Imodeli Yokuthuthukiswa Kwamahhala Yesoftware: ICathedral neBazaar

Imodeli Yokuthuthukiswa Kwama-Software

Imodeli Yokuthuthukiswa Kwama-Software

ICathedral neBazaar wumbhalo wohlobo olusobala olwakhiwa ngu-Eric S. Raymond ngonyaka we-1.998 ukuzama ukuchaza ngokombono wakhe nangolwazi (Fetchmail Development) lokho akuqondayo ngokwenziwa ngempumelelo nokuvela kweLinux nezinhlelo zayo ezihlobene nayo, ikakhulukazi ngokubuka komehluko phakathi kweSoftware Models, ayibiza uqobo: ICathedral Model neBazaar Model.

Futhi kulokhu kushicilelwa, sizohlinzeka ngokuhlaziywa kanye nokufingqwa kwemanifesto eshiwo ithandwa kakhulu phakathi kwabathuthukisi beFree Software Movement. Etholakala ngokukhululeka futhi ifinyeleleka ezingxenyeni eziningi zewebhu, kepha ingalandwa kusixhumanisi sewebhu esilandelayo ukuze uyifinyelele ngokushesha okukhulu: ICathhedral neBazaar.

Isingeniso seCathhedral neBazaar

INTRODUCCIÓN

Izinto ezashiwo «ICathhedral neBazaar» zisinikeza umbono wokuthi ngaphakathi kwezwe leSoftware Engineering kukhona "izitayela ezimbili ezihluke ngokuphelele zentuthuko, imodeli ye-cathedral, esebenza kakhulu entuthukweni eyenziwe emhlabeni yesoftware yezentengiso, uma kuqhathaniswa nemodeli ye-bazaar, ejwayelekile ezweni le-Linux ”.

Kugcizelelwa ukuthi lezi zinhlobo ezi-2 zithathwe kumaphoyinti ahlukile okuphikisanayo ngohlobo lwenqubo yokulungisa iphutha lesoftware, nangomqondo wakhe othile mayelana nalokho akubiza ngomthetho kaLinus owawusho lokhu okulandelayo: "Uma unikezwe inani elanele lamehlo, wonke amaphutha awabalulekile" noma ngamanye amagama: "Ngamehlo anele, wonke amaphutha ayizinto eziyize".

Futhi ligcizelela igama uHacker, ngombono wami umbhali aliveze njengohlobo loMsebenzisi osezingeni eliphezulu okwazi ukuqonda nokuxhaphaza uhlelo, Nokuthola, ukuphakamisa noma ukusebenzisa ukulungiswa noma ukuguqulwa kwefomu elisebenzayo nempahla yawo wonke umphakathi womsebenzisi.

Kweminye imibhalo, leli gama noma umqondo obizwa ngeHacker ubhekisa ku:

«uchwepheshe, onentshisekelo ngendawo ethile yesifundo, ikakhulukazi indawo yezobuchwepheshe, futhi onhloso yakhe ukusebenzisa lolu lwazi ngezinhloso ezinobungozi. Ngulowo muntu, imvamisa onguchwepheshe emkhakheni wolwazi, onentshisekelo yolwazi, othola futhi afunde izinto ezintsha futhi aqonde ukuthi zisebenza kanjani, afinyelela ezingeni lokulithuthukisa ngeziphakamiso neziphakamiso ezisebenzayo, futhi njalo ngenhloso yolwazi lokwabelana noma ukugwema ukwehluleka noma ukungasebenzi kahle kwento efundwayo.

Okungumqondo wendawo yonke futhi ongokoqobo, ngoba kukhona "Abaduni" kuzo zonke izindawo zolwazi lomuntu.

Izakhiwo Ekuthuthukisweni KweSoftware Yamahhala

UKUTHUTHUKISA

Kwabaningi abafunde ukwaziswa okunjalo, impela kuzoba nenani elikhulu elizovuma ukuthi umbono wokuthi "iLinux ivukela umbuso" uzwakaliswe lapho. Kodwa kungani?

Ngoba kuze kube yilowo mzuzu bekukhona ifayela le- ubuningi bezindlela ezijwayelekile zokuThuthukiswa kweSoftware noma amamodeli asuselwa kunqubo "eyodwa futhi ehleliwe kusuka ekuqaleni" Ngoba isenzo sokwakha iSoftware sathathwa njengento ehlotshaniswa nokuthile okuholela "enkingeni ethile ebucayi."

Futhi lokho ngaphandle kokuthi umhlaba we-Unix ubusuvele ukhona, oqukethe amathuluzi amancane, ukuvuselelwa okusheshayo kanye nezinhlelo zokuziphendukela kwemvelo, Ukuvela kwefilosofi yokuthuthuka kweSoftware engaphansi kweLinux kuhambise lolu daba kwelinye izinga lobuchwepheshe.

