Ukusebenzisana ngefu: Ungakufinyelela kanjani?

Ukusebenzisana ngefu: Ungakufinyelela kanjani?

Ukusebenzisana ngefu: Ungakufinyelela kanjani?

Ukuthuthuka kwamanje kwe-Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) kubeke umhlaba wanamuhla, ikakhulukazi endaweni yokuhlinzeka ngezinsizakalo zebhizinisi, ezentengiselwano nezezezimali, zombili ezomphakathi nezangasese, ukuze kusizakale abasebenzisi bayo (abathengi nezakhamizi), isidingo sokuthi ama-Information Systems (IS) asebenzisane kakhulu.

Ukwazi nokuqonda ngokuphelele into ngayinye ezungeze isihloko se-Interoperability of Information Systems, nge-Cloud (Internet), kubalulekile kunoma yimuphi umuntu, owejwayelekile nowobungcweti, ngoba ukuhlanganiswa kokusebenzisana phakathi kweNhlangano phakathi kwabo, nalaba kanye noHulumeni ekwenziweni kwezinhlelo noma izinsizakalo, ukuhlanganiswa okungcono, ukuhlangana nokugcwalisa, kuzoholela ekwesekelweni okukhulu kwezakhamizi, bese kuthi ekuthuthukiseni ikhwalithi yempilo yabo bonke.

Ukusebenzisana ngefu: Okuqukethwe 1

Isingeniso

Umqondo wokukwazi ukwabelana ngemininingwane (imininingwane) ngendlela evulekile futhi esobala, okungukuthi, ngaphandle kobuchwepheshe obusekela ukugcinwa kwayo, ukucubungulwa noma ukusatshalaliswa kwayo, Kuhambisane nokuvela komuntu kanye nokuthuthuka kwe-ICT kusukela ekuqaleni kwayo. Konke okwenziwe nguMuntu kusuka ekubhaleni (izinhlamvu, izinombolo, amayunithi wesikhathi) kuya kwi-Media yamanje (Cindezela, iRadio, i-TV kanye ne-Intanethi) kunenhloso ebalulekile yokuthola ukuxhumana, ukuxoxisana kanye nokuqonda.

Ngakho-ke ukwenziwa ngcono noma ukwenziwa ngcono kwezimo (ubuchwepheshe, okokusebenza, amapulatifomu) wokushintshaniswa kolwazi kufanele kube yinto edlula zombili izinhlangano nezinhlangano kanye nezwe ngalinye lilonke, ukuze kuzuzwe ukuthuthukiswa kwezixazululo zekhompyutha ezinqoba ukulinganiselwa namaphutha esikhathi esedlule. Imikhawulo namaphutha adalwe ukuthuthukiswa kobuchwepheshe ngokuya ngezidingo ezithile (izidingo), okwenza i- "Computer Islands".

Iziqhingi zamakhompiyutha ezibonakala ngokungaphathwa kahle kwemininingwane nokungahambisani, okwenza ukuxhumana phakathi kwabo kungenzeki futhi kuvimbele, ngokwesibonelo, ukuthi izinqubo zoMbuso zingenziwa yisakhamuzi endaweni eyodwa. Ngalesi sizathu, ngokwesibonelo, ohulumeni bafuna ukusungula amafasitela oMbuso asebenza ngogesi ukuze izakhamizi nezinhlangano zenze izinqubo zazo online. Futhi izinhlangano zifuna ukwenza imikhiqizo nezinsizakalo zazo zihambisane kakhulu futhi zisebenze jikelele maqondana nezabanye.

Futhi ilapho ngqo lapho kusebenza khona umqondo wokusebenzisana. Umqondo ongaba nokuhumusha okuningi ngokuhluka okuncane, kepha ezimweni eziningi kuvame ukuvezwa njengo:

"Amandla we-ICT Systems, nezinqubo zebhizinisi abazisekelayo, ukushintshana ngemininingwane nokwenza sikwazi ukwabelana ngolwazi nolwazi". (ECLAC, European Union, 2007) (Lueders, 2004)

concepto

Silulumagama se-ISO / IEC 2382 soLwazi Nobuchwepheshe sichaza umqondo wokusebenzisana ngokuthi:

"Amandla wokuxhumana, ukwenza izinhlelo, noma ukudlulisa imininingwane phakathi kwamayunithi ahlukahlukene asebenzayo ukuze umsebenzisi angabi naso isidingo sokwazi izici ezihlukile zalawa manyunithi." (I-ISO, 2000)

Kwabanye, ikakhulukazi emazingeni kahulumeni noma ezepolitiki, incazelo yokusebenzisana ngokuvamile ichazwa njenge:

«amandla ezinhlangano ezihlukene nezinhlobonhlobo zokuxhumana nezinhloso okuvunyelwene ngazo. Ukusebenzisana kusho ukuthi izinhlangano ezithintekayo zabelana ngolwazi nolwazi ngezinqubo ze-Inter-Institutional Processes, ngokushintshaniswa kwedatha nge-elekthronikhi phakathi kwezinhlelo zazo zobuchwepheshe bolwazi ”.

Okuthile okuvame ukutolikwa, njengokufuna kohulumeni ukuhlinzeka ngezinsizakalo zomphakathi ezingcono nezinhle emiphakathini yabo (Izakhamizi nezinhlangano) ezilandela imigomo yeRegistry Simplification (ukugwema ukuphindaphindeka Kwezicelo Zolwazi noma Izinqubo), kanye neWindows Window (ukugwema ukuphazamiseka kwenhlangano noma ukungqongqoshe kanye nokuntuleka kokuxhumana).

Ukusebenzisana ngefu: Okuqukethwe 3

Izinhlobo

Amanye ama-bibliographies ngokuvamile ahlukanisa ukusebenzelana ngezigaba noma izinhlobo ezi-4, okuyilezi:

Ukusebenzisana kwe-Semantic

Kuphathelene nokuqinisekisa ukuthi incazelo eqondile yolwazi olushintshiwe iyaqondakala ngokungaqondakali kwazo zonke izinhlelo zokusebenza ezibandakanyeka kuthengiselwano olunikeziwe futhi lwenza ukuthi amasistimu ahlanganise imininingwane etholwe neminye imithombo yolwazi bese eyicubungula kahle.

Ukusebenzisana kwenhlangano

Isebenza ngokuchazwa kwezinjongo zebhizinisi, izinqubo zokumodela nokwenza lula ukusebenzisana phakathi kwezokuphatha abafisa ukushintshisana ngolwazi futhi bangaba nezinhlaka ezehlukene zenhlangano nezinqubo zangaphakathi. Futhi umhlahlandlela, ngokuya ngezidingo zomphakathi womsebenzisi, izinsizakalo okufanele zitholakale, zikhombe kalula, zifinyeleleke futhi ziqondiswe kubasebenzisi.

Ukusebenzisana kwezobuchwepheshe

Ihlanganisa izindaba zobuchwepheshe (HW, SW, Telecom), kudingekile ukuxhumanisa amasistimu nezinsizakalo zamakhompiyutha, kufaka phakathi izinto ezibalulekile ezinjenge-interface evulekile, izinsizakalo zokuxhuma, ukuhlanganiswa kwedatha kanye ne-middleware, ukwethulwa kwedatha nokushintshaniswa, ukufinyeleleka nezinsizakalo zokuphepha.

Ukuphathwa Kokubambisana

Lapho iMibuso (Ohulumeni) bebandakanyeka kwinqubo yokusebenzisana, lesi sigaba noma uhlobo lwenzeka lokho kubhekisa ezivumelwaneni phakathi kohulumeni nabalingisi ababamba iqhaza ezinhlelweni zokusebenzisana nokuthi zingafinyelelwa kanjani. Ngokulawulwa, kuhloswe ukuthi iziphathimandla zomphakathi zibe nohlaka oludingekayo lwesikhungo ukusungula amazinga wokusebenzisana, ukuqinisekisa ukwamukelwa kwazo, nokunikeza ama-ejensi amandla adingekayo enhlangano nezobuchwepheshe okukusebenzisa.

