Izimvume namalungelo ku-Linux

 

Bangaki kithi abake baba nesidingo "sokukhawulela ukufinyelela" kumafayili aqukethwe kuhla lwemibhalo / ifolda ethile noma simane nje sidinga ukuvimbela abanye abantu ekubukeni, ekususeni noma ekuguquleni okuqukethwe kwefayela elithile? Ngaphezu kweyodwa, akunjalo? Singayifinyelela ku-penguin wethu othandekayo? Impendulo ithi: Yebo kunjalo : D.

Isingeniso

Abaningi bethu abavela eWindows, bebejwayele ukubhekana nale "nkinga" ngendlela ehluke kakhulu, ukufeza le njongo bekufanele sisebenzise "amasu" angajwayelekile, njengokufihla ifayela ngezimpawu zalo, ukuhambisa imininingwane eya endaweni ekude kakhulu yethimba lethu (ngaphakathi kwamafolda angama-20,000 XNUMX) ukuzama ukunqanda "isitha" sethu se-XD, ukushintsha noma ukususa isandiso sefayela, noma imikhuba "ejwayelekile" yokulanda uhlelo olusivumela ukuthi " vala ”umkhombandlela wethu ngemuva kwebhokisi lebhokisi elincomekayo elicela iphasiwedi ukuthola lona. Sibe nenye indlela engcono kakhulu? Cha.

I-athikili ehlobene:
Ungawafaka kanjani ama-HDD noma ukwahlukanisa nge-terminal

Ngiyaxolisa kakhulu kubangani bami be "Windoleros" (ngikusho ngothando olukhulu ukuze kungabikho muntu okhubekayo, kulungile?;)), Kepha namuhla kuzofanele ngizifundise kancane ngeWindows: P, ngoba ngizochaza ukuthi kungani le OS ingavumeli native lokhu kusebenza.

Bangaki kini abake babona ukuthi uma sihlala ngemuva kwekhompyutha ye- "Windows" (noma ngabe akuyona eyethu) siba ngabanikazi bayo yonke into equkethwe yikhompyutha (izithombe, amadokhumenti, izinhlelo, njll.)? Ngiqonde ukuthini? Yebo, ngokumane sithathe i- "control of Windows", singakopisha, sihambise, sisuse, sakhe, sivule noma siguqule amafolda namafayela kwesokunxele nakwesokudla, noma ngabe singabanikazi balolu lwazi noma cha. Lokhu kukhombisa iphutha elikhulu ekuphepheni kohlelo lokusebenza, akunjalo? Hhayi-ke, lokhu kungenxa yokuthi izinhlelo zokusebenza zeMicrosoft bezingakhelwanga ukusuka phansi ukuze zisebenzise abasebenzisi abaningi. Lapho kukhishwa izinhlobo ze-MS-DOS kanye nezinye ze-Windows, bathembele ngokuphelele ukuthi umsebenzisi wokugcina uzoba nesibopho "sokuqapha" ikhompyutha yabo ukuze kungabikho omunye umsebenzisi okwazi ukufinyelela kulwazi olugcinwe kuyo. ¬. Manje bangani beWinUsers, usuyazi vele ukuthi kungani kunale "mpicabadala": D.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, i-GNU / Linux, njengoba iyisistimu eyakhelwe ngokuyinhloko ukuxhumana, ukuphepha kwemininingwane esiyigcina kumakhompyutha ethu (ingasaphathwa kumaseva) kubalulekile, ngoba abasebenzisi abaningi bazokwazi ukufinyelela noma ingxenye yezinsizakusebenza zesoftware (zombili izinhlelo zokusebenza nolwazi) ne-hardware ephethwe kulawa makhompyutha.

Manje siyabona ukuthi kungani isidingo sohlelo lwemvume? Masingene esihlokweni;).

I-athikili ehlobene:
I-DU: ungabuka kanjani izinkomba eziyi-10 ezithatha isikhala esiningi

Ku-GNU / Linux, izimvume noma amalungelo abasebenzisi abangaba nawo ngaphezulu kwamafayela athile aqukethwe kuwo asungulwa ngamazinga amathathu ahlukaniswe ngokusobala. La mazinga amathathu ami kanje:

Izimvume Zomnikazi.
Izimvume zeqembu.
Izimvume zabanye abasebenzisi (noma ezibizwa nangokuthi "abanye").

Ukucaca ngale mibono, ezinhlelweni zenethiwekhi (njengepenguin) kuhlale kunesibalo somlawuli, umphathi omkhulu noma impande. Lo mphathi uphethe ukudala nokususa abasebenzisi, kanye nokusungula amalungelo ezoba nawo ngamunye wabo ohlelweni. Lawa malungelo asungulelwa umkhombandlela womsebenzisi ngamunye we-HOME kanye nezinkomba namafayela umphathi anquma ukuthi umsebenzisi angawafinyelela.

