Ukuphepha Kwemininingwane: Umlando, Amatemu kanye Nensimu Yesenzo

Ukuphepha Kwemininingwane: Umlando, Amatemu kanye Nensimu Yesenzo

Ukuphepha Kwemininingwane: Umlando, Amatemu kanye Nensimu Yesenzo

Kusukela cishe emashumini ayisishiyagalombili ekhulu elidlule leminyaka, ubuntu buye babandakanyeka futhi bacwiliswa ochungechungeni lwezinguquko kuzo zonke izingxenye zempilo yomphakathi. Konke kungenxa yokuthuthuka okuqhubekayo, okukhulayo nokwanda kwe- «Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación (TIC)». I «TIC» Zibe nemiphumela eguquke yaze yashintsha indlela yethu yokubona, yokwazisa noma yokuhlola okwedlule noma okukhona manje, futhi yaze yaguqula nendlela esibheka ngayo ikusasa lethu njengenhlobo.

Izinguquko noma imiphumela, okushintshe nolimi lwethu olusetshenzisiwe, ngenxa yokwakhiwa, ukusetshenziswa nokuthandwa kwezinhlobonhlobo zamagama, imiqondo nemibono emisha, kuze kube manje kungaziwa noma kucatshangwa. Futhi ngalolu shicilelo sinethemba lokungena kulezi zici futhi sifunde okuncane ngenkinga yamanje ye «Seguridad de la Información» njengesici esibalulekile samanje «TIC» ngomphakathi wanamuhla wabantu, okungukuthi, i- «Sociedad de la Información» yekhulu lama-XXI.

Ukuphepha Kwemininingwane: Isingeniso

Ngaphambi kokungena ngokugcwele esihlokweni, kuhle ukukhomba ukuthi umqondo ohlobene we «Seguridad de la Información» ngalokhu «Seguridad Informática», kusukela ngenkathi Esokuqala sibhekise ekuvikeleni nasekuvikeleni ulwazi olubanzi lwe-a «Sujeto» (Umuntu, Inkampani, Isikhungo, I-Ejensi, Umphakathi, Uhulumeni), owesibili ugxila kuphela ekuvikeleni idatha ngaphakathi kohlelo lwekhompyutha kanjalo.

Ngakho-ke, uma kukhulunywa nge «Seguridad de la Información» of a «Sujeto», Kubalulekile ukuthi imininingwane ebalulekile yayo ivikelwe futhi ivikelwe ngaphansi kwezindlela zokuphepha ezihamba phambili kanye nemikhuba emihle yekhompyutha. Kusukela, empeleni ingqikithi ye- «Seguridad de la Información» ukugcina yonke imininingwane ebalulekile yalokho «Sujeto» ukuvikela.

Ngendlela yokuthi singafingqa i «Seguridad de la Información» njengendawo yolwazi equkethe ukulondolozwa kwemfihlo, ubuqotho kanye nokutholakala kolwazi kuhlotshaniswa ne- «Sujeto», kanye nezinhlelo ezibandakanyeka ekwelapheni kwayo, ngaphakathi kwenhlangano. Ngaphandle kwalokho, i- «Seguridad de la Información» yakha isisekelo sayo sonke kule migomo elandelayo:

  • Ukuyimfihlo: Kufanele kugwenywe ukuthi imininingwane ayitholakali noma ingadalulwa kubantu abangagunyaziwe, izinhlangano noma izinqubo.
  • Ubuqotho: Kumele kuqashelwe ukugcina ukunemba nokuphelela kolwazi nezindlela zalo zokulungisa.
  • Ukutholakala: Ukutholakala kanye nokusetshenziswa kolwazi kanye nezinhlelo zalo zokwelashwa kumele kuqinisekiswe ngabantu, izinhlangano noma izinqubo ezigunyaziwe lapho kudingeka.

Okuqukethwe

historia

Kusukela ezigabeni ezandulele, kungacaciswa kalula ukuthi i- «Seguridad de la Información» hhayi ukuthi uzalwe nesimanjemanje nesamanje «Era Informática», ngoba ihlobene nolwazi ngendlela ejwayelekile, okuhlale kuhlotshaniswa nesikhathi se- «Humanidad, Sociedad y Civilización», ngenkathi okuphambene nalokho, i- «Seguridad Informática» sí.

