Uyini umehluko phakathi kweSudo ne-su?

Ezinsukwini ezimbalwa ezedlule ngithole umbuzo ovela kuMiguel, umfundi webhulogi ojwayelekile futhi ophawula ngokuphoqelela, maqondana nalokhu uyini ngempela umehluko phakathi kwe- sudo y su. Ikakhulu, uMiguel wayekhathazekile ngokuthi ngabe enye indlela iphephe kakhulu yini kunenye. Kwenzeka ukuthi bengikufundile lapho ukuthi I-Sudo ibingaphephile ngokwanele futhi ngifuna ukwazi okwengeziwe.Lokhu okunye okuthunyelwe okunikezelwe kulabo abacele ama-athikili amaningi ku izimfihlakalo ezibulalayo.

Su

Uhlelo su Ikuvumela ukuthi usebenzise igobolondo lomunye umsebenzisi ngaphandle kokuphuma kuseshini yamanje. Ijwayele ukusetshenziselwa ukuthola izimvume zezimpande zemisebenzi yokuphatha ngaphandle kokuphuma ngemvume uphinde ufake uhlelo. Ezinye izindawo zedeskithophu, kufaka phakathi i-GNOME ne-KDE, zinezinhlelo ezibuza ngokusobala iphasiwedi ngaphambi kokuvumela umsebenzisi ukuthi enze umyalo ovame ukudinga ukufinyelela okunjalo.

Igama su livela esiNgisini sesikhundleni uube (esikhundleni somsebenzisi). Kukhona nalabo abenza ukuthi kutholakale kusuka ku- sphezuluuser (umsebenzisi omkhulu, okungukuthi, umsebenzisi wezimpande noma umphathi) ngoba imvamisa isetshenziselwa ukwamukela indima yomlawuli wesistimu.

Uma ugijima, su Icela iphasiwedi ye-akhawunti ofuna ukuyifinyelela, futhi uma yamukelwa, inika ukufinyelela kuleyo akhawunti.

[guy @ localhost] $ Iphasiwedi yakho: [root @ localhost] # ukuphuma ngemvume [guy @ localhost] $

Ngokungafaki umsebenzisi, itholakala njengomlawuli. Kodwa-ke, kungenzeka futhi ukudlulisa elinye igama lomsebenzisi njengepharamitha.

[guy @ localhost] $ su mongo Iphasiwedi: [mongo @ localhost] # ukuphuma kwe-logout [guy @ localhost] $

Lapho iphasiwedi isifakiwe, singakwazi ukwenza imiyalo kube sengathi singomunye umsebenzisi. Ngokubhala Phuma, sibuyela kumsebenzisi wethu.

Ukuhluka okusetshenziswa kabanzi ukusebenzisa su kulandelwe udwi. Ngakho-ke, ukuze ungene ngemvume njengezimpande, kufanele ungene su - nokungena ngemvume njengomunye umsebenzisi owakho - omunye umsebenzisi. Umehluko phakathi kokusebenzisa iskripthi noma cha? Kunconywa ukusebenzisa iskripthi ngoba kulingisa ukuthi uzongena ngemvume ngalowo msebenzisi; ngakho-ke, lisebenza wonke amafayela wokuqalisa alowo msebenzisi, liguqula umkhombandlela wamanje liye EKHAYA lalo msebenzisi, lishintsha inani lokuhlukahluka okuthile kohlelo elizivumelanisa nomsebenzisi omusha (IKHAYA, SHELL, TERM, USER, LOGNAME, phakathi kwabanye), kanye abanye izinto eziningi.

I-sysadmin kufanele iqaphele kakhulu lapho ukhetha iphasiwedi ye-akhawunti yezimpande / yomlawuli, ukugwema ukuhlaselwa ngumsebenzisi ongenalutho osebenzayo su. Ezinye izinhlelo ezinjenge-Unix zineqembu lomsebenzisi elibiziwe Isondo, equkethe kuphela abakwazi ukwenza su. Lokhu kungenzeka noma kunganciphisi ukukhathazeka ngokuphepha, ngoba isigebengu singamane sithathe enye yalawo ma-akhawunti. Yena su I-GNU, nokho, ayikusekeli ukusetshenziswa kwalelo qembu; lokhu kwenziwa ngezizathu zefilosofi.