Izimvume zomnikazi

Umnikazi ngumsebenzisi okhiqiza noma odala ifayili / ifolda ngaphakathi kohla lwemibhalo olusebenzayo (IKHAYA), noma kolunye umkhombandlela onamalungelo ngaphezulu. Umsebenzisi ngamunye unamandla okwenza, ngokuzenzakalela, amafayela awafunayo ngaphakathi kohla lwemibhalo olusebenzayo. Ngokomthetho, nguye futhi kuphela ozokwazi ukufinyelela kulwazi oluqukethwe kumafayela nezikhombisi kuhla lwemibhalo lwakho EKHAYA.

Izimvume zeqembu

Into ejwayelekile kunazo zonke ukuthi umsebenzisi ngamunye ungoweqembu lomsebenzi. Ngale ndlela, lapho iqembu liphethwe, bonke abasebenzisi abangabalo baphethwe. Ngamanye amagama, kulula ukuhlanganisa abasebenzisi abaningana eqenjini elinikezwe amalungelo athile ohlelweni kunokunikeza amalungelo ngokuzimela kumsebenzisi ngamunye.

Izimvume zabo bonke abanye abasebenzisi

Okokugcina, amalungelo wamafayela aqukethwe kunoma iyiphi inkomba angagcinwa futhi nakwabanye abasebenzisi okungebona abaseqenjini lokusebenza lapho kufakwa khona ifayela okukhulunywa ngalo. Ngamanye amagama, abasebenzisi okungebona beqembu lomsebenzi okukhona kulo ifayela, kepha abangabamanye amaqembu eqembu, babizwa ngokuthi abanye abasebenzisi bohlelo.

Kuhle kakhulu, kepha ngingakukhomba kanjani konke lokhu? Kulula, vula ukuphela bese wenza okulandelayo:

$ ls -l

Nota: yizinhlamvu ezincane "L" 😉

Kuzovela into efana nale elandelayo:

Njengoba ukwazi ukubona, lo myalo ukhombisa noma "ubala" okuqukethwe IKHAYA lami, esisebenzelana nakho yimigqa ebomvu nebomvu. Ibhokisi elibomvu lisikhombisa ukuthi ngubani umnikazi futhi ibhokisi eliluhlaza likhombisa ukuthi yiliphi iqembu ngalinye lamafayela namafolda abhalwe ngenhla angaphansi. Kulokhu, bobabili umnikazi neqembu babizwa nge- "Perseus", kepha kungenzeka ukuthi bahlangane neqembu elihlukile njenge- "sales". Kokunye, ungakhathazeki okwamanje, sizobona ngokuhamba kwesikhathi: D.

Izinhlobo zezimvume ku-GNU / Linux

Ngaphambi kokufunda ukuthi izimvume zisethwe kanjani ku-GNU / Linux, kufanele sazi ukuthi izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamafayela uhlelo olungaba nawo zingahlukaniswa kanjani.

Ifayela ngalinye ku-GNU / Linux likhonjwa ngezinhlamvu eziyi-10, ezibizwa imaski. Kulezi zinhlamvu eziyi-10, owokuqala (kusuka kwesobunxele kuye kwesokudla) ubhekisa ohlotsheni lwefayela. Abangu-9 abalandelayo, ukusuka kwesobunxele kuye kwesokudla naku-block 3, kubhekisa kuzimvume ezinikezwayo, ngokulandelana, kumnikazi, iqembu nakwabanye noma kwabanye. Isithombe-skrini ukukhombisa zonke lezi zinto:

Uhlamvu lokuqala lwamafayela kungaba okulandelayo:

Uxolo Khomba
- Faka kungobo yomlando
d Isiqondisi
b Ifayela Elikhethekile Lokuvimba (Amafayela Akhethekile Wedivayisi)
c Ifayela lezinhlamvu ezikhethekile (idivayisi ye-tty, iphrinta ...)
l Xhuma ifayela noma isixhumanisi (isixhumanisi esithambile / esingokomfanekiso)
p Ifayela elikhethekile lesiteshi (ipayipi noma ipayipi)

 

Izinhlamvu eziyisishiyagalolunye ezilandelayo izimvume ezinikezwe abasebenzisi bohlelo. Zonke izinhlamvu ezintathu, umnikazi, iqembu, nezinye izimvume zomsebenzisi ziyakhonjwa.

Izinhlamvu ezichaza lezi zimvume yilezi ezilandelayo:

Uxolo Khomba
- Ngaphandle kwemvume
r Funda imvume
w Bhala imvume
x Imvume yokwenza

 

Izimvume zefayela

Ukufunda: ngokuyisisekelo kukuvumela ukubuka okuqukethwe kwefayela.
Bhala: ikuvumela ukuthi uguqule okuqukethwe kwefayela.
Ukwenza: kuvumela ifayela ukuthi lenziwe sengathi luhlelo olusebenzayo.

