakwazile ukuthola ukutholakala kuka-965.59 Kbps ngezinga lephutha elingu-0.22% kanye no-785.56 Kbps lapho besebenzisa ukulungiswa kwephutha, uma kwenzeka kuvuza ngaphakathi kwememori efanayo isikhala. amakheli. nezinga lelungelo.

Ngokuvuza okuvuleka ngamazinga ahlukile welungelo (phakathi kernel nesikhala somsebenzisi), okufakwayo kube ngu-85,2 Kbps ngokulungiswa kwephutha okungeziwe kanye no-110,96 Kbps ngezinga lephutha elingu-4%.

Lapho kuhlaselwa amaprosesa we-AMD Zen, kwakha ukuvuza phakathi kwama-cores we-CPU ahlukahlukene, ukwenziwa kwaba yi-250 Kbps enephutha elingu-5,59% no-168,58 Kbps ngokulungiswa kwephutha. Uma kuqhathaniswa nendlela yakudala yeSpecter v1, ukuhlaselwa okusha kutholakale ukuthi kube izikhathi eziphindwe kabili ku-2,6.

Ukunciphisa ukuhlaselwa kwe-cache ye-micro-op kulindeleke ukuthi kudinge izinguquko eziningi ezehlisa ukusebenza kunangesikhathi sokuvikelwa kweSpecter kunikwe amandla.

Njengokuyekethisa okulungile, kuhlongozwa ukuvimba ukuhlaselwa okunjalo hhayi ngokukhubaza ukulondolozwa kwesikhashana, kepha ezingeni lokuqapha okungahambi kahle kanye nokunquma izindawo ezivamile zokulondolozwa.

Njengasekuhlaselweni kweSpecter, ukuhlela ukuvuza kwe-kernel noma ezinye izinqubo kudinga ukwenziwa kweskripthi esithile (amagajethi) ohlangothini lwezinqubo zesisulu, okuholela ekwenziweni kwemiyalo okucatshangelwayo.

Cishe amadivayisi ayi-100 anjalo atholakele ku-kernel ye-Linux futhi azosuswa, kepha kutholakala izixazululo njalo ukuzikhiqiza, ngokwesibonelo lezo ezihlobene nokwethula izinhlelo ze-BPF ezenziwe ngobuciko ekheneli.

Okokugcina uma unesifiso sokwazi okwengeziwe ngakho, ungabheka imininingwane Kulesi sixhumanisi esilandelayo.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.