Qaabeynta Shabakada iyo Maareynta - Shabakadaha SME

Waad salaaman tihiin asxaabta iyo asxaabta!

Tusmada guud ee taxanaha: Shabakadaha Kombuyuutarka ee loogu talagalay SMEs: Hordhac

Weli uma aanan u qoondeyn maqaal maaddada asal ahaan ka soo jeeda kan. Mana aqrinayno faalo kasta oo la weydinayo in wax laga qoro. Waxaan u qaadanay si fudud in la wada ogyahay oo laga yaabo inay ahayd sababta aan u dhayalsanay ilaa maanta. Si kastaba ha noqotee, waxaan ka qori doonnaa qoraal kooban oo ku saabsan kuwa u baahan in la nasto ama wax laga barto maadada.

Shabakad: qeexid wax ku ool ah

Ujeeddooyin wax ku ool ah, hal Net - Network Waxay ka kooban tahay laba ama in ka badan aaladaha shabakadda sida kombiyuutarada, serverka, madbacadaha, taleefannada gacanta, ama aaladaha kale ee shabakadaha, kuwaas oo ay ku xiran yihiin fiilooyin muuqaal ah ama xiriiriyeyaal wireless ah ujeeddadeeduna tahay wadaagista iyo qaybinta macluumaadka u dhexeeya aaladaha isku xiran.

Wixii macluumaad dheeraad ah booqo:

Xusuusnow in xiriiriyeyaasha lagu bixinayo ujeedo buuxda oo aan loogu talagalay raaxo. 😉

Dejinta shabakada

  • Waxaan kula talinayaa kuwa isticmaala nidaamyada hawlgalka CentOS y furanSUSE, lagu hago qoraalka Isku-xidhka Adeegga GNU / Linux, waxaa qoray qoraaga Joel Barrios Dueñas. Way igu adag tahay inaan qoro mowduucyada aan hoos ka qaban doonno ee ku saabsan isla qaybinta Debian, CentOS iyo OpenSUSE isla maqaalka, maadaama labadii u dambeysay ay ka duwan yihiin kuwii hore, gaar ahaan magacyada, goobta feylasha qaabeynta, waxyaabaha ay ka kooban yihiin, iyo dhinac kale falsafad la xiriirta mowduuca.

Nidaamyada hawlgalka ee aan u adeegsanno taxanahan oo dhan waxay leeyihiin aalado garaaf ah oo loogu talagalay qaabeynta qalabka shabakadaha kala duwan. Si kastaba ha noqotee, boostadani waxay diiradda saari doontaa adeegsiga qunsulka taliska ama terminaalka.

Sidii aan ku aragnay maqaaladi hore, xaaladaha badankood waxaan uqeexnaa iskuxirka shabakada - ama isdhexgalka- inta lagu gudajiro nidaamka rakibida si loo hubiyo in, mar hadii nidaamka salka hawlgalka la rakibo, kumbuyuutarku wuxuu leeyahay isku xirnaan wax ku ool ah oo shabakad ah.

Qaabeynta saxda ah ee ugu yaraan iskuxirka shabakada uguhoreysa -maam- ayaa muhiim u ah shaqada xigta ee Desktop, Goobta Shaqadaama Server in aan fulinayno.

Ma isticmaali doonno NetworkManager

Si loo fududeeyo qorista maqaalkan, waxaad diirada saartaa qaabeynta serverka, oo u fududee akhrinta, waxaan u qaadaneynaa taas maya adeegga xirmada ayaa la isticmaalay shabakad-maareeye. Haddii kale waa inaan fulinno tallaabooyinka soo socda:

Af Debian

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo systemctl jooji network-manager.service
buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo systemctl status network-manager.service
buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo systemctl gab network-manager.service
buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo ifconfig

Haddii qaabeynta kaararka shabakadda ee ku tiirsan adeegga shabakad-maareeye sax yihiin, markaa waan sii wadi karnaa shaqada. Si kastaba ha noqotee, waa caafimaad in la fuliyo:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo ifdown eth0 && sudo ifup eth0

in la laba jibaaro in wax waliba si fiican u shaqeeyaan.

On CentOS

Buugga oo ku jira qaab PDF «Isku-xidhka Adeegga GNU / Linux«, Julaay 2016 Edition, cutubka 48.2.2 wuxuu u heellan yahay mowduuca adeegga Maareeyaha Shabakadda. Waxaan filayaa in qoraaga, Joel Barrios Dueñas, uusan habayaraatee jeclayn - wuxuu u arkaa inay tahay wax aan macquul ahayn - adeegsiga Maareeyaha Shabakadda ku jira Servers.