Izimvume zemibhalo

Funda: Ivumela ukwazi ukuthi yimaphi amafayela nezinkomba umkhombandlela onale mvume uqukethe.
Bhala: ikuvumela ukuthi udale amafayela enkombeni, kungaba amafayela ajwayelekile noma izinkomba ezintsha. Izinkomba zingasuswa, amafayela akopishwe enkombeni, ahanjiswe, aqanjwe kabusha, njll.
Ukwenza: kukuvumela ukuthi udlule kwisikhombi ukuze ukwazi ukuhlola okuqukethwe yikho, ukopishe amafayela ususe noma uye kuso. Uma futhi unezimvume zokufunda nokubhala, ungenza yonke imisebenzi engenzeka kumafayela nakwizikhombisi-ndlela.

Nota: Uma ungenayo imvume yokwenza, ngeke sikwazi ukufinyelela leso siqondisi (noma ngabe sisebenzisa umyalo "cd"), ngoba lesi senzo sizonqatshwa. Ibuye ivumele ukunciphisa ukusetshenziswa komkhombandlela njengengxenye yendlela (njengalapho sidlulisa indlela yefayela etholakala kuleyo nkomba njengereferensi. Ake sithi sifuna ukukopisha ifayela "X.ogg" elisefolda " / home / perso / Z ”- lapho ifolda ethi" Z "ingenayo imvume yokusebenzisa-, singenza okulandelayo:

$ cp /home/perseo/Z/X.ogg /home/perseo/Y/

ukuthola ngalokhu umyalezo wephutha usitshela ukuthi asinazo izimvume ezanele zokufinyelela kufayela: D). Uma imvume yokusebenzisa isiqondisi ingasebenzi, uzokwazi ukubona okuqukethwe kwayo (uma ufunde imvume), kepha ngeke ukwazi ukufinyelela noma yiziphi izinto eziqukethwe kuyo, ngoba lo mkhombandlela uyingxenye yendlela edingekayo ukuxazulula indawo yezinto zakho.

Ukuphathwa kwemvume ku-GNU / Linux

Kuze kube manje, sesibonile ukuthi yiziphi izimvume zethu ku-GNU / Linux, ngokulandelayo sizobona ukuthi singabela kanjani noma sisuse kanjani izimvume noma amalungelo.

Ngaphambi kokuqala, kufanele sikhumbule ukuthi lapho sibhalisa noma senza umsebenzisi ohlelweni, sibanikeza amalungelo ngokuzenzakalela. Lawa malungelo, vele, ngeke abe aphelele, okusho ukuthi, abasebenzisi ngokuvamile ngeke babe nezimvume namalungelo afanayo ophethe amandla amakhulu. Lapho umsebenzisi edalwa, uhlelo lukhiqiza ngokuzenzakalela amalungelo omsebenzisi wokuphathwa kwefayela nokuphathwa kwesiqondisi. Ngokusobala, lokhu kungaguqulwa ngumlawuli, kepha uhlelo lukhiqiza amalungelo acishe acishe asebenze emisebenzini eminingi umsebenzisi ngamunye azoyenza enkombeni yabo, kumafayili abo nakwizikhombisi namafayela abanye abasebenzisi. Ngokuvamile lezi izimvume ezilandelayo:

<° Okwamafayela: - rw- r-- r--
<° Okwezinkomba: - rwx rwx

Nota: akuzona izimvume ezifanayo kukho konke ukusatshalaliswa kwe-GNU / Linux.

Lawa malungelo asivumela ukuthi sakhe, sikopishe futhi sisuse amafayela, sakhe izinkomba ezintsha, njll. Ake sibone konke lokhu ngokwenza: D:

Masithathe ifayela le- "Advanced CSS.pdf" njengesibonelo. Qaphela ukuthi livela kanjena: -rw-r--r-- … Advanced CSS.pdf. Ake sihlolisise.

I-Tipo umsebenzisi Iqembu Abanye abasebenzisi (abanye) Igama lefayela
- rw- r-- r-- I-CSS ethuthukile

 

Lokhu kusho ukuthi:

<° Uhlobo: Faka kungobo yomlando
<° Umsebenzisi anga: Funda (buka okuqukethwe) bese ubhala (shintsha) ifayela.
<° Iqembu okulo umsebenzisi anga: Funda (kuphela) ifayili.
<° Abanye abasebenzisi banga: Funda (kuphela) ifayili.

Kulabo abafuna ukwazi abazibuza okwamanje ukuthi yiziphi ezinye izinkambu zohlu ezitholwe yi-ls -l ezibhekiswe kuzo, nansi impendulo:

Uma ufuna ukwazi okwengeziwe ngezixhumanisi ezilukhuni nezithambile / ezingokomfanekiso, nansi incazelo kanye nokwabo umehluko.

Kuhle bangani, sifika engxenyeni ethakazelisa kakhulu nesindayo yale ndaba okukhulunywa ngayo ...

Ukunikezwa kwemvume

Umyalo chmod ("Shintsha imodi") ivumela ukuguqula imaski ukuze kwenziwe imisebenzi emincane noma emincane kumafayili noma kwizikhombisi-ndlela, ngamanye amagama, nge-chmod ungasusa noma ususe amalungelo ohlobo ngalunye lomsebenzisi. Uma uhlobo lomsebenzisi esifuna ukususa, ukubeka noma ukwabela amalungelo lungacacisiwe, kuzokwenzekani lapho kwenziwa lo msebenzi kuzothinta bonke abasebenzisi ngasikhathi sinye.