Sudo

Umyalo ohlobene, obiziwe sudo, yenza umyalo njengomunye umsebenzisi, kepha ngokuhlonipha uchungechunge lwemikhawulo lapho abasebenzisi bangenza khona imiyalo egameni labanye abasebenzisi (imvamisa echazwe kufayela / njll / ama-sudoers).

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ngokungafani su, sudo yazisa abasebenzisi nge-password yabo esikhundleni somsebenzisi odingekayo; Lokhu kuvumela ukudluliselwa kwemiyalo kubasebenzisi beminye imishini ngaphandle kokuthi babelane ngamaphasiwedi, kunciphisa ubungozi bokushiya amatheminali enganakiwe.

Izinkinga zesudo: isikhathi somusa

Ubuhle be sudo maqondana ne- su ukuthi yenza kuphela umyalo oceliwe ozenza omunye umsebenzisi, ngaphandle kokushintsha umsebenzisi wamanje. Lokhu kusho ukuthi umuntu angenza umyalo njengomlawuli futhi, ngomzuzwana olandelayo, bazoba namalungelo omsebenzisi abebemsebenzisa ngaphambili ... noma cishe.

Abanye bakubona njengokuphula ukuphepha iqiniso lokuthi sudo nikeza "isikhathi somusa" esivumela umsebenzisi ukuthi enze imiyalo njengomunye umsebenzisi ngaphandle kwesidingo sokufaka kaninginingi iSudo phambi komyalo nephasiwedi ngemuva kokukwenza. Ngemuva kwaleyo "nkathi yomusa", sudo uzophinda asibuze iphasiwedi.

Lokhu "kubi", empeleni ngoba umuntu othile angathatha ikhompyutha yethu ngemuva kokufaka iphasiwedi ye-Sudo futhi ngenkathi "isikhathi somusa" sisebenza yenza INHLEKELELE.

Ngenhlanhla, kungenzeka ukukhubaza "isikhathi somusa", esizothuthukisa ukuphepha kohlelo lwakho. Vele ungeze umugqa owodwa kufayela / njll / ama-sudoers:

I-sudo nano / etc / sudoers

Futhi engeza umugqa olandelayo ekugcineni kwefayela:

Okuzenzakalelayo: ZONKE i-timestamp_timeout = 0

Ushintsho luqala ukusebenza ngokushesha, ngaphandle kwesidingo sokuqalisa kabusha uhlelo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana ayi-25, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   hleq kusho

    Eqinisweni, UMA ungangena ngamalungelo okuphatha nge-Sudo futhi uhlale lapho njengoba wenza nge-su -, kulokhu kufanele ubhale: ama-sudo -s aguqule umsebenzisi wamanje futhi ashiye isikhathi somusa njengehlaya (ngoba Ungahlala uthanda lokhu inqobo nje uma ufuna, njengakwakho)

  2.   IMiquel Mayol i Tur kusho

    Ngiyabonga ngokushiwo, kepha isikweletu sangempela siya engxoxweni yeSabayon - engingasayisebenzisi ngoba i-hard drive yami yaphuka, futhi ngancamela ukubuyela ku-Ubuntu -.

    Isizathu abanginike sona ukuthi kwesinye isikhathi lapho benza ukucushwa okuthile kwe-Sudo abazitholi izimvume eziphelele futhi bahlala bengalungiselelwe kahle. Futhi lokho ngokuthi "ukungena ngemvume" nge-su njengezimpande zemisebenzi yokuvuselela nokulungisa uvimbela lokhu ukuthi kungenzeki.

    Ngibe sengikuthumela i-imeyili ngoba ngathembisa ukuthi ngizokwabelana ngalokhu okutholakele okwakubonakala kungeyona into encane kimi.