Ukuphepha Kwemininingwane: Umlando

Ngakho-ke, singabhala izibonelo ezithile zokuvikela «Información» kuwo wonke umlando, okuvame ukuhlotshaniswa nobuciko bendabuko noma isayensi ye «Criptografía». Izibonelo ezinjengalezi:

Izenzakalo ezibalulekile ngaphambi kukaKristu (BC)

  • 1500: Ithebhulethi yaseMesopotamiya, equkethe ifomula ebethelwe ukukhiqiza i-ceramic glaze.
  • 500-600: Incwadi yesiHeberu kaJeremiya, enokubethela okulula ngokuguqula izinhlamvu zamagama.
  • 487: Abasebenzi baseGrisi SCYTALE, abasebenzisa iribhoni lesikhumba eligingqiwe okubhalwe kulo.
  • 50-60: UJulius Caesar, uMbusi waseRoma osebenzise uhlelo olulula lokufaka esikhundleni sezinhlamvu zakhe.

Izenzakalo ezinkulu ngemuva kukaKristu (AD)

  • 855: Umbhalo wokuqala owaziwa nge-cryptographic, e-Arabia (Middle East).
  • 1412: I-Encyclopedia (imiqulu eyi-14) lapho kuchazwa khona i-cryptography, kanye namasu okufaka esikhundleni nawokushintsha.
  • 1500: Ukuqala kokubhala okufihliwe empilweni yezokuxhumana, e-Italy.
  • 1518: Incwadi yokuqala ye-crypto ebizwa nge- "Polygraphia libri sex", ebhalwe nguTrithemius ngesiJalimane.
  • 1585: Incwadi "Tractie de chiffre", ebhalwe ngumFulentshi uBlaise de Vigenere, equkethe iVigenere Cipher eyaziwayo.
  • 1795: Idivayisi yokuqala yokubethela eyi-cylindrical, nguThomas Jefferson, owaziwa nge- "Jefferson's Wheel."
  • 1854: I-5 × 5 Matrix Cipher njengeKhiye, evela kuCharles Wheatstone, kamuva owaziwa nge-Playfair Cipher.
  • 1833: Incwadi ethi "La Cryptographie militaire", ebhalwe ngu-Auguste Kerckhoff, equkethe umthetho kaKerckhoff.
  • 1917: Ukuthuthukiswa kwethephu engahleliwe yokusebenzisa okungahleliwe, okuwukuphela kohlelo lwe-cryptographic oluphephile lwesikhathi.
  • 1923: Ukusetshenziswa komshini we-rotor "Enigma", owenziwe ngu-Arthur Scherbius waseJalimane.
  • 1929: Incwadi ethi "Cryptography in an Algebraic Alphabet", ebhalwe nguLester Hill, equkethe i-Hill's Cipher.
  • 1973: Ukusetshenziswa kwe- "Bell-LaPadula Model", eyenza imithetho ibe semthethweni yokuthola imininingwane ehlukanisiwe,
  • 1973-76: Ukusatshalaliswa nokusetshenziswa kwama-algorithm we-key key encryption noma okhiye be-cryptographic.
  • 1977: Ukwenziwa kwe- "DES Algorithm" (Standard Encryption Standard), ebhalwe yi-IBM ngo-1975.
  • 1979: Ukuthuthukiswa kwe "RSA Algorithm", nguRonald Rivest, Adi Shamir noLeonard Adleman.

Ukuphepha Kwemininingwane: Imiqondo

Imiqondo namagama ahlobene nawo

Imiqondo namagama ahlobene ne- «Seguridad de la Información» Baningi, njengoba njengoba besishilo phambilini, inokuthile okuphathelene nathi ngokwethu kunokukwenza ne «Información» equkethwe kumadivayisi edijithali noma ekhompiyutha noma amasistimu, isici esifaka phakathi ifayela le- «Seguridad Informática». Ngakho-ke sizokhuluma ezimbalwa kuphela ezibalulekile ngendlela efingqiwe.