Into eyisisekelo okufanele uyikhumbule ukuthi sinikeza noma sisusa izimvume kula mazinga:

Ipharamitha Ileveli Descripción
u umnikazi umnikazi wefayela noma umkhombandlela
g iqembu iqembu elingelakhe
o abanye bonke abanye abasebenzisi okungebona abanikazi noma iqembu

 

Izinhlobo zemvume:

Uxolo Khomba
r Funda imvume
w Bhala imvume
x Imvume yokwenza

 

 Nikeza umnikazi imvume yokusebenzisa:

$ chmod u+x komodo.sh

Susa ukukhipha imvume kubo bonke abasebenzisi:

$ chmod -x komodo.sh

Nikeza abanye abasebenzisi imvume yokufunda nokubhala:

$ chmod o+r+w komodo.sh

Shiya kuphela imvume yokufunda eqenjini lelo ifayili elikuyo:

$ chmod g+r-w-x komodo.sh

Izimvume ngefomethi yezinombolo ze-octal

Kukhona enye indlela yokusebenzisa umyalo we-chmod othi, kubasebenzisi abaningi, "unethezeke kakhudlwana", yize i-priori icishe ixakeke ukuyiqonda ¬¬.

Inhlanganisela yamanani weqembu ngalinye labasebenzisi yakha inombolo ye-octal, i- "x" ingu-20 okungu-1, i-w bit ingama-21 okungu-2, i-r bit ingu-22 okungu-4, bese sinakho ke:

r = 4
w = 2
x = 1

Ukuhlanganiswa kwamabhithi noma okuvaliwe eqenjini ngalinye kunikeza inhlanganisela yamanani ayisishiyagalombili, okungukuthi, isamba samabhithi ku:

Uxolo Inani le-Octal Descripción
- - - 0 awunayo imvume
- - x 1 yenza imvume kuphela
- w - 2 bhala imvume kuphela
- wx 3 bhala futhi usebenzise izimvume
r - - 4 funda imvume kuphela
r - x 5 funda futhi usebenzise izimvume
rw - 6 funda futhi ubhale izimvume
rwx 7 zonke izimvume zimisiwe, zifundwe, zibhale futhi zisebenzise

 

Uma uhlanganisa umsebenzisi, iqembu, nezinye izimvume, uthola inombolo enamadijithi amathathu akha izimvume zefayela noma zemikhombandlela. Izibonelo:

Uxolo I-Valor Descripción
rw- --- -- 600 Umnikazi ufunde futhi wabhala izimvume
rwx --x --x 711 Umnikazi ufunda, ubhale futhi akhiphe, iqembu nabanye bakhiphe kuphela
rwx rx rx 755 Okufundwayo, ukubhala kanye nokwenza umnikazi, iqembu nabanye bangafunda futhi basebenzise ifayili
rwx rwx 777 Ifayela lingafundwa, libhalwe futhi lenziwe yinoma ngubani
r-- --- -- 400 Ngumnikazi kuphela ongafunda ifayili, kepha futhi ngeke aliguqule noma alisebenzise futhi empeleni iqembu noma abanye abakwazi ukwenza lutho kulo.
rw- r-- --- 640 Umsebenzisi ongumnikazi angafunda nokubhala, iqembu lingafunda ifayela, kanti abanye abakwazi ukwenza lutho

 

Izimvume ezikhethekile

Kusekhona ezinye izinhlobo zezimvume okufanele zicatshangelwe. Lezi yizicucu zemvume ze-SUID (Setha i-ID Yomsebenzisi), i-SGID (Setha i-ID ye-ID) kanye nemvume yokunamathela (okuqhubekayo kwemvume)

setuid

I-setuid bit inikezwa amafayela asebenzayo, futhi ivumela ukuthi lapho umsebenzisi ekhipha lelo fayela, inqubo ithola izimvume zomnikazi wefayela elenziwe. Isibonelo esicacile sefayela elisebenzisekayo nge-setuid bit yile:

$ su

Siyabona ukuthi okuncane kunikezwa njenge- "s" kulokhu kubanjwa okulandelayo:

Ukwabela le nto kufayela kungaba:

$ chmod u+s /bin/su

Futhi ukuyisusa:

$ chmod u-s /bin/su

Nota: Kumele siyisebenzise ngokunakekela ngokweqile ngoba ingadala ukwanda kwamalungelo kuhlelo lwethu ¬¬.

setgid

I-setid bit ivumela ukuthola amalungelo weqembu elinikezwe ifayela, futhi linikezwa nezinkomba. Lokhu kuzoba wusizo olukhulu lapho abasebenzisi abaningana beqembu elifanayo bedinga ukusebenza ngezinsizakusebenza ezikhona enkombeni efanayo.