Isku xirka Ethernet

Sida caadiga ah, marka aan la shaqeyno mashiinnada casriga ah Qemu-KVM, nidaamka qalliinka wuxuu aqoonsadaa Ethernet Interfaces oo leh magacyo sida anshaxahalkee X waxay u taagan tahay qiimo tiro. Iskuxirka Ethernet-ka ugu horreeya waxaa loo aqoonsaday inuu yahay eth0, kan labaadna waa eth1, iyo wixii la mid ah.

Hadday ku saabsan tahay nidaamyada hawlgalka ee Debian - iyo noocyo kala duwan - oo ku shaqeynaya mashiinno jireed, qoraalka kor ku xusan sidoo kale waa run.

Haddii aan ka shaqeyno mashiinnada jirka oo leh nidaamyada hawlgalka CentOS y furanSUSE, nidaamka qalliinka ayaa u aqoonsanaya iyaga sida enoX. Wax badan oo isku mid ah ayaa ku dhici kara mashiinnada farsamada - oo leh nidaamyadan hawlgalka - ee ku saabsan hypervisors ee VMware.

In mashiinada dalwaddii laga abuuray nidaamka qalliinka FreeBSD oo waliba Free Software ah- waxaa guud ahaan loo aqoonsaday inay yihiin emX o vtnetX waxay kuxirantahay hadday yihiin Qemu-KVM ama VMware siday u kala horreeyaan. Hadday jir ahaan yihiin waxaa caadi ahaan loo aqoonsadaa inay yihiin emX.

Aqoonso Ethernet Interfaces

Si loo aqoonsado dhammaan iskuxirka shabakadaha kombiyuutarkayga sysadmin.fromlinux.fan, waxaan fulin:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo ifconfig -a
eth0 Link encap: Ethernet HWaddr 70: 54: d2: 19: ad: 65 inet addr: 10.10.10.1 Bcast: 10.10.10.255 Mask: 255.255.255.0 inet6 addr: fe80 :: 7254: d2ff: fe19: ad65 / 64 Baaxadda: Link ... lo Link encap: Local Loopback inet addr: 127.0.0.1 Mask: 255.0.0.0 inet6 addr: :: 1/128 Baaxadda: Marti-geliyaha ... : 0e inet addr: 52 Bcast: 54 Maaskaro: 00 inet8 addr: fe35 :: 5: ff: fec192.168.10.1: 192.168.10.255e / 255.255.255.0 Baaxadda: Xiriirka ... virbr6-nic Link encap: Ethernet HWaddr 80:5054 : 8: c355: 64: 0e BROADCAST MULTICAST MTU: 52 Metric: 54 ... vmnet00 Link encap: Ethernet HWaddr 8: 35: 5: c1500: 1: 8 inet addr: 00 Bcast: 50 Mask: 56 .0 inet00 addr: fe08 :: 192.168.20.1: 192.168.20.255ff: fec255.255.255.0: 6/80 Baaxada: Xiriir ...
  • Saddexda ellipsis ee wax soo saarkii hore waxay ka dhigan tahay in macluumaad badan oo badan la soo celiyey oo aanan ka tarjumeynin si loo badbaadiyo booska.

Sidii aan ugu rakibay nidaamka hawlgalka ee Debian 8 "Jessie" laba barnaamij oo mashiin dalwaddo ah, oo ah, Qemu-KVM y VMware Server Workstation 10.0.6, amarku wuxuu soo celiyaa dhammaan isku-xirnaanta jira.

  • Diiwaanka: softiweerka gaarka loo leeyahay ee VMware Workstation Server 10.0.6 waa nuqul sharci ah oo uu bixiyay saaxiibkey iyo saaxiibkey El NeoZelandes, oo ku kasbaday Internetka wadankiisa hooyo uuna ahaa mid naxariis leh oo igu soo diray.

Aan aragno macluumaadka aan ka heli karno wax soo saarkii hore:

  • eth0: Isku xirka shabakada weyn ee cinwaanka IPv4 10.10.10.1. Cinwaanka IPv6 sidoo kale waa la soo bandhigayaa.
  • lo: Loopback ama maxaliga ah leh IPv4 127.0.0.1 iyo IPv6 -waxaa loo wada kulmaa dhammaan isweydaarsiyadan- :: 1/128.
  • gabdho0: Isku xirka shabakada nooca Bridge -  Bxigtaa leh IPv4 192.168.10.1 iyo cinwaanka MAC 52:54:00:c8:35:5e. Iskuxirkaan muuqaalka ah waa midka aan abuureyno oo aan ku habeynayno Maamulaha Virt-ka ee Qemu-KVM shabakad ahaan «Default»Nooca NAT.
  • Virbr0-nic: Isku xirnaanta shabakada ee abuurta Qemu-KVM, nooca Anonymous Bridge- Anonymous Bridge isla cinwaankaasna leh MAC 52:54:00:c8:35:5e in gabdho0. Ma laha cinwaan IP ah oo loo qoondeeyay.
  • vmnet8: Nooca isku xidhka shabakada NAT lagu rakibay VMware Tifatiraha Shabakada Virtual.