Ngesikhathi emhlabeni we-Private Software Development kwenziwa "ngendlela ethule nenenhlonipho", njengoba nje iKhathedrali lakhiwa, e-World of Free Software Development (Linux) yenziwa "ngendlela enomsindo nangezinhlelo (izindlela) nezindlela eziningi (iziphakamiso)", njengoba nje wawusezitolo ezinkulu.

Le manifesto enkulu isinikeza izakhiwo eziningana zokuhlanganisa imibono evezwe lapho, maqondana neFree Software Development Model, eyi:

Isakhiwo sokuqala: ICathedral neBazaar

ISIKHUMBUZO # 1

YONKE IMISEBENZI EMIHLE KU-SOFTWARE IYAQALA UKUZAMA UKUCELA INKINGA YOMDLALI YOMDLALI.

Okuyiqiniso elingephikwe ngoba Iningi lalabo abasebenza kuFree Software Development bavame ukuqala ngenxa yesidingo sokuxazulula inkinga yomuntu noma yeqembu noma leqembu, noma ukwandisa inqubo esivele yenziwe ngendlela ehamba kancane futhi / noma ephindaphindwayo, okuvame ukukhathaza kanye / noma ukubhoreka labo ababamba iqhaza kuyo, ukuzama ukukhulisa isikhathi nemizamo yalabo ababandakanyekayo.

Isakhiwo sokuqala: ICathedral neBazaar

ISIKHUMBUZO # 2

IZINHLELO EZINHLE ZIYAZI UKUTHI ZIBHALANI. OWAZI KAKHULU UKUTHI UBHEKE BHALA UPHINDE USETSHENZISE SEBENZA.

Noma yimuphi umqambi wohlelo uyazi ukuthi ukuqala phansi akuyona into embi noma engadingekile, uma kukhulunywa ngokwakha uhlelo noma uhlelo lokusebenza. Kodwa-ke, kwabaningi abaqalayo nakwabanye asebevele benolwazi odabeni, kuyaziwa ukuthi kwesinye isikhathi i- "Inventing the Wheel" futhi ayisebenzi kahle, kepha kungcono ukuyisebenzisa nje futhi uyihambisane nezidingo zakho. Ngamanye amagama, kungcono ukubhala kabusha futhi sifake ikhodi eningi ngangokunokwenzeka kusuka kwabanye ochwepheshe kulo mkhakha osithintayo ukuxazulula ezethu izinhlelo zokuthuthuka.

Isakhiwo sokuqala: ICathedral neBazaar

ISIKHUMBUZO # 3

"CABANGA NGOKUPHOSA OKUNCANE - UZOKUGCINA UKWENZA KONKE."

Umqambi omuhle weSoftware kumele azi ukuthi angalalela kanjani ngokuningiliziwe kulokho abasebenzisi bentuthuko yabo abakushoyo noma abakuphakamisayo noma abakuhlongozayo, ngoba uhlelo oluselusebenzayo, lusengaba yinto enkulu kakhulu, yize lusebenza, into elahlekelwa enyakatho, a isilo esisebenzayo esenzela yonke into wonke umuntu, bese kuthi okuthile okungathandeki. Ngakho-ke ukulalela ukubuyela ezimpandeni, ukunqoba abasebenzisi abalahlekile, ukwengeza ukusebenza okusha, ukususa okungadingekile, ukwenza uhlelo lube luncane, lucacise futhi lubanzi, kuhlale kungumkhuba omuhle.

Isakhiwo sokuqala: ICathedral neBazaar

ISIKHUMBUZO # 4

UMA UNESIMO SENGQONDO ESILUNGILE, IZOKUTHOLA IZINKINGA EZITHASISAYO.

Ukushintsha okuhle kwesimo nangesikhathi kungasho ushintsho olukhulu kumdidiyeli ngamunye noma unjiniyela wesoftware entuthukweni yabo yamanje noma entsha ethi yona isho izinzuzo ezintsha zesikhathi, imali noma induduzo kubasebenzisi bemikhiqizo yabo. Bheka izindlela ezintsha zokuxazulula izinkinga eziziveza njengophawu oluhle ngendlela efanele.

Isakhiwo sokuqala: ICathedral neBazaar

ISIKHUMBUZO # 5

UMA UHLELO LUNGASAKUKHANGISI, UMSEBENZI WAKHO WOKUGCINA UKULUDLULISELA KUMPUMELELI ONAMANDLA.