Ukunikeza lokhu kancane senza okulandelayo:

$ chmod g+s /carpeta_compartida

Futhi ukuyisusa:

$ chmod g-s /carpeta_compartida

okunamathelayo

Le bit ivame ukunikezwa kwizikhombisi lapho bonke abasebenzisi banokufinyelela khona, futhi ivumela ukuvimbela umsebenzisi ekususeni amafayela / izinkomba zomunye umsebenzisi ngaphakathi kwalowo mkhombandlela, ngoba bonke banemvume yokubhala.
Siyabona ukuthi i-bit inikezwe njenge- "t" ekuthwebuleni okulandelayo:

Ukunikeza lokhu kancane senza okulandelayo:

$ chmod o+t /tmp

Futhi ukuyisusa:

$ chmod o-t /tmp

Kuhle bangani, manje usuyazi ukuthi ungaluvikela kanjani kangcono ulwazi lwakho, ngalokhu ngiyethemba uzoyeka ukufuna ezinye izindlela Ilokhi yefolda o Ifolda Guard ukuthi ku-GNU / Linux asizidingi nakancane i-XD.

P.S: Le ndatshana icelwe ngumakhelwane womzala kamngani weXD, ngiyethemba ngikuxazulule ukungabaza kwakho ... 😀


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana ayi-45, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   i-mauritius kusho

    I-athikili enhle kakhulu, ichazwe kahle.

    1.    Perseus kusho

      Ngiyabonga mngani 😀

  2.   ULucas Matias kusho

    I-Perseus enhle kakhulu, bengingazi nakancane mayelana nezimvume ngefomethi yezinombolo ze-octal (okuyinto encane ethakazelisa kakhulu) noma izimvume ezikhethekile (setuid / setgid / sticky).
    Bengifa ubuthongo kepha lokhu kunginyuse kancane, sengivele ngifuna ukubamba ikhonsoli 😀 +1000

    1.    Perseus kusho

      Into enhle ukuthi ibilusizo kuwe, Sanibonani 😉

  3.   nkosinathi kusho

    Kuhle kakhulu, izincazelo zicace bha, ngiyabonga kakhulu.

    setgid
    Ingcosana setuid ikuvumela ukuthi uthole amalungelo

    kuleyo ngxenye kunephutha elincane.

    1.    Perseus kusho

      Ngiyabonga ngokubona kwakho nokuphawula kwakho, kwesinye isikhathi iminwe yami iba "tangled" XD ...

      Sanibonani

      1.    Perseus kusho

        Sengivele ngilungisiwe 😀

  4.   Hugo kusho

    I-athikili enhle kakhulu, uPerseus. Kunoma ikuphi, ngithanda ukwenza ukubheka okuthile ukuze imininingwane iphelele ngokwengeziwe:

    Qaphela lapho usebenzisa izimvume eziphindayo (chmod -R) ngoba singagcina sesinikeza amafayela izimvume eziningi kakhulu. Enye indlela ezungeze lokhu ukusebenzisa umyalo wokuthola ukuhlukanisa phakathi kwamafayela noma amafolda. Ngokwesibonelo:

    find /var/www -type d -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 755
    find /var/www -type f -print0 | xargs -0 chmod 644

    Enye into: ukusungula amalungelo kuzinkomba noma kumafayili akuyona indlela engaphutha yokuvikela imininingwane, ngoba nge-LiveCD noma ngokufaka i-hard disk kwenye i-PC akunzima ukufinyelela amafolda. Ukuvikela imininingwane ebucayi kuyadingeka ukusebenzisa amathuluzi wokubethela. Isibonelo, i-TrueCrypt inhle kakhulu futhi futhi iyi-cross-platform.

    Futhi ekugcineni: ngoba iningi labasebenzisi alishintshi amalungelo wohlelo lwefayela kuWindows akusho ukuthi akunakwenzeka ukwenza njalo. Okungenani uhlelo lwefayela le-NTFS lungavikeleka kakhulu njenge-EXT, ngiyazi ngoba emsebenzini wami nginezingxenye ezigcwele ngaphandle kokusebenzisa noma ukubhala izimvume, njll. Lokhu kungafinyelelwa ngethebhu yokuphepha (evame ukufihlwa). Inkinga enkulu ngeWindows ukuthi izilungiselelo zayo ezizenzakalelayo zivumela konke.

    1.    Perseus kusho

      Ngiyabonga kakhulu ngokwandisa isihloko;). Ngokuya ku:

      [...] establecer privilegios sobre directorios o archivos no es un método infalible para proteger la información, ya que con un LiveCD o poniendo el disco duro en otra PC no es difícil acceder a las carpetas [...]

      Uqinisile impela, noma ngabe nge-Win kwenzeka into efanayo, mhlawumbe ngokuzayo sizokhuluma ngamathuluzi ahlukahlukene asisiza ukubethela imininingwane yethu.