El Server-ka Shaqada ee VMware iyada oo loo marayo Tifatiraha Shabakada Virtual, wuxuu qaabeeyaa buundooyinka aad ku abuurtid mid kasta oo ka mid ah is-waafajinta martigeliyaha si ka duwan - martigeliyaha. Miyaa jargon loo adeegsaday maqaaladii hore?.

Codsi kale - maahan kan keliya ama kan ugu dambeeya - si loo helo macluumaad ku saabsan isku xirnaanta shabakadda waa lshw - Liistada Qalabka. lshw waa qalab soo saara macluumaad faahfaahsan oo ku saabsan qaabeynta mashiinka. Haddaan ku ordi karno qalab:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ aptitude search lshw
p lshw - macluumaad ku saabsan qaabeynta qalabka  
p lshw-gtk - macluumaad jaantus ah oo ku saabsan qaabeynta qalabka

Waxaan ogsoonahay inay xitaa leedahay muuqaalkeeda garaafka taas oo aan kaaga tagnay inaad tijaabiso. Aynu rakibno qaabka qunsuliyadda oo aan ku xigno orodka:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo lshw network -class
[sudo] ereyga sirta ah ee buzz:
  *-shabakad               
       description: Ethernet interface interface: 82579V Gigabit Network Connection iibiyaha: Intel Corporation id id: 19 info info: pci @ 0000: 00: 19.0 magac macquul ah: eth0 version: 05 serial: 70: 54: d2: 19: ad: 65 size: 100Mbit / s awoodda: 1Gbit / s width: 32 bits saac: 33MHz awooda: pm msi bus_master ...
  *-shabakad naafo ah
       sharaxaad: Ethernet interface id: 1 magac macquul ah: virbr0-nic serial: 52: 54: 00: c8: 35: 5e size: 10Mbit / s awoodaha: ethernet physical

Aynu maamulno magacyada macquulka ah ee isweydaarsiga

Mararka qaar, gaar ahaan markaan beddelno kaarka shabakadda jirka sabab kasta ha noqotee, waxaan u fiirsannaa lambarka X taas oo tilmaamaysa isku-xidhka ku kordhay 1 waxaanan ogaanay oo keliya markaan soconno ifconfig -a, inta udhaxeysa la xaaladda maxaa dhacay isbadalka kadib. Waxay sidoo kale dhici kartaa markaan ka saarno hal shebekad shabakadeed dalwaddeed sabab kastoo ay doonto ha noqotee, ka dibna mid kale mar labaad ku darno.

Waxyaabaha kor ku xusan waxay noqon karaan kuwo dhib leh markii aan qaabeyno oo aan xiriirino - xira mid ama in ka badan oo adeegyo ah, oo ah magac interface interface macquul ah, ha ahaato eth0, eno1 o em0. Waxa ugu haboon ee aan habooneyn ayaa ah in had iyo jeer ay dhacdo waqti dheer kadib -sanooyinka laga yaabee- laga bilaabo qaabeynta bilowga ah. Kadib isdhexgalka cusub ayaa la soo baxa magacyo sida eth1,eth2, eno2, em1IWM, iyo adeegyada qaar waxay joojiyaan inay si sax ah u shaqeeyaan. Kuwa soo maray sidan oo kale xaaladaha Waad ogtahay waxa aan ula jeedo 😉

Magacyada macquulka ah ee isku xirnaanta shabakadda ee Debian - iyo qaar ka mid ah noocyadooda soo jireenka ah - ayaa laga heli karaa faylka /etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules. CentOS 7 waxay ku jirtaa faylka /etc/udev/rules.d/90-eno-fix.rules, halka noocyadiisii ​​hore ay isku fayl yihiin Debian.

Af DebianHaddii aad rabto inaad bedesho magaca macquulka ah ee isku xirnaanta shabakad gaar ah, raadi khadka u dhigma cinwaankiisa MAC oo wax ka beddelo qiimaha MAGAC = ethX magac kastoo macquul ah ee aad ubaahantahay. Si isbeddelada loogu guuleysto, waa inaad dib u bilowdaa kumbuyuutarkaaga.

Wixii CentOS 7, eeg shaqada «Isku-xidhka Adeegga GNU / Linux»Waxaa qoray Joel Barrios Dueñas, kaas oo qaab faahfaahsan lagu bixiyay.

  • Muhiim ahSi kastaba ha noqotee,Iska ilaali! Adeegga Maareeyaha Shabakadda haddii ay dhacdo inaad maareyneyso isku xirnaanta.