Ukuhlaziywa kwethrafikhi

Kubandakanya ukurekhodwa kwesikhathi nobude besikhathi se- «comunicación», kanye neminye imininingwane ephathelene nayo ukucacisa ngokuningiliziwe ukuhamba kokuxhumana, ubunikazi bezinhlangano ezixhumana nokuthi yini engasungulwa ngezindawo zazo.

Anonimato

Impahla noma isici esihlotshaniswa ne- a «Sujeto» okuveza ukuthi ayikwazi ukukhonjwa ngaphakathi kweqoqo lamanye amabhizinisi (izifundo), evame ukubizwa «Conjunto anónimo». Isethi evamise ukwenziwa ngazo zonke izihloko ezingadala (noma ezihlobene) nesenzo.

I-cyberpace

Imvelo engeyona engokwenyama (ebonakalayo) eyenziwe yimishini yekhompyutha ihlangene ukusebenzisana kunethiwekhi. Ezingeni lomhlaba jikelele, kungashiwo ukuthi «Ciberespacio» Kuyisikhala esisebenzisanayo (sedijithali nesobuchwepheshe) esisetshenziswe ngaphakathi kwamakhompiyutha nakunethiwekhi yamakhompiyutha emhlabeni jikelele, okuyi-Intanethi. Yena «Ciberespacio» Akufanele ididaniswe ne-Intanethi, ngoba eyokuqala ibhekisa ezintweni nakubunikazi obukhona ngaphakathi kowesibili, oyingqalasizinda esebenzayo nengqondo.

ICybernetics

Isayensi ebhekene nezinhlelo zokulawula nokuxhumana kubantu nasemishini, ifunda futhi isebenzise zonke izici nezinqubo ezivamile. Umsuka wayo usungulwe cishe ngo-1945 futhi njengamanje uxhunyaniswe kakhulu ne «Biónica» futhi i «Robótica». Lokhu kuvame ukufaka ukutadisha nokuphathwa kusuka kumishini yokubala (ama-super-computer kanye namakhompyutha) kuzo zonke izinhlobo zezinqubo noma izinqubo zokuzithiba nokuxhumana okwenziwe noma okwenziwe ngumuntu okuvame ukulingisa impilo nezinqubo zako.

Ubumfihlo

Impahla noma isici esivimbela ukudalulwa kolwazi oluthile ezifundweni noma ezinhlelweni ezingagunyaziwe. Ukuze wenze kanjalo, zama ukuqinisekisa ukufinyelela kwefayela le- «Información» kuphela kulezo zihloko ezinemvume efanele.

I-Cryptography

Isiyalo esiphathelene nobuciko bokubhala ngolimi okuvunyelwene ngalo ngokusebenzisa amakhodi noma izibalo, okungukuthi, ifundisa ukuklama «Cifrarios» (isisho esifana nekhodi eyimfihlo noma ukubhala okuyimfihlo) futhi «criptoanalizar» (ukusebenza okuphambene okuphathelene nokuhumusha ngokuhlaziya i- «Cifrarios» yakhiwe ngabadwebi be-cryptographer).

Ingqalasizinda Ebucayi

Labo abahlinzeka «servicios esenciales», okusebenza kwayo kubalulekile futhi kungavumeli ezinye izixazululoNgakho-ke, ukuphazamiseka noma ukubhujiswa kwayo kungaba nomthelela omkhulu ezinsizakalweni ezibalulekile.