      Sanibonani

    2.    KZKG ^ Gaara kusho

      Hugo mngani unjani 😀
      Inkinga nge-TrueCrypt ... ingabe ilayisense into "exakile" enayo, ungasitshela kabanzi ngayo? 🙂
      Sawubona compa

      1.    Hugo kusho

        Ilayisense ye-TrueCrypt izoba yinto exakile, kepha okungenani inguqulo engu-3.0 yelayisense (okuyiyona yamanje) ivumela ukusetshenziswa komuntu siqu nokuhweba eziteshini zokusebenza ezingenamkhawulo, futhi ivumela nokukopisha, ukubukeza ikhodi yomthombo, ukwenza ukulungisa nokusabalalisa imisebenzi esuselwe kokunye (inqobo nje uma iqanjwa kabusha), ngakho-ke uma ingekho mahhala ngo-100%, uma ngikhuluma iqiniso isondele kakhulu.

  5.   Isibindi kusho

    UPerseus omdala usishiya neqembu lonke kabi ngezindatshana zakhe zokuthi ziphelele.

    Akekho lapha ongcono kunomuntu huh? Futhi kungcono kakhulu kunami JAJAJAJAJAJAJA

    1.    Perseus kusho

      hahahaha, qaphela mngani, khumbula ukuthi sisesikebheni esisodwa 😀

      Ngiyabonga ngamazwana 😉

  6.   jqs kusho

    Izimvume, yinto efundwa usuku nosuku, hhayi kusuka osukwini olulodwa kuye kolandelayo, ngakho-ke ake sifunde ihehehehe

  7.   kufanelekile kusho

    Isihloko esihle kakhulu uPerseus.
    Ithiphu: akudingekile ukubhala uphawu kuphawu ngalunye, kwanele ukukhombisa kanye kuphela. Isibonelo:
    $ chmod o + r + w komodo.sh
    Kungabukeka
    $ chmod o + rw komodo.sh

    ngokufanayo ne-
    $ chmod g + rwx komodo.sh
    kungabonakala futhi
    $ chmod g + r-wx komodo.sh

    ukulandela leyo fomethi ungakwenza lokhu
    $ a-rwx, u + rw, g + w + noma example.txt
    inothi: a = all.

    Ukubingelela

    1.    Perseus kusho

      Hawu mngani, bengingayazi leyo, ngiyabonga ngokwabelana 😀

  8.   khosifiwa_666 kusho

    I-athikili enhle kakhulu, konke kuchazwe kahle.
    Kunethezeka ngokwengeziwe kimi ukushintsha izimvume zamafayela nge-octally, ngokucace kakhudlwana. Ngizithola nganele ukuqonda enye indlela kepha lokhu bekudala kudala hahaha

  9.   alunado kusho

    Sanibonani bantu, persus; Ngilithande kakhulu ikhasi. Ngingathanda ukusebenzisana nayo. Kungenzeka? Ngokuchofoza isidlaliso sami unezinkomba !! haha.
    Imvamisa ngenza ukushicilelwa okungajwayelekile, futhi ngiyisishoshovu se-SL ngokwengeziwe, into engingeke ngiyilahle empilweni yami inqobo nje uma ngikhona futhi ngineminwe embalwa. Yebo, ngicabanga ukuthi bane-imeyili yami. ukwanga namandla ngephrojekthi ebonakala kimi «ama-blogger abumbene!», ACA ES LA TRENDENCIA !! Le yindlela okwakhiwa ngayo iwebhu yesikhathi esizayo.

    1.    Perseus kusho

      Hahahahaha, kungaba yinjabulo enkulu ukuthi usijoyine, uvumele i-elav noma i-gaara ibone isicelo sakho 😉

      Nakekela futhi ngiyethemba ukukubona lapha kungekudala 😀

    2.    KZKG ^ Gaara kusho

      Ngikubhalela i-imeyili manje (ekhelini obeka kulo amazwana) 🙂

  10.   Roberto kusho

    Angingabazi. Ungazifaka kanjani izimvume kuzinkomba nokuthi lezi aziziguquli izimfanelo zazo, noma ngabe umsebenzisi uzishintsha kanjani, kufaka phakathi izimpande.

    Ukubingelela

    1.    I-elav <° Linux kusho

      Kungenzeka Lesi sihloko Ngicacisa kancane ..

  11.   umama kusho

    Ibhalwe kahle le ndatshana, ngiyabonga ngokwabelana ngolwazi

    1.    Perseus kusho

      Yeka ukuthi kube wusizo kangakanani, sethemba ukukubona lapha futhi. Sanibonani

  12.   javi kusho

    I-athikili enhle kakhulu.

    1.    Perseus kusho

      Ngijabule kakhulu ukuthi kube wusizo kuwe, imikhonzo 😉

  13.   Achillesva kusho

    Iqiniso angivumelani nalo ku-linux ukuhambisa ifayili kufolda yohlelo kuyikhanda. kufanele unikeze imvume yakho konke bese ufaka iphasiwedi yakho. emafasiteleni ukuhambisa amafayela kulula, noma kufolda efanayo yamawindows. inqubo ephelele yokuhambisa ifayela liye kufolda ku-linux lapho kumafasitela kulula ukukopisha nokunamathisela. Ngisebenzisa zombili izinhlelo zokusebenza. i-mint 2 iMaya nesinamoni namawindi 13

    1.    KZKG ^ Gaara kusho

      Kade ngisebenzisa iLinux iminyaka embalwa manje, futhi ngokuthembeka angibanga nazo lezi zinkinga isikhathi esithile.
      Ngikwazi ukuhambisa amafayela / amafolda ngaphandle kwenkinga, futhi i-HDD yami ihlukaniswe ngo-2.