Wax ka beddel xuduudaha isku xirka shabakadda

Af Debian, haddii aan rabno inaan wax ka beddelno cabirka kaarka shabakadda si joogto ah, waa inaan wax ka bedelnaa feylka / Iwm / network / interfaces sida hoos looga hadlay.

Si aad si faahfaahsan u ogaatid -iyo inbadan- dhammaan xulashooyinka aad isticmaali karto la tasho nin dhexgala. Waxaan sidoo kale kugula talineynaa inaad aqriso dukumiintiyada galka kujira:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ ls -l / usr / share / doc / ifupdown /
wadarta 44 drwxr-xr-x 2 xididka xididka 4096 Aug 7 2016 contrib
drwxr-xr-x 2 xididka xididka 4096 Aug 7 2016 tusaalayaal
-rw-r - r-- 1 xidid xidid 976 Jun 21 2012 copyright -rw-r - r-- 1 xidid 18243 13 Mar 2015 1 changelog.gz -rw-r - r-- 297 xidid xidid 21 Jun 2012 1 NEWS.Debian.gz -rw-r - r-- 454 xidid xidid 29 Nov 2014 1 README -rw-r - 946 xidid xidid 21 Jun 2012 XNUMX ALL

Barnaamijka ethtool

Iyadoo loo marayo barnaamijka ethtool Waan la tashan karnaa, taxi karnaa oo aan wax ka beddeli karnaa xuduudaha kaarka shabakadda sida xawaaraha isku xirka, gorgortanka otomaatiga ah, wadarta baaritaanka culeyska - hubi wadarta offload, iwm Waxaa laga heli karaa keydadka dhammaan qeybinnada.

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo aptitude rakibi ethtool
[sudo] ereyga sirta ah ee buzz:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo ethtool eth0
Dejinta anshaxa eth0: dekedaha la taageerayo: [TP] qaababka isku xidhka la taageerayo: 10baseT / Half 10baseT / 100base Full / Saldhig buuxa 100baseT / Full 1000baseT / Isticmaal qaab dhismeed joogsi oo la joojiyay: Maya Taageero gorgortan otomaatig ah: Haa habab xayeysiis xiriir ah: 10baseT / Half 10baseT / Buuxda 100baseT / Kalab 100baseT / 1000base buuxaTaabasho buuxa oo buuxa Xayeysiinta isticmaalka: Majiro gorgortan otomaatig ah oo xayeysiis ah: Haa Xawaare: 100Mb / s Duplex: Dakad Buuxda: Qaloocan Wanaagsan PHYAD: 1 Transceiver: Gorgortanka gudaha ee gudaha: MDI-X: on :

Isbedelada aan ku sameynayno qalabkan waa ku meel gaar waxaana lagu lumin doonaa qeybta labaad ee kumbuyuutarka. Haddii aan u baahanahay wax ka beddel joogto ah oo lagu sameeyo ethtool, waa inaan ku darnaa feylka / Iwm / network / interfaces dardaaran «ka hor"Ama" ka hor inta aanad kor u qaadin interface-ka "sida soo socota:

AKHNUMX auto
iface eth1 inet dhcp
pre-up / sbin / ethtool -s eth1 xawaaraha 1000 dabaq buuxa

Sidaas kaarka network eth1 kaas oo cinwaankiisa IP-ga ka helaya server DHCP ah, ayaa si joogto ah wax looga beddelay si loogu shaqeeyo xawaare dhan 1000 Mb / s qaab Duplex buuxa.

  • Habka kor ku xusan ayaa sidoo kale ansax u ah kaararka leh IP-yada ma guurtada ah.

Cinwaanka Ip

Waxaan hoos ku arki doonaa sida loo qaabeeyo cinwaanka IP ee qalabka, iyo sidoo kale irridda - albaab by ahaan, lagama maarmaanka u ah isgaarsiinta inteeda kale shabakadda maxalliga ah iyo si toos ah leh internetka su albaab.

  • Markaan qoreyno "si toos ah»Waxaan tixraaceynaa kiisaska shabakadaha SME ee laga oggol yahay gelitaanka internetka iyadoo aan la adeegsan adeege Wakiil, taas oo ah laguma talin, inkasta oo ay jirto awood badan Dab-damis kombiyuutarka laftiisa u shaqeeya sida Gawaarida. Markuu kaaga yimaado waxaan taaban doonnaa mowduuca Wakiil.

Wax ka qabashada ku meelgaarka ah

Adeegsiga amarrada caadiga ah ee qeybinta Linux sida ip, ifconfig iyo wadada, si ku meel gaar ah ayaan u qaabeyn karnaa isku xirnaanta shabakada sida aan hoos ku arki doono.