Ukusebenzisana ngefu: Okuqukethwe 4

Ubuchwepheshe

Kunobuchwepheshe obuningi obukhona bokufeza inqubo yokusebenzisana, ikakhulukazi ezingeni likahulumeni. Enye yazo imvamisa ukusetshenziswa kwe- Imisebenzi Yewebhu, okungekho okunye okudlula iqoqo lamaphrothokholi namazinga asebenza ukushintshanisa idatha phakathi kwezinhlelo zokusebenza (Izinhlelo Zokusebenza).

I-WS yenza kube lula ukushintshaniswa kwedatha phakathi kwezinhlelo zokusebenza ezahlukahlukene ithuthukiswe ngezilimi ezahlukahlukene zokuhlela, futhi yenziwa kuzingxenyekazi ze-OS ezahlukahlukene, ukuze zikhonjiswe kunoma iyiphi Idivayisi, Izinsiza kusebenza noma Ipulatifomu exhunywe kwi-Intanethi. Ama-WS yimodeli entsha yokusebenza yezinhlelo zokusebenza zokuxhumana zodwa zisebenzisa i-Intanethi.

Futhi ziletha izinzuzo ezibalulekile kunqubo yokusebenzisana ngoba ivumela Izinhlelo Zokusebenza ngaphandle kwezici zazo noma ipulatifomu yokwenza ukuthi ixhumane, ngokusungulwa kwamazinga nezivumelwano ezisuselwa embhalweni, kusiza ukufinyelela kokuqukethwe (Ulwazi / Idatha) nokuqonda okufanele kokusebenza kwayo.

Amazinga

Phakathi kwamazinga asetshenziswa kakhulu ku-WS esinakho:

  • I-XML: I-XML (Ulimi Olunwetshiwe Lwemakhaphu)
  • INSIPHO: I-SOAP (Isivumelwano Esilula Sokufinyelela Object)
  • I-WSDL: I-WDSL (Ulimi Lencazelo Yezinsizakalo Zewebhu)
  • I-UDDI: I-UDDI (Incazelo Yomhlaba Wonke, Ukutholwa Nokuhlanganiswa)

Izinhlobo

Phakathi kwezinhlobo ezaziwa kakhulu ze-WS yilezi:

  • Izinsizakalo zewebhu ezisekelwe ku-SOAP: Lokho kusebenzisa imilayezo yeXML kulandela indinganiso ye-SOAP, nokusebenzisa i-WSDL kusixhumi esibonakalayo sayo.
  • Izinsizakalo zeWebhu ezisuselwe endaweni entsha: Lokho kusebenzisa i-HTTP, i-URI, i-MIME, ukuthi kusetshenziswe kungqalasizinda elula noma engeyona inkimbinkimbi kakhulu.

Isiphetho

Ukuseshwa kokusebenzisana kwezinhlelo ezahlukahlukene, kungaba ezomphakathi noma ezizimele, noma phakathi kwabo, ingakhula ngendlela enhle, izinzuzo nezinzuzo, kwezenhlalo noma kwezebhizinisi, okuningi ngesakhamuzi esilula, ngokuqondene nochwepheshe onguchwepheshe noma usomabhizinisi omkhulu noma umholi wezepolitiki.

Ukwenziwa kwe-homogenization kwezivumelwano, izinqubo kanye nokwakhiwa kwezakhiwo kungathuthukisa ikhono lokuhlinzeka nokwanelisa izimpahla ezifanele, imikhiqizo kanye nezinsizakalo, ukunciphisa umthelela wamaphutha angaba khona esikhathi, ukusebenza noma ukungahambelani.

Zonke lezi zikhundla ezingenhla Ukusebenzisana njengento esemqoka yokuhlinzeka wonke umuntu ngezidingo ezidingekayo zomphakathi nezangasese, kahle nangezindleko eziphansi kakhulu. Ukunciphisa ukungasebenzi kahle, ukuphindeka, ukukhungatheka kanye nezindleko ezingeziwe.

Futhi kwezinye izimo, zuza ukwanda kokufinyelela ezingeni eliphakeme kakhulu lolwazi nokusebenza okusebenzayo, kusuka endaweni eyodwa ngendlela ephathekayo nethembekile, okungukuthi, ngendlela esebenza kahle kakhulu, enenzuzo, evulekile, evikelekile, eyimfihlo, eguquguqukayo futhi enokuncintisana.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.