      Uma unenkinga engavamile, sitshele, sizokujabulela ukukusiza 😉

  14.   Xavi kusho

    I-athikili elungile ngokuya ngengxenye yeLinux. Kumazwana akho ekuphatheni izimvume ku-Windows: Awazi nhlobo ukuthi izimvume zisethwe kanjani. Ukulawulwa kwalawa mandla aphakeme kakhulu (ngaphandle kwezinguqulo eziyi-16 bit, iWindows 95, 98, Mina nezingcingo ezingumakhalekhukhwini) ukuthi zilawulwa kanjani ohlelweni lwepenguin kanye nembudumbudu ebabazekayo, kanye nerekhodi engibhekana nazo zombili izinhlelo ezisebenzayo akukho manias ngokumelene nomunye wethu.

    Iseluleko sami: yenza umba kancane futhi uzobona, azikho izinhlelo zangaphandle ezidingekayo nhlobo. Konke okuhle kakhulu. 😉

  15.   Joaquin kusho

    I-athikili enhle kakhulu. Isihloko semvume siyinto ethokozisayo ongayifunda. Kwenzeke kimi kanye ukuthi ngingakwazi ukufinyelela ifayili ngendlela ende, ngoba bengingenazo izimvume kwenye yezinkomba. Kuhle futhi ukwazi okungenani ubukhona bezimvume ezikhethekile njenge-Sticky bit.

    PS: Bengilokhu ngilandela ibhulogi isikhashana kodwa bengingabhalisile. Zinezindatshana ezithakazelisa kakhulu kepha okwangidonsela amehlo kakhulu ukwelashwa phakathi kwabasebenzisi. Ngaphandle kokuthi kungahle kube nokwehluka, ngokuvamile, wonke umuntu uzama ukusiza omunye nomunye ngokunikela ngamava abo. Lokho kuyinto emangalisayo, ngokungafani namanye amasayithi agcwele ama-troll nama-flamewars 😉

  16.   UFrancisco_18 kusho

    Kuyathakazelisa kakhulu, kepha ngakufunda ngokuhlukile ngezimvume, esikhundleni se-Octal, ku-Binary, ukuze kuthi, ngokwesibonelo, u- "7" kungu-111, bekusho ukuthi inazo zonke izimvume, ngakho-ke uma ubeka u-777 izokwenza unika zonke izimvume kubo bonke abasebenzisi, amaqembu ...

    A ukubingelela.

  17.   Sam kusho

    Kuyamangaza, kufushane, kucacile nasesihlokweni.

  18.   tommy kusho

    Yeka indatshana enhle, siyakuhalalisela futhi siyabonga ngakho konke ukucaciseleka… ..
    salu2.

  19.   gabux kusho

    Woow uma ngifunda okuningi ngezifundo zakho, ngizizwa ngiyintethe encane kule nsimu enkulu eyiLinux, kepha nginciphisa lokho uHugo ake akusho lapha, kulo mugqa wamazwana uma sibeka i-cd ebukhoma futhi uma amafayela ethu engabhaliwe akusalanga kangako ukuvikela, ngaphezu kwalokho ku-Windows ngicabanga ukuthi bekungekho nkinga enkulu ukudala umsebenzisi womlawuli ne-akhawunti elinganiselwe ngaphakathi kohlelo lokusebenza lwe-win futhi ngaleyo ndlela kuvikelwe idatha ye-akhawunti yakho yomlawuli…. Kepha ngiyabonga kakhulu ngale ndatshana nginolwazi oluthe xaxa odabeni ngenxa yakho ...

  20.   u-juancho kusho

    Iqiniso ukuthi bengifuna ukusebenzisa i-xD ephumelelayo futhi yangitshela imvume enqatshiwe lapho ngivula futhi ngibhala amafayela we-x kepha ngafunda okuncane lapha futhi ngafunda okuthile futhi kwasiza ukubona izimvume zokuthi lelo folda elaliqukethe amafayela nophathekayo lalinento yokugcina engiyikhumbulayo ukuthi Ngenze ukuthi ngifuna ukufinyelela ifolda futhi njengoba igama lide ngaliguqula futhi phakathi kwe-xD elula, ngabe sengibheka izimvume futhi ngabheka okuthile okwakushiwo nge-adm ngaya kufayela engabeka kulo izakhiwo ngakhetha okuthile okwakushiwo i-adm ngaphandle kokukhipha izakhiwo Faka ifolda bese usebenzisa okusebenzisekayo futhi kungaqala ngaphandle kwezinkinga manje engingakwazi yilokho engikwenze xD angazi ngempela ngicabanga ukuthi kungenxa yokuthi ngishintshe igama lefolda kodwa angazi futhi ngiyabonga ngikwazile ukusebenzisa Ayikho inkinga.