    Njengoba Ubuntu ifakwa ngokuzenzakalela ngaphandle komsebenzisi wezimpande, vele usebenzise

    "Impande ye-Sudo passwd"

    faka iphasiwedi, uyiqinisekise, bese ngemuva kwalokho
    "Su impande"
    yokusebenza kwesondlo, ngaphezu kokugwema ukubeka iSudo nge-oda ngalinye.

    Empeleni, ku-Ubuntu i-akhawunti yezimpande iyasuswa ukuze ungangeni njalo ngale akhawunti, kepha njengoba nginikezwe iseluleko cishe emoyeni sokuthi ukusebenzisa iSudo kwakuwukuhlambalaza, uma kungenzeka ngiyilandele.

  3.   Isikhombi seNill kusho

    Ungafinyelela kufayela le- / etc / shadow bese ushintsha i-hash yephasiwedi yezimpande ibe yi-hash ye-password ejwayelekile yomsebenzisi bese wenza ushintsho lwephasiwedi yezimpande ??? Ngesinye isikhathi ngizama okufanayo….

  4.   Masisebenzise iLinux kusho

    Kucacile. Ayikhethi iFedora kuphela.

  5.   mfcolf77 kusho

    Ngabe-ke kulaba bobabili bangafakwa yini? Ngicabanga ukuthi i- «SU» bekuseFEDORA kuphela.

  6.   UDiego Kisai Alba Gallart kusho

    Ulwazi oluhle kakhulu, nalokhu ngokuqinisekile ukungabaza kwabaningi kuzophela, ngoba ngiyazi abaningana abanalokhu kungabaza.

  7.   Alex kusho

    Ebunto ngicabanga ukuthi ngiyakhumbula ukuthi awukwazi ukusebenzisa umyalo su (ukungena njengomsebenzisi wezimpande)

  8.   UHazan Perez kusho

    Yebo, ukuze "ubuyisele" iphasiwedi yezimpande (empeleni, noma iyiphi enye iphasiwedi), ungenza "ukuhlaselwa" kufayela lephasiwedi yohlelo noJohn The Ripper. Ngeke ngisho okuningi ngalokhu.

    Mhlawumbe kunezinye izindlela ... Mhlawumbe ukushintsha iphasiwedi ngokufaka nge "Sudo su" bese umyalo othi "passwd". Kungaba mnandi ukubona ukuthi abanye abantu baphendula kanjani ...

  9.   Masisebenzise iLinux kusho

    Impela!

  10.   Masisebenzise iLinux kusho

    Kunjalo ... kufanele ngibonge uMiguel Mayol i Tur ... nguyena obenombono. 🙂
    Halala! UPaul.

  11.   Boss kusho

    Ngiyabonga, njengenjwayelo umnikelo omkhulu. Siyawazisa.

  12.   Masisebenzise iLinux kusho

    Ngiyabonga Mphathi! Ukwanga! UPaul.

  13.   UJerónimo Navarro kusho

    Umehluko phakathi kuka 'su' no 'sudo' ngu 'do'

  14.   Erick kusho

    Ngikhohlwe iphasiwedi yempande, ngenhlanhla ngikwazi ukusebenzisa iSudo, futhi ukusebenzisa i-su, ngisebenzisa i-'Sudo su 'futhi ayibuzi ukudlula (?)
    Ngabe ukhona owaziyo ukuthi angayithola kanjani iphasiwedi yezimpande (ngikwazi ukufinyelela empandeni ngeSudo)?

    1.    umabhebhana kusho

      sudo kudlula

  15.   Masisebenzise iLinux kusho

    Ha! Uhlakaniphe kakhulu!

  16.   UFabian Pais kusho

    lowo ofuna ukubuyisa iphasiwedi yezimpande kungaba "Sudo passwd root" futhi lapho uzokucela ukuthi ufake entsha

  17.   alex-pilloku@htmail.com kusho

    sawubona injani impilo yakho

  18.   I-SynFlag kusho

    Uxolo kodwa, usebenzisa su su, kanjena:

    su -c "umyalo", kuyefana nokusebenzisa iSudo ngaphandle kwesikhathi somusa. Angisiboni isidingo seSudo.

