Ukufaka i-GNU / Linux kwenye i-HDD ngaphandle kwediski yokufaka

Namuhla sizobheka ukuthi singayifakela kanjani yonke imininingwane isuke kwenye i-hard drive iye kwenye, umsebenzi ongaba wusizo uma ngasizathu simbe sidinga ukufaka enye i-hard drive yamanje yekhompyutha yethu ngenye (yomthamo ofanayo noma ohlukile).

Ezinsukwini ezimbalwa ezedlule, ngivakashele nje okuvamile endlini yomngani (owazifikela nje ngengozi wathuthela eGNU / Linux ezinyangeni ezimbalwa ezedlule ngemuva kokuphikelela kwami), wangijabula kakhulu wangikhombisa iHard Drive entsha ababemnike yona (i-500 Gb HDD leyo Yize kwabaningi kungabonakala njengedivayisi encane yomthamo, lapha eJurassic Cuba kuseseyinyathelo elikhulu elibheke ekugcineni idatha enkulu) nokuthi bekudingeka ukuthi ithathe indawo yediski esivele ingasasebenzi nengxenye yehlulekile nge-160 GB disk.

Isiphakamiso sakhe uqobo kwakungukususa idiski endala bese kufakwa idiski engu-500 GB endaweni yayo, bese kufakwa Debian, okwakuyi-distro engangiyifakile kudiski endala, futhi ngithatha isikhashana ukubuyisa zonke izilungiselelo zayo.

Ngenkathi lokhu kwenzeka, umzala womngani wami walinda umvuthwandaba walo msebenzi ukuthatha i-80 GB disk, yona ezongena esikhundleni sediski engu-40 GB kwikhompyutha endala kakhulu.

Imininingwane yakho konke lokhu ukuthi angizange ngihambe ngisho nediski yokufaka ye Debian, nangaphansi ngezinqolobane eziseduze. Ngakho-ke umbono wokufaka uhlelo nezinhlelo zokusebenza wawungeke usitholile, ngaphandle kokuthi ngiye endlini yami ngiyofuna okudingekayo, kepha ukusuka kwelinye icala ledolobha laseSantiago de Cuba ngiye kolunye kwakungeke kube ngenye indlela kimi. , edolobheni lapho ezokuthutha ezisemthethweni (izithuthuthu ezizimele) ziphindaphinde inani lazo kulo nyaka omusha (umusa wawuzongibiza ama-peso angama-40).

Lapho kwakukhanya inhlansi: ukuhlanganisa i-albhamu Ngiyazi ukuthi lokhu kuhlanganisa idiski bekungaba yinto yokuqala obekuzokwenzeka kwabaningi benu, kepha kimi, i-quasi-alfabhethi Kule misebenzi, bekubonakala njengenye indlela engazelelwe ethunyelwe ngqo ngonkulunkulu be-Open Olympus.

Ngemuva kokubala isingeniso esidingekayo, siya ezicini zobuchwepheshe zecala okukhulunywa ngalo. Ekuqaleni sine-80 GB Hard Drive ngohlelo olulandelayo lokuhlukanisa:

/ dev / sda1 / / dev / sda5 swap / dev / sda6 / home

Ne-500 GB Hard Drive entsha esizoyihlukanisa kanjena:

/ dev / sdb1 / / dev / sdb2 swap / dev / sdb3 / home

Abaningi babonile impela ukuthi esimweni seHard Drive yokuqala kukhona ukweqa kusuka ku-sda1 kuye ku-sda5, lokhu kungenxa yokuthi lapho kuchazwa ukwahlukaniswa, kukhona ukwahlukanisa okuyisisekelo okuyi-bootable okuyi-sda1, bese kuba ukwahlukanisa okunwetshiwe okungukuthi hlukanisa kabili: sda5 ysda6.

Futhi, ngesinye isikhathi ngicabanga ukuthi bekufanele ngisuse ukwahlukanisa lapho umngani wami abehlala khona oxoshiwe Windows 7.

Sihlukanisa i-hard drive ye-500 Gb ukuze izinombolo zokuhlukanisa zitholakale ngokulandelana. Le Disc ibizwa ngegama / dev / sdb ngoba ngokuyifaka ethekwini le-SATA, wabelana ngasikhathi sinye nohlelo ngediski ebivele ikhona, / dev / sda.