Si aad ugu xilsaareyso cinwaan IP ah iyo maaskaro hoosaadkiisa ka dibna fiiriyo hawlgalka, aan fulinno:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo ifconfig eth0 172.16.10.2 netmask 255.255.0.0
buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo ifconfig
eth0 Link encap: Ethernet HWaddr 70: 54: d2: 19: ad: 65 inet addr: 172.16.10.2 Bcast: 172.16.255.255 Mask: 255.255.0.0 inet6 addr: fe80 :: 7254: d2ff: fe19: ad65 / 64 Baaxadda: Xiriir UP UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU: 1500 Metric: 1 RX baakado: 0 khaladaad: 0 hoos: 0 overruns: 0 frame: 0 TX baakado: 659 khaladaad: 0 hoos: 0 overruns: 0 side: 0 isku dhacyada: 0 txqueuelen: 1000 RX bytes: 0 (0.0 B) TX bytes: 115601 (112.8 KiB) Hakad: 20 Xusuusta: fe600000-fe620000

Waxaan si ku meel gaar ah u qoondeynay kaarka eth0 cinwaanka IP-ga ah 172.16.10.2 oo leh maaskaro subnet 255.255.0.0 ka tirsan Fasal «B» Shabakad Internet oo Khaas ah.

  • Ogsoonow in aan wax ka bedelnay qaabeynta isku xirnaanta shabakadda isku xirnaanta 'eth0' ee kombiyuutarka sysadmin.fromlinux.fan, oo horay u lahaa IP 10.10.10.1/255.255.255.0 oo ka tirsan Shabakadda Internetka ee Gaarka loo leeyahay "Class" A, in kasta oo ay martigelin karto oo keliya 254 kombiyuutar marka loo eego maaskaro hoosaadkeeda.

Si loo habeeyo Gawaarida by default ka dibna hubi hawlgalka aan fulino:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo route add default gw 172.16.10.1 eth0

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo route -n
Miiska marinka Kernel IP Wadada loo maro Goobaha loo yaqaan 'Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface 0.0.0.0 172.16.10.1 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0 0.0.0.0 172.16.10.1 0.0.0.0 UG 1024 0 0 eth0 172.16.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 U 0 0 0 eth0 192.168.10.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 vmnet8 192.168.20.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 virbr0

Waxaan si ku meel gaar ah u qoondeynay Albaabka 172.16.10.1 si aad uhesho eth0 172.16.10.2, halka isweydaarsiyada kale ay ilaalinayaan qiimahoodii hore.

Si aad uga saarto DHAMMAAN dejinta kaarka shabakadda, aan orodno:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo ip addr flush eth0

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo ifconfig
eth0 Link encap: Ethernet HWaddr 70: 54: d2: 19: ad: 65 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU: 1500 Metric: 1 RX baakado: 0 khaladaad: 0 hoos: 0 overruns: 0 frame: 0 TX baakado: 718 khaladaad: 0 hoos u dhacay: 0 dhaaf: 0 side: 0 isku dhaca: 0 txqueuelen: 1000 RX bytes: 0 (0.0 B) TX bytes: 125388 (122.4 KiB) Hakad: 20 Xusuusin: fe600000-fe620000

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo route -n
Miiska wadista Kernel IP Wadada loo maro 'Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface 192.168.10.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 vmnet8 192.168.20.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 virbr0
  • Aynu sifiican u fiirsanno, maxaa yeelay waxaan ka saareynaa DHAMMAAN qaabeyntii hore ee shabakada xitaa midka lagu cadeeyay faylka / iwm / shabakada / isku xirka.

Si aan aduunka ugulaabano sidii ay ahayd kahor intaanan kumbuyuutarka dib u bilaabin. Haddii aynaan rabin inaynu shaqada joojino, aynu orodno:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo ifconfig eth0 10.10.10.1 netmask 255.255.255.0

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo ifconfig eth0
eth0 Link encap: Ethernet HWaddr 70: 54: d2: 19: ad: 65 inet addr: 10.10.10.1 Bcast: 10.10.10.255 mask: 255.255.255.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU: 1500 Metric: 1 RX packet: 0 qalad: 0 hoos u dhacay: 0 buuxdhaafay: 0 jir: 0 baakadaha TX: 729 khaladaad: 0 hoos u dhacay: 0 buuxdhaafay: 0 side: 0 isku dhacyada: 0 txqueuelen: 1000 RX bytes: 0 (0.0 B) TX bytes: 129009 (125.9 KiB) Hakad: 20 Xusuusta: fe600000-fe620000

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo route -n
Miiska marinka Kernel IP Wadada loo maro 'Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface 10.10.10.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 eth0 192.168.10.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 vmnet8 192.168.20.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 virbr0

oo markaa waxaan ku laabaneynaa qaabeynta asalka ah.