  21.   I-Yareth kusho

    Sawubona nginemibuzo ethile,
    Nginohlelo lwewebhu okufanele lubhale isithombe kuseva ye-linux,
    imininingwane ukuthi ayikuvumeli ukuyibhalisa, zama ukushintsha izimvume kepha ayikwazanga,
    Ngimusha kulokhu, ngoba ngingathanda ukuthi ungiqondise, ngiyabonga.

  22.   Luis kusho

    Iya ukuthi lokhu kungisizile, ngiyabonga kakhulu ngomnikelo.

  23.   jaime kusho

    Ngokwami, imibhalo yangisiza ukuba ngifunde, okwasetshenzwa kuyo okwenziwa emsebenzini wami.

    Imikhuba efanele engiyenzile ibikuDebian. Halala kanye nemikhonzo.

  24.   Ingelosi Yocupicio kusho

    Isifundo esihle kakhulu kuzimvume ku-GNU / Linux. Okuhlangenwe nakho kwami ​​njengomsebenzisi we-Linux nanjengomphathi wamaseva ngokususelwa ekusatshalalisweni okuthile kwe-GNU / Linux ukuthi izinkinga eziningi zobuchwepheshe ezingavela zisuselwa ekuphathweni kwezimvume zamaqembu nabasebenzisi. Lokhu kuyinto okumele ibhekwe nayo. Ngihalalisela uPerseus kubhulogi yakhe futhi nginentshisekelo yokujoyina amabutho e-GNU kule bhulogi. Ukubingelela okuvela eMexico, maqabane!

  25.   Inquiry kusho

    Sawubona, okokuqala ngikuhalalisela kahle kakhulu ngendatshana futhi ngiyaxhumana nawe nginaleli cala: 4 ———- 1 impande 2363 Feb 19 11:08 / njll / isithunzi nge-4 phambili ukuthi lezi zimvume zizofundwa kanjani.

    Gracias

  26.   i-anon kusho

    IWindows: Sikhetha ifolda, inkinobho yesokudla, izakhiwo> Ithebhu yezokuphepha, lapho ungangeza noma ususe abasebenzisi noma amaqembu, bese ngamunye ebeka izimvume ozifunayo (funda, bhala, ukulawula okugcwele, njll.). Angazi ukuthi usho ukuthini lesihogo

    Ngendlela, ngisebenzisa i-linux nsuku zonke, ngisebenzisa okuyisisekelo, ngokususelwa kubuntu.

    Hamba kahle

  27.   artur24 kusho

    ngokumangazayo yindatshana echazwe kangcono kunazo zonke
    I-gracias

  28.   UJorge Painequeo kusho

    umngane:

    Umnikelo omuhle kakhulu, ungisize kakhulu.

    I-gracias.

  29.   Martin kusho

    Indodana yesikhonyane ayisebenzi ngisho.

  30.   websoft kusho

    Bangaki kini abaqaphele ukuthi lapho sihlala ngemuva kwekhompyutha ye- "Windows" Leyo ngxenye ingamanga ngokuphelele, ngoba kusukela ngeWindows NT, ngisho nangaphambi kweWindows 98 nokuthi leyo nkinga ongenakho ukuphepha kuyiphutha ngokuphelele.
    Ukuphepha kwiWindows kuyinto iMicrosoft eyithathe ngokungathi sína kakhulu ngesizathu ukuthi iyisistimu yokusebenza yedeskithophu esetshenziswa kakhulu namuhla.
    I-athikili ichazwe kahle mayelana nezimvume ze-GNU / Linux kepha ushintshile njengoba kwenzeka njalo kulezi zihloko ukuthi lowo obhalayo mhlawumbe akasebenzisi iWindows noma akazi ukuthi angayisebenzisa kanjani ngoba abayithandi futhi bathola isibuyekezo esibi.
    Okufanele kugcizelelwe ukuthi iWindows iphephe kakhulu ohlelweni lwayo lwamafayela ne-ACL (Uhlu Lokulawula Ukufinyelela) ethwala iWindows kusuka kuyo yonke iWindows NT eyenza uhlelo lwefayela luphephe kakhulu. Ku-GNU / Linux bayisebenzisile futhi.
    Njengoba iWindows Vista isici se- (User Account Control) se-UAC sisetshenzisiwe futhi sikwenza kube lula ukusebenzisa iWindows ngaphandle kokuthi ube umphathi ukusisebenzisa kahle.
    Kimi isici esihle abasisebenzisile ngoba ukusebenzisa iWindows XP njengomsebenzisi ngaphandle kwezimvume zokuphatha kungenzeka, kepha ekhaya ubani owusebenzise kanjalo? cishe akekho ngenxa yokuthi kwakungakhululeki kanjani ukungabi nento efana ne-UAC.
    Kuthiwani uma sekucacile kimi ukuthi noma ngubani obhale le ndatshana ukwenzile azi ukuthi ubhala ini yize engazange ayichaze i-GNU / Linux ACL.