Kwabaningi bohlelo noma abathuthukisi be-software, kanye nakwamanye ama-technologist, akuyona into engavamile ukufuna ukunikela ngesikhathi esisha kumaphrojekthi amasha. Kepha emhlabeni weFree Software isisekelo sokudlulisa induku, kukhona abanye abangafisa ukuqhubeka nokwenziwa kwemikhiqizo yabo esivele ishiyiwe, okufanele bavumele noma ngubani ukuthi azenzele (azenzele) uhlelo noma bona inzuzo yabasebenzisi bomphakathi wohlelo.

Isakhiwo sokuqala: ICathedral neBazaar

ISIKHUMBUZO # 6

UKUPHATHA ABASEBENZISI BAKHO NJENGABASEBENZI BOKUXHUMANA YONA INDLELA ENCANE KANINGI YOKUTHUTHUKISA NGOKUSHESHA NOKUSEBENZA NGOKUSEBENZA KULUNGISELELA UHLELO.

Njengoba i- "free" ivame ukutolikwa njenge- "free" ekwakhiweni kweFree Software, abahleli bezinhlelo abaningi bathambekele ekuhlanganeni ndawonye ukugwema ukuguga okungakhokhiwe ngokuhlangana nabanye abathuthukisi noma abasebenzisi abaphambili bezentuthuko zabo, ukuqhubeka okufanayo noma kwabanye ziqhubeke nazo, ngenhloso yokuthola "amakhredithi" ekwakheni izindlela ezintsha zekhodi nokuqinisekisa ukuthi intuthuko yesikhathi esizayo ngokusemthethweni ifaka phakathi amanye amalayisense, ukugwema ukuwusebenzisa kabi.

Isakhiwo sokuqala: ICathedral neBazaar

ISIKHUMBUZO # 7

YIDEDELE NGOKUSHESHA. YIVUMELE IMVAMILE. ULALELE ABASEBENZISI BAKHO.

Ngokungafani nomhlaba wokuthuthuka kwesoftware ephathekayo, kusoftware yamahhala imvamisa kwenzeka ukuthi okuningi futhi kusheshe kungcono. Njengoba isisekelo esibanzi sabasebenzisi nabathuthukisi abavame ukusebenzisa futhi bathuthukise uhlelo emphakathini futhi bahlanganyele nabanye, ukuxhumana ukungabaza kwabo, iziphakamiso, iziphakamiso, izikhalazo kanye / noma izimangalo, kungaba ngumthombo wolwazi obalulekile ngokushesha sungula uhlelo lubheke ezigabeni ezivuthiwe zentuthuko.

Isakhiwo sokuqala: ICathedral neBazaar

ISIKHUMBUZO # 8

UKUNIKWA ISISEKELO SONKE ESENELE SETESTERS NABAHLANGANISI, CISHE ZONKE IZINKINGA ZIYODLULA NGOKUSHESHA NESixazululo Sazo SIZOBONAKALA KUMUNTU.

Okwaziswa kugcina ngokwenza umfundi aphethe, kaningi ukuthi i-Software Development Method esekwe kuBazaar Model, iyasebenza kakhulu. Ngoba amandla, inkululeko noma ulwazi olwengeziwe uMqambi weSoftware ahlinzeka ngalo Abasebenzisi ngohlelo lwabo, kulapho-ke benganikela khona ngemibono ehlakaniphile noma ushintsho oluwusizo, ngenhloso yenzuzo ehlangene.

Futhi lokhu kuvezwe kamnandi kule ngcaphuno elandelayo kusuka kokuqukethwe:

"Lokhu, ngicabanga, umehluko oyisisekelo phakathi kwezitayela ze-cathedral ne-bazaar. Ngokwendlela i-cathedral ebukeka ngayo ezinhlelweni, amaphutha nezinkinga zentuthuko ziyizinto ezicashile, ezijulile nezisontekile. Kuthatha izinyanga ukuhlolisiswa yidlanzana labantu abazinikele ukuqiniseka ukuthi basusiwe. Ngakho-ke izinkathi ezinde ezidingekayo zokukhishwa kwezinguqulo ezintsha, nokudumazeka okungenakugwemeka okuba khona lapho lezo ebezilindwe isikhathi eside zingaphelele.

Ngokuya ngemodeli ye-bazaar, noma kunjalo, kucatshangwa ukuthi amaphutha imvamisa ayizinto ezincane noma, okungenani, ukuthi azoba ngokushesha okukhulu lapho esechazekile emehlweni alangazelelayo abambisene nezinkulungwane ezimbalwa abazinikele ukubeka okulungile nokubheke phezulu phansi inguqulo ngayinye entsha. Ngakho-ke uqhubeka ukhipha izinguqulo kaningi ukuze ulungiswe ngisho nangaphezulu, futhi njengomphumela ohlangothini ozuzisayo uzolahlekelwa okuncane uma uphazamisa njalo. "