Wax ka qabashada ku meelgaarka ah adoo adeegsanaya amarka ip

Marar badan waxaan la gubeynaa Laptop - laptop shabakad kale oo SME ah oo codsatay adeegyadeena ama caawimaada mana dooneyno inaan wax ka bedelno qaabeynta guud ee isku xirnaanta shabakadeeda. Si tan loo gaaro waxaan adeegsan karnaa amarka ip.

Amarka ip ku rakibaya xirmo ciroute, ama iproute2 waxay kuxirantahay qaybinta iyo nooca. Debian 6 "Isu uruuji" -fikradeena shaqsi ahaaneed- boggaga ninka amarka ah ip waxay ahaayeen kuwo aad uga cad cad tusaale ahaan, Wheezy iyo Jessie. ip haddii ay sii socoto in loo isticmaalo in lagu muujiyo, ama lagu maquuniyo dariiqa - wadada, aaladaha, siyaasadaha socodka iyo tunelada.

Waxaad ka hubin kartaa boggaga ninka nooca la rakibay adoo adeegsanaya nin.

Waxaan u isticmaalay oo kaliya inaan ku meeleeyo cinwaan IP kale oo u dhigma shirkadda kale ee SME LAN subnet. Tusaale, aan u xilsaarno cinwaanka IP-ga 192.168.1.250 marka lagu daro kan aad horey u haysatay oo ah kan 10.10.10.1 ilaa kaarka shabakada kumbuyuutarkayga:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ ip addr show eth0
2: eth0: mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP group default qlen 1000 link / ether 70: 54: d2: 19: ad: 65 brd ff: ff: ff: ff: ff: ff
    inet 10.10.10.1/24 brd 10.10.10.255 baaxadda qiyaasta caalamiga ah0
       ansax_lft weligiis doorbidaa_lft weligiis inet6 fe80 :: 7254: d2ff: fe19: ad65 / 64 iskuxirka baaxada saxan_lft weligiis doorbida_lft weligiis

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo ip addr ku dar 192.168.1.250/24 baahinta 192.168.1.255 dev eth0

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ ip addr show eth0
2: eth0: mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP group default qlen 1000 link / ether 70: 54: d2: 19: ad: 65 brd ff: ff: ff: ff: ff: ff
    inet 10.10.10.1/24 brd 10.10.10.255 baaxadda qiyaasta caalamiga ah0
       ansax_lft weligiis doorbida_lft waligiis
    inet 192.168.1.250/24 brd 192.168.1.255 baaxadda qiyaasta caalamiga ah0
       ansax_lft weligiis doorbidaa_lft weligiis inet6 fe80 :: 7254: d2ff: fe19: ad65 / 64 iskuxirka baaxada saxan_lft weligiis doorbida_lft weligiis

In kasta oo soo saarista amarku ay ka tarjumeyso in isbeddelku ansax yahay weligiis

ansax_lft weligiis doorbida_lft waligiis

tani runti ma dhacayso, oo aan ka eegi karno haddii aan gabno isla markaaba ka dib markaan awood u siinno isku-xirnaanta su'aasha iyadoo la adeegsanayo amarrada ifdow eth0 && ifup eth0. Haddii aynaan rabin inaan dib u bilowno interface-ka oo aan ku laabanno eth0 ilaa heerkeedii hore, waxaan ku fulinaa:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo ip addr del 192.168.1.250/24 broadcast 192.168.1.255 dev eth0
buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ ip addr show eth0

Si aad u ogaatid amarrada xirmada rakibaysa iproute2 aan orodno:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo dpkg -L iproute2 | saliid / bin
buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo dpkg -L iproute2 | dufan / sbin

Cinwaanka Dynamic

Haddii aan dooneyno qalab si aan u helno cinwaan IP firfircoon, waa inaan qaabeynaa isku xirnaanta shabakadeeda si ay uga hesho iyada oo loo marayo dhclient. Kaliya waa inaan ku cadeeynaa feylka / Iwm / network / interfaces Khadadka soo socda ee interface-ka:

AKHNUMX auto
iface etho inet dhcp

Haddii inta lagu gudajiro hawsha rakibida la go'aansaday in kaarka shabakada uu helayo IP firfircoon, talaabadii hore muhiim maahan maxaa yeelay waa in si sax ah loo qaabeeyaa si ay IP uga kireyso server-ka DHCP ee jira SME Network.

Hadday tahay inaan ka beddeleyno Static IP una beddelayno mid Dynamic ah, ama inaan ku darno interface cusub oo aan dooneyno inaan helno IP firfircoon, si aan awood ugu siino isdhexgalkaas aan fulinno

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo ifup eth0

amar in kiiskan uu barayo barnaamijka dhclient bilow hawsha DHCP. Si aad u joojiso isku xirnaanta aan fulino

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo ifdown eth0

amarka bilaabaya sii deynta - sii daayo dejinta iyadoo la isticmaalayo DHCP oo la xiro isku xirnaanta shabakadda.

