Ukubonwa ngo-Virtual ku-Debian: Isingeniso - Ama-Computer Networks ama-SMB

Inkomba ejwayelekile yochungechunge: Ama-Computer Networks ama-SME: Isingeniso

Ukwenza izinto ngamehlo

Elula kunazo zonke lihamba phambili

Emfanekisweni kanhlokweni wekhasi eliyinhloko le- XtratuM, I-Hypervisor eyenzelwe ngokukhethekile ama-Embedded noma ama-Embedded Systems ngesikhathi sangempela, sithola isithombe esilandelayo: xtratum

"Wethu Isisekelo Esiyisisekelo ukufakwa, ukumiswa, kanye nokuphathwa kwezinsizakalo, kufaka phakathi i-Virtualization, ivumelana ngokuphelele nomyalezo «Kulula, kungcono", leyo, Elula kunazo zonke lihamba phambili. "

Isingeniso

La Ukwenza izinto ngamehlo  yindaba enkulu futhi eyinkimbinkimbi. Ngeke sibhale okuningi ngaye. Sizodalula ezinye izincazelo nezixhumanisi zamakhasi esiphakamisa ukuthi afundwe futhi / noma afundwe, ngokuya ngentshisekelo umfundi ngamunye anayo. Siphakamisa funda amakhasi we Wikipedia ngesiNgisi, nakweminye imithombo.

  • Asifuni ukuya ekulethweni kwendlela ejwayelekile yokuthi Ungayenza kanjani ngemiyalo eminingana, njll., Ngaphandle kokunikeza okungenani umhlahlandlela wokuqala wesifundo. Siyazi ukuthi abanye Abafundi Abangenasineke Abazifundi izingeniso bese beqonda ngqo ukuthi kwenziwa kanjani. Isenzo esidabukisayo ngoba, ngokuhamba kwesikhathi kuza imibuzo eqondakalayo esingakwazi ukuyiphendula kaningi ngokwanele, ngoba akunakwenzeka ngathi ukwazi konke.

Siyethemba ukuthi, ngemuva kokufunda le ndatshana ngokucophelela, umfundi uzoba nomqondo wokuthi iyini Ukwenza izinto ngamehlo nokwakhe Isimo samanje. Futhi, ukuthi inochungechunge lwezixhumanisi ezikuvumela ukuthi wandise okuningi kulo msebenzi wansuku zonke cishe noma ngubani osebenzisa ikhompyutha ngalesi sikhathi.

Izincazelo nezixhumanisi ngokusho kweWikipedia neminye imithombo

Ukwenza izinto ngamehlo

Ku-Computer Science, Ukwenza izinto ngamehlo kubhekisa esenzweni sokwenza inguqulo ye- okuthile virtual esikhundleni se okuthile real, okubandakanya i- ihadiwe yekhompyutha, izinhlelo ezisebenzayo, izinto zokugcina, futhi izinsiza zokuxhumana ngekhompyutha. I-Virtualization yaqala ngawo-60, njengendlela eyahlukanisa izinsiza zohlelo ze- ikhompyutha mainframe, phakathi kwezicelo ezahlukahlukene. Kusukela lapho, incazelo yaleli gama Ukwenza izinto ngamehlo kukhula njalo.

La Ukwenza izinto ngamehlo o Ipulatifomu ye-Virtualization kubhekiswa ekwakhiweni komshini obonakalayo, osebenza njengowangempela, ngohlelo lokusebenza. Isoftware esebenza kwimishini ebonakalayo yehlukile kwi-hardware eyisisekelo noma izinsizakusebenza ezibonakalayo. Isibonelo: umshini ophathekayo osebenzisa iDebian 8 "Jessie" ungasingatha umshini obonakalayo ngohlelo lokusebenza lwe-Ubuntu Trusty 14.04.

Ku-Virtualization ibizwa ngokuthi «Umsingathi - Host»Kwikhompyutha yangempela noma ephathekayo lapho ukubona khona uqobo kwenzeka. Ku umshini obonakalayo Ibizwa ngokuthi "Isivakashi - Guest«. Amagama Host y Guest zisetshenziselwa ukuhlukanisa isoftware esebenza ngemishini yangempela kusuka kwisoftware esebenza ngemishini ebonakalayo. Ku-software noma i-firmware lokho kudala imishini ebonakalayo kwi-Host hardware, ibizwa ngokuthi Ihypervisor - I-Hypervisor.

Izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zokwenza okuhle:

  • Ingqikithi yokwenza izinto - I-Virtualization ephelele: Kubhekiswa ku- Cishe Ingqikithi Yesilinganiso Se-Hardware Yangempela, evumela isoftware eyenziwe yaba ngeyakho - imvamisa equkethe uhlelo lokusebenza - ukusebenza ngaphandle kokuguqulwa.
  • I-Virtualization engaphelele - Ukusebenziseka okuhle okuncane: indawo okuqondiswe kuyo Ayilingiswanga ngokuphelele, kepha ngokwengxenye. Njengomphumela, ezinye izinhlelo ezisebenza kusihambeli zingadinga ukuguqulwa.
  • Ukuhlukaniswa ngokwezigaba - Ukuhlukaniswa ngokwezigaba: Ayikho imvelo ye-hardware eyenziwe. Uhlelo ngalunye lwezivakashi - Guest isebenza ku Isizinda Esisodwa, sengathi basebenza ezinhlelweni ezihlukile. Ukuguqulwa okuthile kohlelo ngalunye lwezihambeli kuyadingeka ukuze lusetshenziswe kulolu hlobo lwendawo.

La i-hardware isize ukwenza okuhle kuyindlela yokuthuthukisa ukusebenza kahle kwenqubo yokubona. Kusho ukuthi ama-processor noma ama-CPU kumele abe nokusekelwa okudingekayo kokubona, kanye nezinye izinto zehadiwe uqobo.

I-Hardware Virtualization Ayifani Ne-Hardware Emulation. Ku-Emulation, ingxenye eyodwa yehadiwe ilingisa enye, ngenkathi iku-Virtualization, i-Hypervisor -isoftware- ilingisa ucezu oluthile lwehadiwe noma konke.

Umshini obonakalayo

Ekusebenziseni ikhompyutha, a umshini virtual Yi-software efanisa ikhompyutha futhi engenza izinhlelo kube sengathi ikhompyutha yangempela. Le software ekuqaleni yayichazwa ngokuthi "impinda esebenza kahle futhi ehlukanisiwe yomshini ophathekayo." Njengamanje, incazelo yaleli gama ifaka imishini ebonakalayo engenakho ukufana okuqondile nganoma iyiphi i-hardware yangempela.

Ihypervisor

Un Ihypervisor - I-Hypervisor o Ukuqapha Komshini Osezingeni Elifanele - I-Virtual Machine Monitor VMM iyipulatifomu evumela ukusetshenziswa kwamasu wokulawula amandla we-visualization ukusebenzisa, ngasikhathi sinye, amasistimu wokusebenza ahlukile (angalungisiwe, noma aguquliwe njengakwi-paravirtualization) kukhompyutha efanayo.

Vula i-Virtualization Alliance (OVA)

La Vula i-Virtualization Alliance, ehlonipha isihloko sayo ngesiNgisi, iyi-Collaborative Project of the Linux Foundation. Le Consortium izibophezele ekwamukelweni kwe-Free Software ne-Open Source Software - Open Source ngezixazululo zokwenza okuhle kufaka phakathi I-KVM, kanye nesoftware edingekayo ekuphathweni kwayo, njenge OVirt. IConsortium igqugquzela izindaba zempumelelo zamakhasimende ahlukahlukene, ikhuthaza ukusebenzisana, futhi isheshisa ukunwetshwa kohlelo lwezinto eziphilayo lwezixazululo zeqembu lesithathu, ngaseKVM.