Iziphetho: ICathedral neBazaar

ISIPHETHO

Ngokwami, ulwazi lwami oluncane emkhakheni weFree Software Development ngaphansi kweBazaar-type Model lungishiya neziphetho ezilandelayo:

  • Abasebenzisi kufanele baphathwe njengesisetshenziswa esibaluleke kakhulu, futhi ezimeni ezinhle kakhulu njengabahlanganyeli ababaluleke kakhulu ekusebenzisaneni kwabo ekwakhiweni komkhiqizo.
  • Yonke imibono mihle noma kufanele uyihlole, ngoba kwesinye isikhathi okusolwa okungatheni kungaba yisixazululo esikhulu noma ukuthuthuka kwentuthuko.
  • Kuhle noma kungenzeka ukuthi umqondo wokuqala uyahlukanisa, uyanwebeka noma usuke kude nomqondo wokuqala, kepha okubalulekile ukuthi umuntu kumele agxile kangakanani maqondana nohlobo lwemakethe yomsebenzisi ofuna ukuyisebenzela, ukuyikhonza noma ukuyisiza.
  • Ukuze usebenze kahle futhi uvikele ukulahleka kwemizamo ngokusabalalisa.
  • Okuhamba phambili yikhodi elincane, eliqondile, elilula, kepha elisebenza kahle elikwazi ukwaziswa ngumphakathi njengelungile.
  • Uhlelo seluvele seluvuthiwe uMphakathi wabasebenzisi, lapho kungekho okunye okufanele kuqedwe, ngoba ukwengeza kuhlale kuyindlela enhle yokubheka.
  • Noma yiluphi uhlelo lungasetshenziswa (ngokwengxenye noma ngokuphelele) ukuthi lusetshenziswe kabusha emisebenzini eyayingakhulelwanga ekuqaleni.
  • Yonke iSoftware kumele iphathe izinyathelo zayo zokulayisense nezokuphepha zemfihlo ekusetshenzisweni kweDatha Yomsebenzisi.
  • Akudingekile ukuqala phansi, othile ubelokhu ethuthukisa okuthile okufana nomqondo wethu okhulelwe.
  • Umuntu kufanele asebenze entweni ayithandayo, umuntu kufanele azizwe enothando ngentuthuko azozinikela kuyo kwiFree Software ukuze enze ngaphakathi umuzwa wobumbano nalokho okuchaziwe, ngaphandle kokufinyelela eqophelweni lokuthuthukisa umqondo wobunikazi ngaphezulu it.
  • Kufanele kube nezindlela ezinhle kakhulu zokuxhumana phakathi kwabathuthukisi nabasebenzisi (abahlanganyeli), ukuze umsebenzi uhambe ngokushesha futhi ushintshe ngempumelelo.

Ngiyethemba ukuthi ulutholile futhi waluthola lolu lwazi lusizo, ngoba ukufundwa kwe- "The Cathedral and the Bazaar" kuyisethenjwa esiyisibopho sabo bonke labo abahlela noma iyiphi i-Development in Free Software, noma ngabe inkulu noma incane kangakanani.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana ayi-6, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   nasciiboy kusho

    isifinyezo / umbono omuhle, ngingavele ngisuse isithombe esiningi kakhulu se- «qapha ngekhodi» ukuthi asiziphenduli nganoma yini

    1.    Ukufaka kwe-Linux Post kusho

      Babebukeka bengifanele ngodaba lweSystem Development, futhi bekungeke kusalunga ukukususa kepha ngiyabonga ngokubona kwakho!

  2.   IBHAYRONI kusho

    Isifinyezo esihle kakhulu nesifaniso.

    1.    Ukufaka kwe-Linux Post kusho

      Ngiyabonga iBayron ngamazwana akho amahle futhi amahle.

  3.   U-Eduardo waseTrinidad kusho

    Zama kahle, siyakuhalalisela ngalesi saziso esibalulekile. Ngiyakholelwa ukuthi "Embusweni kaNkulunkulu" KONKE KUKHONA (KUZOBEKHO) Kukhululekile futhi Kukhululekile ... uma kungenjalo abathuthukisi bazoqhubeka nokubulawa noma ukubethelwa esiphambanweni ngabavukeli, yilabo abangaqondi noma abangafuni ukuqonda ukuthi kumele "nika uKesari okungokukaKesari ... noNkulunkulu okukaNkulunkulu"… Isisa (MAHHALA) sivela kuNkulunkulu njengelanga noma umoya owuphefumulayo… Inkululeko iyadingeka, kepha njengamanje yonakaliswe IMAKETE lezinsizi ezifana isoftware ephathelene.

    1.    Ukufaka kwe-Linux Post kusho

      Ngiyabingelela, Eduardo de Trinidad. Siyabonga ngokuphawula kwakho nangokunikela kwakho.