Eminye imiqondo ebalulekile

  • Ingozi: Isimo esidabukisayo somuntu, ngaleyo ndlela, esisezingeni lokuqonda, lokuqonda noma langaphambi kokuqonda, okunikezwa okulindelwe noma okungenzeka kugwenywe maqondana nokufezeka okungenzeka.
  • Ubumfihlo: Ukulindela komuntu ngamunye ukulawula umuntu ngamunye anakho ngaphezu kolwazi ngaye nangendlela lolu lwazi olwaziwa noma olusetshenziswa ngayo ngabantu besithathu.
  • Isivivinyo: I-Element, izindlela noma isenzo inhloso yaso ukukhombisa ukuthi okushiwoyo kufana neqiniso.
  • Ubungozi: Isimo noma isimo esihambelana nesenzo esingahle sibe khona sokulahleka noma sokulimala esihlokweni noma ohlelweni oludaluliwe, ngenxa ye- "convolution" yosongo nobungozi.
  • Ukweqa umthetho: Ukwephulwa kwemithetho, izinkambiso noma amasiko.
  • Intando: Amandla omuntu wokunquma ngokukhululekile okufunwayo nalokho okungafuneki.

Ukuphepha Kwemininingwane: Inkambu Yesenzo

Inkambu yesenzo

Inkambu yesenzo se «Seguridad de la Información» ixhunyaniswe kakhulu neminye imikhakha yesayensi yamakhompiyutha, njenge «Seguridad Informática» futhi i «Ciberseguridad».

Ukucaphuna uCatherine A. Theohary:

“Kwabanye abalingisi bakahulumeni, i-Cybersecurity isho ukuphepha kolwazi noma ukuvikela imininingwane ehlala kwingqalasizinda ye-Cyber, njengamanethiwekhi ezokuxhumana ngocingo noma izinqubo ezivunyelwa yilezi zinethiwekhi. Futhi kwabanye, i-Cybersecurity isho ukuvikela ingqalasizinda yolwazi ekuhlaselweni ngokomzimba noma ngogesi ”.

La «Criminalística» futhi i «Informática Forense» Futhi kuyiziyalo ezihlobene nobubanzi besenzo se- «Seguridad de la Información». Ikakhulukazi eyokugcina, ngoba iqukethe ukulondolozwa, ukuhlonza, ukukhipha, imibhalo nokuchazwa kwedatha yekhompyutha.

Kukhona ezinye iziyalo ezihilelekile ngaphandle kwakho, ngakho-ke Okufanele ukwelula ukufundwa kulezi zifundo kusetshenziswa njengezinkomba izindaba zamanje ezihlobene ne- «Seguridad de la Información» futhi i «Seguridad Informática» kweminye imithombo yolwazi (amawebhusayithi) njenge: Incibe, I-Welivesecurity (ESET) y Kaspersky.

Imininingwane engaphezulu ehlobene

Ngemininingwane engaphezulu vakashela okufakiwe okuhlobene okulandelayo:

I-athikili ehlobene:
I-Cybersecurity, i-Free Software ne-GNU / Linux: I-Perfect Triad
I-athikili ehlobene:
Ubumfihlo bekhompyutha kanye neSoftware yamahhala: Ukwenza ngcono ukuphepha kwethu
I-athikili ehlobene:
Amathiphu Wokuphepha Kwikhompyutha Wawo Wonke Umuntu Noma Kunini, Noma Kuphi
I-athikili ehlobene:
Isoftware yamahhala njengeNqubomgomo Yomphakathi Esebenzayo
I-athikili ehlobene:
Ubuchwepheshe bamahhala nobokuphathelene nombono wokuphepha kolwazi

Ukuphepha Kwemininingwane: Isiphetho

Isiphetho

Siyethemba ukuthi le ncwadi, mayelana «Seguridad de la Información» ube wusizo kakhulu kubo bonke abantu, kokubili kulabo abangaphandle kwesihloko ngqo kanye nalabo abahlobene nesihloko. Ukuthi kungumthombo wolwazi omncane kepha obalulekile, ikakhulukazi ezingeni lamagama nemibandela evame ukusetshenziswa unomphela ezindaweni zemfundo, ezobuchwepheshe nezenhlalo ezihlobene «La Informática y la Computación».

Noma kunjalo, makube njalo kuyasiza ukukwazi ukuhlanganisa isisekelo semfundiso evumela noma ngubani ukuthi abhekane nonyawo lwangakwesokudla, ukuqala kolwazi endaweni ebalulekile kangaka yolwazi lwamanje.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.