Orod nin dhclient wixii macluumaad dheeraad ah ee ku saabsan barnaamijka macmiilka DHCP.

Wax ka qabashada taagan

Waxaan ku aragnay maqaallo badan oo hore sida loo isku hagaajiyo IP-ga joogtada ah ee isku xirka shabakadda. Faylka qaabeynta ugu weyn waa / Iwm / network / interfaces. Tusaale:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ cat / etc / network / interfaces
# Faylkani wuxuu sharxayaa isku xirnaanta shabakadaha ee laga heli karo nidaamkaaga # iyo sida loo kiciyo. Macluumaad intaas ka badan, kafiiri boggaga (5). # Isku xirka shabakada loopback auto lo iface lo inet loopback # Isku xidhka shabakada aasaasiga ah ogolaado-hotplug eth0
Cuntada 'eth0' oo ah mid aan caadi ahayn
    cinwaanka 10.10.10.1/24 shabakada netmask 255.255.255.0 10.10.10.0 baahinta 10.10.10.255 irridda 10.10.10.101 # dns- * xulashooyinka waxaa fuliya xirmada # resolvconf, haddii lagu rakibay dns-serveroyaasha 192.168.10.5 dns-search laga bilaabo Linux.fan

Xuduudaha qaabeynta isku xirnaanta shabakada eth0 ka faylka kore tilmaamaya:

  • u oggolow-hotplug eth0: Isku macno ah "baabuur»Iyo«u oggolow-baabuur«. Khad tilmaamaya in muuqaalka jirka eth0 waa inuu kacaa - up si otomaatig ah nidaamyo kala duwan inta lagu gudajiro qalabka. Caadi ahaan by ifka
  • Cuntada 'eth0' oo ah mid aan caadi ahayn: xariijin tilmaamaysa isku xirnaanta - Calaamadaha asxaabta ah waa in loo qaabeeyaa shabakad TCP / IP IPv4 istaati ahaan - IP go'an - oo aan si firfircoon u dhicin, sida kiiska Cinwaan Dynamic Addressing ah oo khadka la socda iface eth0 inet dhcp
  • cinwaanka 10.10.10.1: u xilsaar IPv4 10.10.10.1 in interface ka
  • netmask 255.255.255.0- Maaskarada loo yaqaan 'Subnet mask' oo loogu talagalay Nooca caadiga ah ee "C" LAN illaa 254 kombiyuutar. Isku macno ah markii lagu dhawaaqay cinwaanka 10.10.10.1/24 safkii hore
  • network: subnet uu cinwaankiisa ma guurtada ah ee loo xilsaaray iska leeyahay
  • warbaahin: Baahinta ama xayaysiinta IP
  • albaab: albaabka sida caadiga ah loogu xirayo internetka
  • dns-magacyada- Cinwaanka IP server-ka IP-ga ah haddii xirmada la rakibo xalinta taas oo aan lagu jahwareerin faylka /etc/resolv.conf - ama xallin
  • dns-raadinta: raadinta asalka ah ee raadinta DNS

Waxyaabaha ku jira faylka kore waxaa loo fududeyn karaa:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ cat / etc / network / interfaces
auto lo iface lo inet loopback

allow-hotplug eth0 iface eth0 cinwaanka ma guurtada ah 10.10.10.1/24

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ ip addr show eth0
2: eth0: mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP group default qlen 1000 link / ether 70: 54: d2: 19: ad: 65 brd ff: ff: ff: ff: ff: ff inet 10.10.10.1/24 brd 10.10.10.255 baaxad caalami ah eth0 ansax_lft weligiis doorbid_lft weligiis inet6 fe80 :: 7254: d2ff: fe19: ad65 / 64 iskuxirka baaxada ansax_lft weligiis doorbiday_lft weligiis

Dhamaan halbeegyada kale waxay qaadan doonaan qiyamka asalka ah, iyagoon ilaawin qiimaha aan ku cadeynay faylka /etc/resolv.conf al MAYA xirmada ku rakib xalinta.

Bridge - Xiriirinta Buundada

Si aad u sameyso Buundo - Bridge waxaad u baahan tahay inaad rakibato xirmada buundada-maacuunta:

buzz @ sysadmin: ~ $ sudo karti u leh rakibida buundooyinka

Buundooyinka si ballaaran ayaa loogu adeegsadaa Virtualization. Aynu nidhaahno waxaan leenahay HP Proliant ML 350 Gen 8 ama Gen 9 server oo leh 4 isku xirnaan shabakadeed. Waxaan uga tagi karnaa mid iyada ka mid ah si aan toos ula xiriirno Martida - martigeliyaha kaas oo taageera mashiinada farsamada. Saddexda soo hartay waxaan ku sameyn karnaa Buundo Anonymous -adigoon meeleynin wax cinwaan IP ah- oo ku xir mashiinnada dalwaddii buundadaas si ay uga heli karaan SME LAN, mashiinnadan casriga ah waxay leeyihiin cinwaanno IP ah oo taagan ama firfircoon.