Isoftware yamahhala ekhuthazwa yi-OVA:

  • I-KVM ungumxhumanisi. Yadalwa ngu I-Qumranet, Inc., inkampani yesoftware yakwa-Israyeli ngaleso sikhathi eyadonsela ukunakwa okukhulu ekwamukelweni okusheshayo kwemodyuli ye-KVM efakwe ku-Linux kernel. Inikeze i- «Ipulatifomu ye-desktop ye-Solid desktop»Ngokuya ngemishini yayo esekwe ku-Kernel Desktop Desktop, futhi ixhunywe nge-protocol yayo Izinongo. NgoSepthemba 4, 2008 inkampani I-Red Hat, Inc. kutholakele I-Qumranet ngenani lama- $ 107 wezigidi.
  • libvirt Kuyinto a API «Uhlelo Lokusebenza Lokusebenza"umthombo ovulekile, idemoni - i-daemon, nethuluzi lokuphatha amapulatifomu we-virtualization. Ungaphatha ifayela le- I-KVM, Xen, VMware ESX, QEMU nobunye ubuchwepheshe bokubona. Ama-API ayo ahlukene asetshenziswa kakhulu ekuhlelweni kwesendlalelo se-hypervisorlibvirt isitolo sezincwadi esibhalwe ku ulimi C, futhi ingaxhunyaniswa nezinye izilimi ezifana ne- Python, I-Perl, I-OCaml, Ruby, Java, i-JavaScript (nge I-Node.js) futhi PHP.
  • OVirt isoftware yokuphathwa kwamapulatifomu we-virtualization. Kuyisoftware yamahhala futhi evulekile. Kwasungulwa yi I-Red Hat njengephrojekthi yomphakathi lapho i- I-Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization. I-oVirt ivumela ukuphathwa okuhlanganisiwe kwemishini ebonakalayo, izinsizakusebenza zenethiwekhi, ukugcina kanye nokubala, kusuka kusixhumi esibonakalayo esisebenziseka kalula sewebhu, nge ipulatifomu ezimele ukuyifinyelela. Okuwukuphela kweHypervisor esekelwa ngokusemthethweni ekwakhiweni kweX86 64 yiKVM, yize kwenziwa imizamo yokuxhasa izakhiwo PPC y ARM ezinguqulweni zalo ezilandelayo.
  • umagazine umtapo wolwazi obhalwe nge- ulimi C kanye neqoqo lamathuluzi okufinyelela nokuguqula i- izithombe zediski ebonakalayo endaweni yesikhulumi. Amathuluzi angasetshenziselwa ukubuka nokuhlela imishini ebonakalayo ephethwe yi-libvirt namafayela ahlala ngaphakathi kuyo. Ingasetshenziselwa ukubhala umbhalo -scripting- ezishintsha noma zenze imishini ebonakalayo.
  • IMenenja Yemishini Ebonakalayo - Umphathi Womshini We-Virtual iyisoftware yeRed Hat eyaziwa nangokuthi umphathi we-virt, igama lelo phakethe elinalo nasezinqolobaneni zeDebian. Kuluhlelo lweDeskithophu lokuphatha imishini ebonakalayo. Isetshenziselwa ukwakhiwa, ukumiswa nokulungiswa kwezizinda ezintsha. Ineklayenti le-VNC lapho sikwazi ukufinyelela khona kwikhonsoli yokuqhafaza yesizinda sezivakashi. Ephakeji ye-virt-manager eza noDebian Jessie, umthetho olandelwayo we-SPICE nawo ufakiwe ukufinyelela i-graphical graphical yemishini ebonakalayo.

Xen

Xen Yi-Hypervisor esebenzisa ukwakheka okuyi-micro-core, futhi inikezela ngezinsizakalo ezidingekayo zezinhlelo eziningi zokusebenza ezisebenza ngasikhathi sinye kwi-computer efanayo. Yena ICambridge University Computer Lab, ithuthukise izinhlobo zokuqala zeXen, nayo eyi-software yamahhala. I-Debian 8 "Jessie" inezinto zayo zokugcina iphakethe I-xen-hypervisor-4.4-amd64.

I-OpenVZ

I-OpenVZ yisixazululo se-virtualization level level system. Ikuvumela ukuthi wakhe amaseva angawodwa, aphephile futhi ayimfihlo kuseva efanayo ephathekayo, enikezela ukusetshenziswa okungcono kwezinsiza zehadiwe. Iphinde iqinisekise ukuthi izinhlelo zokusebenza ezisebenza kuseva ngayinye aziphikisani. Ngamunye Iseva yangasese ebonakalayo - I-Virtual Server yangasese (I-VPS), isebenza ngokufana ne-server ezimele. Zingaqalwa phansi, futhi zivumele ukufinyelela ngumsebenzisi wezimpande nabanye abasebenzisi abajwayelekile. Banamakheli abo e-IP, inkumbulo, izinqubo, amafayela, izinhlelo zokusebenza, imitapo yolwazi kanye namafayela wokumisa.