Ifometha ukwahlukaniswa

Ukwenza ukwahlukanisa singasebenzisa ithuluzi elithile lokubuka njenge gparted, noma olunye uhlelo lokusebenza oluvela kukhonsoli efana cfdisk. Khumbula ukuthi kulesi sinyathelo, sisuka kuhlelo lokusebenza ku-Hard Drive yokuqala, eyi-80 GB eyodwa.

Okusho ukuthi, kulokhu, sakha izingxenye ezintathu zeHard Drive entsha. Lapho izingxenye zidaliwe, kufanele zifomethwe:

mkfs.ext4 / dev / sdb1 mkfs.ext4 / dev / sdb3 mkswap / dev / sdb2

Lokho esikwenzile nje ukufometha / dev / sdb1 kanye / dev / sdb2 njenge-ext4 kanye / dev / sdb2 njenge-SWAP.

Ukuhleleka Okulandelayo4 kuyafana mkfs -t ext4. Kumele sinake ukuthi lapho siqala kabusha kwi-hard drive entsha, kufanele sitshele uhlelo ukuthi lunokwahlukanisa okusha (swap partition):

swapon / dev / sda2

Sisebenzisa i-sda2 hhayi i-sdb2, ngoba lapho sesiqedile, sizosusa idiski endala.

Ukuhlukaniswa kwama-Cloning

Sesivele siwela kukho inkukhu irayisi nenkukhu. Ayikho iresiphi eqondile yokuhlanganisa ukwahlukanisa. Esimweni sethu, kufanele senze ikhophi ngqo yokuqukethwe kwe- / home, ngoba lokhu sizokwenza okulandelayo (njengezimpande):

cd / abezindaba mkdir sdb3 mmount -t ext4 / dev / sdb3 / media / sdb3 rsync -a / home / myfriend media / sdb3

Khululeka, ngiyachaza:

Ngaphakathi / kwimidiya senze umkhombandlela onegama sdb3 (okumele liqondane negama lokwahlukanisa idiski entsha), ukuze kuthi lapho ukufakwa kungadala ukudideka.

Ngemuva kwalokho sizosebenzisa umyalo we-rsync ukuvumelanisa amafayela namafolda kusuka / ekhaya ku / media / sdb3, ngoba ukwahlukaniswa kwe-sdb3 kuzoba / ekhaya.

Ifulegi -a Kuzosisiza ukugcina izimvume, umnikazi, usuku kanye nezinkomba.

Sisebenzise ngokukhalipha / ikhaya / isithandwa sami futhi cha / ikhaya / isithandwa sami /, ngoba ukube bengibeke isleash ekugcineni komngane wami, bengizokopisha kuphela amafayela namafolda ngaphakathi / ekhaya / kumngani wami. Esikwenzile kufana nokubeka:

rsync -a / ikhaya / / media / sdb3

Njengasendabeni yomngani wami, unomsebenzisi oyedwa kuphela ekhaya, akunandaba ukubeka ulayini owodwa noma omunye womyalo.

Manje yisikhathi sokuhlanganisa impande / ukwahlukanisa, okuyiqiniso. Kungumzuzu obucayi futhi obucayi, ngoba ukwehluleka okuthile kungasishiya ukwahlukanisa ngaphandle kokubhula, ngakho-ke i-hard disk ngaphandle kohlelo.

Ithiphu ngaphambi kwesinyathelo esilandelayo ukwenza ukuhlanza okuthile ekwahlukaneni kwezimpande zethu ukonga isikhala nokunciphisa ithrafikhi yedatha engadingekile kusuka ku-hard drive eyodwa kuya kwenye.

Kuhle ukuthi ngaphambili ukhiphe umgqomo wokuphinda usebenzise kabusha (ngisho nangaphambi kokuhlanganisa ikhaya), susa amaphakheji angasetshenziswanga namaphakeji athile esingawadingi:

dpkg -l | grep ^ rc dpkg --purge iphakethe

Futhi singaqiniseka ukuthi sisusa amaphakheji endaweni yokugcina yendawo: lawo esiwalande ekuvuseleleni ngakunye noma kokufakwa kusuka ezinqolobaneni, futhi agcinwe kunqolobane:

thola kahle

Ngokwenza izinyathelo ezingenhla ngokuqinisekile uzothola ukuthi bangakhulula i-GB yesikhala. Hhayi-ke, ake nje silinganise impande yethu /.