    Ukusetshenziswa KWANGEMPELA kwesudo, ukunika abasebenzisi abathile amandla wokusebenzisa lo noma lowo myalo, kusetshenziswa kakhulu ezinkampanini, ukuze kungadingeki ukuthi unqamule, into engenakwenziwa nge-su.

  19.   i-yacardis kusho

    Sawubona, kufanele ngenze i-Linux TP, futhi kufanele ngiphendule imibuzo elula. Mhlawumbe bangangisiza. Ngiyabonga kusukela manje:

    Yimuphi umyalo okuvumela ukuthi sifake / sisuse / siguqule amaphakheji we-debian?
    Uyini umyalo osivumela ukuthi siphathe kalula ukufakwa
    amaphakheji ku-debian?
    Uyini umyalo wokukwazi ukufaka amaphakheji we-rpm?
    Yiphi inketho esiyisebenzisayo ukukhipha iphakheji?
    Uyini umkhombandlela lapho kutholakala khona amakhosombe e-yum?
    Yini i-yum?
    Yiphi inketho esiyisebenzisayo ukucinga iphakheji nge-yum?
    Yiphi inketho esiyisebenzisayo ukususa iphakheji?
    Yini esingayisebenzisa ukuvuselela uhlelo?
    Yiziphi izinhlamvu ezikhomba izimvume?
    Kusho ukuthini ngamunye wabo?
    Yimiphi imiyalo efaka kuhlu izimvume zefayela?
    Yimaphi amaqembu amathathu lapho izimvume zehlukaniswe phakathi?
    Yiziphi izindlela ezimbili ezikhona zokuqalisa izimvume?
    Izimvume zisebenzisa luphi uhlelo lwezinombolo?
    Lezi zinhlamvu zinesisindo esingakanani?
    Yini izimvume ezikhethekile?
    Yiziphi izimvume ezikhethekile ezikhona futhi zenzelwe ini abasebenzisi?
    Yimiphi imiyalo engiyisebenzisayo ukushintsha izimvume?
    Yimiphi imingcele engiyisebenzisayo ukunikeza ukwenza izimvume kufayela?
    Yimiphi imingcele esetshenziselwa ukunikeza izimvume zokufunda eqenjini kuphela?
    Yimiphi imingcele esetshenziselwa ukunikeza izimvume zokufunda / ukubhala eqenjini abanye futhi isuse ukubhala kumsebenzisi ongumnikazi wefayela?
    Yiziphi izimvume ezenziwa ngokuzenzakalela zamafayela nezinkomba?
    Imuphi umyalo esiwusebenzisa ukukuqinisekisa?
    Siguqula kanjani isifihla-buso esizenzakalelayo?
    Senza kanjani ukuthi imaski isetshenziswe ngendlela ehlukile? (Sebenzisa imaski ezenzakalelayo eshiya kuphela abanikazi ngazo zonke izimvume.)
    Yimuphi umyalo obala izinqubo? Yisho imingcele ehlukene nokusetshenziswa kwayo.
    Yini inqubo eqala yonke into?
    Bhala izinqubo ezihambelana nomsebenzisi ongene ngemvume.
    Bhala zonke izinqubo ohlelweni.
    Yiziphi izinketho engizisebenzisayo ukuthola ulwazi olwengeziwe?
    Bhala zonke izinqubo ezisetshenziswa esigungwini
    Iyiphi inketho ebala izinqubo kanye nokuncika kwayo?
    Chaza ukuthi yini inqubo yomzali nengane nokuthi ungayibona kanjani
    Yimuphi umyalo obala izinqubo ngesimo sezihlahla?
    Yimuphi umyalo ohlola izinqubo ngesikhathi sangempela?
    Gada inqubo eyodwa kuphela
    Yimuphi umyalo okhombisa ukusetshenziswa kwememori?
    Iyiphi ipharamitha ekhombisa inkumbulo kuma-megabytes?
    Iyiphi ipharamitha eyenzayo ngezikhathi?
    Yimuphi umyalo okhombisa imininingwane maqondana nesikhathi iqembu eliphakeme ngalo?
    Imuphi umyalo engiwusebenzisayo ukubulala izinqubo?
    Ngabe lezi zinqubo zisingatha ini ukuze ziphothulwe?
    Yiziphi izinhlobo zezimpawu ezivame kakhulu?
    Bhala uhlu lwezimpawu ezisekelwayo.
    Ku-terminal, do vi test, bese uya kwesinye isiginali, funa inqubo bese uyibulala ngesiginali engu-15. I-Ditto kodwa ngesiginali engu-9.
    Uyini umehluko phakathi kwesiginali 9 no-15?
    Yikuphi okusebenza ngokuzenzakalela?
    Kungani inqubo iqhutshwa ngemuva? Futhi ngaphambili?
    Qalisa ukuhlolwa kwe-vi bese ushaya u-ctrl + z, kwenzekeni?
    Phinda ukuhlolwa kwe-vi, ctr + z, amahlandla ama-4, ngikuqeda kanjani engihlulekile?
    Dlulisa enye yezinqubo ngaphambili futhi uvale vi.
    Iyiphi ipharamitha yomyalo esiwenzayo ukuze ingangeni kuShell?
    Yimuphi umyalo oguqula okuhamba phambili kwenqubo esivele isebenza? Ungakushintsha kanjani ukubekwa phambili kwesiginali esisebenzayo?
    Yimaphi amanani ezinga akhona futhi yini isikhundla sabo sabaphathi?
    Vula ifayela / etc / passwd bese ubona ukuthi linamazinga abaluleke kangakanani.
    Shintsha ileveli ebekwa phambili ibe ngu-4 bese kuba ngu-25 Ungababela bobabili? Kungani?
    Bhala izinqubo ngamanani wazo abalulekile.
    Yimuphi umyalo oqapha zonke izinqubo ezisebenzayo?