Ama-Debian asuse izinhlamvu eziguqulwe ukusekelwa kwe-OpenVZ kusuka ezinqolobaneni zayo njenge-Debian 7 "Wheezy".

Iziqukathi zeLinux LXC

Iziqukathi yizindawo ezingazodwa ngaphakathi kohlelo lokusebenza. Indawo ngayinye ine-namespace yayo yohlelo lwefayela, inethiwekhi, i-PID, i-CPU, kanye nokwabiwa kwememori. Zingadalwa ngokusebenzisa ama-Control Groups nezici ze-Namespaces ezifakwe ku-Linux kernel. I-LXC It is a technology similar to others based on virtualization at the kernel level such as OpenVZ futhi I-Linux-VServer.

I-Archipelago

I-Archipelago yisixazululo sokuphathwa nokuqondiswa kwemishini ebonakalayo esebenza ku-KVM, Xen, OpenVZ noma ku-VMware. UDebian Jessie uyifaka ezinqolobaneni zayo ngamaphakeji ahlukahlukene akhomba kubenzeli bawo noma kumongo weArchipel. Ngeminye imininingwane, sesha i- "archipel" nge-Synaptic noma nge- i-aptitude search archipel.

Ezinye izixhumanisi zentshisekelo

  • Vula i-vSwitch- Isoftware yomthombo ovulekile evumela ukwenziwa kweswishi ebonakalayo.
  • I-OpenStack:
  • Vula i-QRM: Ipulatifomu Yomthombo Ovulekile Olandelayo Wokuphathwa Kwesikhungo Sedatha - Isikhungo sedatha.
  • Docker: iphrojekthi yomthombo ovulekile ekwazi ukwenza ukuthunyelwa kwezinhlelo zokusebenza ngaphakathi kweziqukathi zesoftware.
  • I-Proxmox: iseva yomthombo ovulekile yezindawo zokubona.
  • VMware- Insizakalo ephethwe yi-EMC Corporation (ephethwe yiDell Inc) enikeza isoftware yokwenza izinto itholakale kumakhompyutha ahambisana neX86
  • I-Virtualbox: isoftware yamahhala yokwakha imishini ebonakalayo. UDebian uhambise amaphakheji ahlobene nale software egatsheni lawo «umphumela".
  • I-OpenNebula: I-ONE inweba izinzuzo zamapulatifomu we-virtualization kusuka kusisetshenziswa esisodwa esisetshenziswayo iye ebhange lezinsizakusebenza, ngokususa kabusha isiphakeli, hhayi kuphela kwingqalasizinda yayo, kepha futhi nasendaweni yayo uqobo.

Abafundi ababenomusa ngokwanele wokufunda le ndatshana kuze kube manje, bazobe sebebonile ukuthi bukhulu futhi buyinkimbinkimbi kanjani indawo yamanje ye-Virtualization. Sithemba ukuthi isebenza njengomhlahlandlela ohambweni lwakho.

Ukulethwa okulandelayo?

Manje iQemu-KVM ikuDebian!

Khumbula ukuthi lokhu kuzoba uchungechunge lwezihloko ngu Amanethiwekhi wekhompyutha ama-SME. Sizobe sikulindile!


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana ayi-3, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   I-Zodiac Carburus kusho

    Isingeniso esihle kakhulu ekubonakaleni ngokujwayelekile. Siyabonga ngomsebenzi wokubhala lokhu okuthunyelwe. Silinde elandelayo.

  2.   Mario kusho

    Ngiyabonga uFico ngesingeniso.

    Kuchazwe kahle kakhulu futhi kunezixhumanisi ezanele zokujula endabeni.

  3.   frederico kusho

    Leyo yinhloso uMario. Ngicabanga ukuthi eziningi azicaci ngesilinganiso samanje senkinga yokubona.