Endabeni yokuhlukaniswa kwezimpande, kungakuhle ukukopisha idatha kancane kancane. Kuzothatha isikhathi esincane kunekhaya ngoba kusobala ukuthi kuncane ukuqoqwa kolwazi futhi ukukwenza kancane kancane ukuthambekela kokwehluleka kucishe kungabi khona futhi ngeke kube khona amaphutha ngezimvume ezikhethekile.
Ulayini womyalo kuleli cala uthi:

dd uma = / dev / sda1 ye = / dev / sdb1

Kulokhu akudingeki sikhweze noma yini. Isikhathi sokuqedela lo msebenzi sizoba yisikhashana nje, kepha kuzokufanele lokho.

Ilungiselela ukuqala kabusha

Ngalesi sikhathi, sekuvele ukwahlukanisa / dev / sdb1 kuyisimo sesistimu yezimpande efakwe kudiski yethu yakudala. Iphuzu selize laqinisekisa ukuthi lapho sikhipha i-80 GB disk, ikhompyutha yethu iyabona futhi ibhuthaze ku-500 GB disk.

Isikhathi sokuthinta ifayela le-fstab elaziwa kakhulu (leli elivela kudiski engu-500 elitholwe ku- / media / sdb1 / njll / fstab).

nano / media / sdb1 / etc / fstab

Futhi sizothola okufana nalokhu:

# / etc / fstab: imininingwane yohlelo lwefayela le-static. # # proc / proc proc nodev, noexec, nosuid 0 0 #Entry for / dev / sda1: UUID = 6b192eef-e188-4e07-94de-14c95e02de78 / ext4 error = remount-ro 0 $ #Entry for / dev / sda2: UUID = 3bd60ec0 -92f3-4ea6-a4d3-aaaf27dd8b8e none swap sw 0 0 #Entry for / dev / sda3: UUID = 3828f973-3b20-4019-9fe2-8296c755be31 / home ext4 defaults 0 2

Manje sidinga ukushintsha ama-UUID amadala (lawo akulelo fstab file asuka ku-80GB disk) aye kuma-UUID amasha (kusuka kudiski entsha ye-500GB). Ukuze wenze lokhu, okumele ukwenze ukuthola amadivayisi yi-UUID yawo, futhi lokhu kwenziwa ngezindlela eziningi:

Inketho eyodwa ingaba ngomyalo:

ls -l / dev / disk / by-uuid

Futhi usebenzisa njengezimpande:

blkid

Manje kufanele sishintshe ama-UUID we-fstab kuphela afanele.

Ukuqinisekisa ukuqala. Ukufaka i-Grub2

El UDebian Wheezy efakwe ku-Hard Drive endala yomngane wami isebenzisa i-Grub2 njenge-boot system, ngakho-ke kufayela le- I-MBR (Qopha i-Master Boot) ye-Hard Drive entsha (eyi-500 GB eyodwa) kuzofanele sifake entsha I-GRUB.

Kuyiqiniso ukuthi amafayili wokumiswa asevele ebhaliwe ku-directory ye-boot, kepha i-MBR (umkhakha wokuqala (“umkhakha zero”) wediski eqinile.) Ayinalutho, njengoba kunjalo, ngeke ibhuqeke .

Ukucushwa kugcinwa ngaphakathi /boot/grub/grub.cfg, kepha leli fayela lenziwa ngu i-grub-mkconfig, ngakho-ke bekungeke kube kuhle ukuthi uyihlele ngesandla.

Into enhle kunazo zonke ukuthi, lapho ukwahlukanisa okusha kufakiwe (khumbula ukuthi ukwahlukaniswa kwezimpande okusanda kwakhiwa akubekiwe, dd Clone ngaphandle kokuhlukanisa okhulayo):

ukukhweza -t ext4 / dev / sdb1 / media / sdb1

Manje kufanele silayishe i-GRUB2 ku-MBR ngokwenza okulandelayo:

ukufaka-ukufaka / i-dev / sdb

Futhi i-voila, lokho kulula, sesivele sinakho I-GRUB ihlelwe ku-MBR ye-500 GB Hard Drive.

Izinyathelo zokugcina

Manje sicisha ikhompyutha, sisuse i-80 Gb Hard Drive yomngane wami, siyinike umzala (bheka indaba yokuqala), siphinde sivule ikhompyutha, siwele iminwe yethu futhi ...

Umthombo: http://swlx.cubava.cu


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana ayi-16, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   Gabriel kusho

    Mngani, angazi noma nginephutha yini kodwa ngicabanga - ngicabanga - ukuthi ngaphambi kokusebenzisa umyalo we-'dd 'ukwahlukanisa okuyiwa khona kufanele kube usayizi ofanayo nokwahlukaniswa komthombo. Uma kungenjalo, ukuxolisa okuyinkulungwane.