  20.   njll kusho

    Sawubona, ngifuna ukukhubaza iSudo, njengoba ngenza. Ngithola lokhu:
    [sudo] iphasiwedi ye-xxx:
    xxx ayikho kufayela le-sudoers. Lesi sigameko sizobikwa.

    njengoba ngiyikhubaza, ngoba ngisebenzisa su ku-debian

    1.    masisebenzise i-linux kusho

      Sawubona ecc!

      Ngicabanga ukuthi kungaba ngcono uma uphakamisa lo mbuzo enkonzweni yethu yemibuzo nezimpendulo ebizwa Buza KuLinux ukuze umphakathi wonke ukwazi ukukusiza enkingeni yakho.

      Ukwanga, uPablo.

  21.   UBertoldo kusho

    Sawubona. Ngisebenzise umyalo wokushisa kwe-hard disk ku-Linux Mint: 'sudo hddtemp / dev / sda', icela iphasiwedi, futhi inginikeza umphumela olindelekile.
    kepha, lapho ngisebenza ku-terminal efanayo 'hddtemp / dev / sda' kungitshela ukuthi imvume inqatshiwe.
    Ngakho-ke, isikhathi somusa asisebenzi kimi, kungani kunjalo?

  22.   UBertoldo kusho

    Sawubona ibhulogi.
    Ngithole nokuthi lapho kufakwa i-distro (ex: ubuntu, linux mint), icela iphasiwedi yomlawuli.
    Futhi kusixhumi esibonakalayo sokuqhafaza esikhungweni sokulawula, ngisebenzise inketho ukushintsha iphasiwedi yomsebenzisi wami.
    Ngakho-ke manje ukusebenzisa i- "su -" kucela iphasiwedi, okungeyona eyomsebenzisi wami wamanje, kepha engiyisebenzise lapho ngifaka i-distro, lokho kusengumbhali noma umsebenzisi womlawuli.
    Lokhu kuzoholela kubasebenzisi abaningi ukukhohlwa iphasiwedi yangempela yomlawuli.

  23.   UKendall Davila kusho

    Sawubona, incazelo yakho inhle kakhulu, icacile, imfishane futhi imfishane. Siyabonga ngokufaka