Tilmaamkan faa iidada badan leh waxaa i siiyay saaxiibkey iyo saaxiibkey Edward Claus. Sidoo kale, faylka / usr / share / doc / ifupdown / tusaalooyin / buundo waxaan heli doonnaa qoraal - script ku saabsan sida loo xakameeyo isku xirnaanta shabakadaha badan.

buzz @ host: ~ $ sudo nano / etc / network / interfaces
auto lo iface lo inet loopback allow-hotplug eth0 iface eth0 inet static address 192.168.10.27 iface eth1 inet manual iface eth2 inet manual iface eth3 inet manual # Bridge Anonymous auto br0 iface br0 inet manual Bridge_ports eth1 eth2 eth3

Resumen

Mawduuca Isgaarsiintu waa khiyaano wuxuuna u baahan yahay daraasad iyo ku celcelin badan. Sysadmin waxay ubaahantahay inay ogaato waxyaabaha muhiimka ah. Maqaalkani waa uun a Barta Ugu Yar ee Gelitaanka. Mar dambe

Ma taaban - mana taaban doonno - the Habka OSI «Isku Xidhnaanta Nidaamka»Kee ah nooca tixraaca ee borotokoollada shabakada leh qaab dhismeedka lakab leh oo ay abuurtay 1980 Ururka Caalamiga ah ee Jaangooyooyinka«ISO«.

Ku dhaadhaco dhinacyada teori ee Habka OSI, ku dhowaad u dhiganta in loo dhaadhaco Web-ka Deep ama Web Deep ... ugu yaraan aniga ahaan aniga ma ihi a Hacker.

Gaarsiinta xigta

Hordhaca Adeegga Hubinta


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  1. Masuul ka ah xogta: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ujeedada xogta: Xakamaynta SPAM, maaraynta faallooyinka.
  3. Sharci: Oggolaanshahaaga
  4. Isgaarsiinta xogta: Xogta looma gudbin doono dhinacyada saddexaad marka laga reebo waajibaadka sharciga ah.
  5. Kaydinta xogta: Macluumaadka ay martigelisay Shabakadaha Occentus (EU)
  6. Xuquuqda: Waqti kasta oo aad xadidi karto, soo ceshan karto oo tirtiri karto macluumaadkaaga.

  1.   Zodiac Carburus dijo

    Amarka ip Waxaan u isticmaalay sidaada oo kale, Fico, munaasabado badan waxayna u adeegtay halbowle nololeed. Kaliya waxaa lagaa rabay inaad wax ka qorto shabakadaha gaarka loo leeyahay ee loogu talagalay shabakadaha ganacsiga. Waa wax laga xumaado in maqaal sidaas u "fudud" ama buug gacmeed oo ay dad badani soo booqdaan aanu lahayn faallooyin badan

  2.   Zodiac Carburus dijo

    Waxaan ogaadey inay ka maqantahay dhankaaga, Fico. Bayaanka buundada waxaa ku qoran:
    iface br0 tilmaanta

    Sidaad ogtahay, sadarkaas keli ah marka dib loo bilaabayo buundada si otomaatig ah kor uguma qaadi. Waa in la yiraahdo:

    baabuur br0
    iface bro buug gacmeed
    Bridge_ports eth1 eth2 eth3

    Dhib malahan. 🙂

  3.   federico dijo

    Hello Zodiac.
    Adiga sida had iyo jeer u aqriso qoraalladeyda si qoto dheer.
    Waxaan ku soo dari doonaa mawduuca shabakadaha gaarka loo leeyahay maqaalka koowaad ee Samba 4. Haa, waan ilaaway inaan qoro baabuur br0 bilowga qaabeynta buundada. Aynu eegno haddii gacaliyaha qaaliga ah ee Luigys, maareeyaha goobta, uu wax ka beddelayo boostada.
    Aad baad ugu mahadsantahay waqtigaaga, Zodiac.

  4.   Ado Eello dijo

    Waan jeclahay aqrinta casharradan oo kale RSS-kayga. Waan aqriyay iyaga muddo dheer waxaana ku dhacay inay la mid yihiin cutubyada. Waxaan iri ... Mahadsanid, waan aqriyay

  5.   federico dijo

    Hagaag, sii wad inaad ku raaxaysato akhriska, Ado Ello. Farxad!