    1.    UNebukadinesari kusho

      Kuyafana njengoba ngicabanga
      i-dd izokwenza ukuhlukaniswa bese kuthi insalela ishiye ingabiwa, ngakho-ke njengoba idinga isikhala esithe xaxa ukufaka izinhlelo ezintsha, ngeke ikuvumele.

    2.    UJohn edisson ortiz kusho

      Akunandaba ukuthi ukwahlukaniswa kwendawo kukhulu kunokwahlukanisa umthombo, khona-ke uhlelo lwefayela lungatshelwa ukuthi lusebenzise usayizi owengeziwe.

  2.   eliotime3000 kusho

    Lokho kuhle kakhulu. Ake sibheke ukuthi ngiyakwazi yini ukufaka isitayela se-Debian kodwa i-Arch (imiyalo emsulwa).

  3.   RudaMacho kusho

    Ubungasebenzisa i-dd ukwenza i-MBR:

    dd uma = / dev / sda ye = / dev / sdb bs = 512 count = 1

    Angicabangi ukuthi kudingekile ukuthi ukwahlukaniswa kufane ncamashi, okungenani kwi-arch wiki ayisho ngayo, kuzofanele sizame. Ozithobayo.

    1.    Iziteshi kusho

      Lokho kubukeka kukuhle, kepha angiqondi ukuthi kungani ukwenza i-dd if = / dev / sda of = / dev / sdb skips the first 512 bytes?

      1.    Iziteshi kusho

        Kulungile, ngiyaqonda, umehluko ukuthi ekuqaleni kuphela ukwahlukaniswa okuhlanganisiwe yingakho ama-byte angama-512 we-MBR eqa. Ngiyabonga kakhulu ngeseluleko uRudaMacho.

    2.    AbakwaPelu kusho

      Sawubona, uhlela ukubuyekeza uhlelo lwakho? Ngikusho ngamawindows xp

  4.   adr14n kusho

    Sawubona elav, ngicabanga ukuthi ukusebenzisa i-clonezilla lo msebenzi bekungaba lula kakhulu, kepha kuhle ukuthi uzame ngale ndlela, phela ngumoya oyi-hacker

    Ukubingelela!

  5.   i-vidagnu kusho

    KuSlackware ngisebenzise itiyela ukwenza ikhophi eliphelele lamafayela phakathi kwamadiski, agcina izimvume futhi ngithatha nethuba lokwenza ibhekhaphu, ifayela le-fstab lilula kakhulu ngakho-ke akudingeki ukuthi ushintshe uuid, kwanele ukuthi udale ukwahlukana Ngendlela efanayo, njengoba kusetshenziswa i-lilo kulula ukwenza ibhuthi ...

  6.   petercheco kusho

    Kuhle kakhulu 😀

  7.   montcoes kusho

    Kokuhlangenwe nakho kwami ​​ikhophi e-gparted - clone - partitions ngokushesha

    Futhi uma udinga ukukhulisa noma ukusika, unga futhi

  8.   Iziteshi kusho

    Umhlahlandlela omuhle we-elav, ngiyabonga kakhulu ngokwabelana.

    Nginombuzo: ingabe kunesidingo yini ukusebenzisa umyalo wokushintshana wohlelo ukuthola ukuhlukaniswa kokushintshaniswa, noma ngabe kunganele ukushintsha i-UUID ku-fstab?

  9.   alunado kusho

    Ezinyangeni ezi-6 ezedlule nganginesithukuthezi ngesitebhisi sedebian ne-kde 4.8. Bengifuna i-KDE yakamuva !! Bengingenayo idiski yokufaka noma inkumbulo ye-usb .. ngakho-ke ngihlanganisa isitebele sami cishe nezindlela ezifanayo ezichazwa yi-elav nezithuthukiselwa eceleni.
    Ngincoma lo mkhuba wabo bonke abasebenzisi beLinux laphaya, uhlelo lwethu aludingi ngaphezu kwe-15 GB. ngokuhlukanisa izimpande. futhi kabili noma okuncane okuncane akukuningi.

  10.   UVictor challa kusho

    Ukunikela okuhle kakhulu bekungeke kube lula ngale ndlela kunencazelo ecacile necacile ... Siyakuhalalisela bhuti, unguthisha ku-gnu / linux !!!

  11.   YoeLoco kusho

    Isifundo Esihle kakhulu. Kucace bha!
    Kukhona nomyalo "dd"