Ukusatshalaliswa

Imiqondo ejwayelekile

Kulabo abaqhamuka ekusebenziseni iWindows noma iMac kungahle kumangaze ukuthi kukhona "izinhlobo" noma "ukusatshalaliswa" okuningi kweLinux. Ku-Windows, ngokwesibonelo, sinenguqulo eyisisekelo kuphela (i-Home Edition), uchwepheshe (i-Professional Edition) neyodwa yamaseva (i-Server Edition). Ku-Linux, esikhundleni salokho kunenani ELIKHULU le- ukwabiwa.

Ukuze uqale ukuqonda ukuthi ukusatshalaliswa kuyini, udinga kuqala ukucaciselwa. I-Linux, okokuqala, ikernel noma i-kernel isistimu Esebenzayo. I-kernel iyinhliziyo yanoma yiluphi uhlelo lokusebenza futhi isebenza "njengomlamuleli" phakathi kwezicelo ezivela ezinhlelweni nasehardware. Lokhu kukodwa, ngaphandle kwanoma yini enye, akunakusebenza ngokuphelele. Esikusebenzisa nsuku zonke, empeleni, ukusatshalaliswa kweLinux. Lokho wukuthi, i-kernel + uchungechunge lwezinhlelo (amaklayenti eposi, i-office automation, njll.) Ezenza izicelo kwi-hardware nge-kernel.

Lokho kusho ukuthi singacabanga ngokusatshalaliswa kweLinux njengenqaba yeLEGO, okusho ukuthi, isethi yezingcezu zesoftware: omunye uphethe ukuqala uhlelo, omunye usinikeza indawo yokubuka, omunye uphethe "imiphumela ebonakalayo" kusuka kudeskithophu, njll. Bese kuba khona abantu abahlanganisa ukusatshalaliswa kwabo, bakushicilele, futhi abantu bangazilanda futhi bazihlole. Umehluko phakathi kwalezi zinguqulo uqukethe, ngokunembile, ku-kernel noma i-kernel oyisebenzisayo, inhlanganisela yezinhlelo eziphethe imisebenzi ejwayelekile (ukuqala kwesistimu, ideskithophu, ukuphathwa kwewindi, njll.), Ukumiswa ngakunye kwalokhu izinhlelo, kanye nesethi "yezinhlelo zedeskithophu" (i-office automation, i-inthanethi, ingxoxo, abahleli bezithombe, njll.) ezikhethiwe.

Ngikhetha ukwaba ngakuphi?

Ngaphambi kokuthi uqale, into yokuqala okufanele unqume ukuthi yikuphi ukusatshalaliswa kwe-Linux - noma i- "distro" - ongakusebenzisa. Yize kunezinto eziningi ezisebenzayo lapho ukhetha i-distro futhi kungashiwo ukuthi kunesidingo ngasinye (imfundo, ukuhlelwa komsindo nevidiyo, ukuphepha, njll.), Into ebaluleke kakhulu lapho uqala ukukhetha i-distro "eyabaqalayo", enomphakathi obanzi futhi osekelayo ongakusiza uxazulule ukungabaza nezinkinga zakho futhi onemibhalo emihle.

Yimaphi ama-distros amahle kakhulu wabaqalayo? Kukhona ukuvumelana okuthile maqondana nama-distros acatshangelwa ama-newbies, phakathi kwawo kukhona: Ubuntu (kanye nama-remixes ayo Kubuntu, Xubuntu, Lubuntu, njll.), I-Linux Mint, i-PCLinuxOS, njll. Ngabe lokhu kusho ukuthi yiwona ama-distros amahle kakhulu? Cha. Lokho kuzoxhomeka kuzo zombili izidingo zakho (ukuthi uzolusebenzisa kanjani lolu hlelo, yimuphi umshini onawo, njll.) Kanye namakhono akho (uma ngabe uchwepheshe noma "umqali" ku-Linux, njll.).

Ngaphezu kwezidingo zakho namandla akho kukhona ezinye izinto ezimbili ezizothonya ngokuqinisekile ukukhetha kwakho: imvelo yedeskithophu kanye neprosesa.

UmseshiEnqubweni yokucinga i- "perfect distro" uzothola ukuthi ukusabalalisa okuningi kuza ngezinguqulo ezi-2: ama-32 no-64 amabhithi (owaziwa nangokuthi i-x86 ne-x64). Umehluko uhlobene nohlobo lweprosesa abayesekelayo. Inketho efanele izoncika ohlotsheni nemodeli yeprosesa oyisebenzisayo.

Ngokuvamile, inketho ephephile imvamisa ukulanda inguqulo engama-32-bit, yize imishini emisha (enamaprosesa asesimanjemanje) kungenzeka ukusekela ama-64 bit. Uma uzama ukusabalalisa okungama-32-bit emshinini osekela ama-64-bit, akukho okubi okwenzekayo, ngeke kuqhume, kepha ungahle "ungazuzi kakhulu" (ikakhulukazi uma une-2GB engaphezulu kwe-RAM).

Imvelo yedeskithophu: Kufika ama-distros athandwa kakhulu, ukuwabeka ngobunono, kuma "flavour" ahlukene. Ngayinye yalezi zinguqulo isebenzisa lokho esikubiza ngokuthi "indawo yedeskithophu." Lokhu akuyona enye into ngaphandle kokuqaliswa kwesikhombimsebenzisi sokuqhafaza esinikeza ukufinyelela nezinsiza zokumisa, iziqalisi zohlelo lokusebenza, imiphumela yedeskithophu, abaphathi bamawindi, njll. Izindawo ezidume kakhulu yi-GNOME, KDE, XFCE, ne-LXDE.

Ngakho-ke, ngokwesibonelo, ama-flavour aziwa kakhulu e-Ubuntu yilawa: Ubuntu bendabuko (Ubunye), Kubuntu (Ubuntu + KDE), Xubuntu (Ubuntu + XFCE), Lubuntu (Ubuntu + LXDE), njll. Kuyafana nokunye ukusatshalaliswa okudumile.

Sengivele ngakhetha, manje ngifuna ukukuzama

Uma usuthathe isinqumo, kusala ukulanda i-distro ofuna ukuyisebenzisa. Lokhu futhi ushintsho olunamandla kusuka kuWindows. Cha, wephula noma yimuphi umthetho futhi awuzukuhamba emakhasini angaba yingozi, kuphela uye ekhasini elisemthethweni le-distro oyithandayo, landa Isithombe se-ISO, uyikopisha kwi-CD / DVD noma i-pendrive futhi konke sekumi ngomumo ukuqala ukuhlola i-Linux. Lokhu kungenye yezinzuzo eziningi ze software free.

Ngokuthula kwakho kwengqondo, iLinux inenzuzo ebalulekile kuneWindows: ungazama cishe wonke ama-distros ngaphandle kokuthi usule isistimu yakho yamanje. Lokhu kungafinyelelwa ngezindlela eziningi nasemazingeni ahlukene.

1. I-CD / DVD / i-USB ebukhoma- Indlela ethandwa kakhulu futhi elula yokuhlola i-distro ukulanda isithombe se-ISO kusuka kuwebhusayithi yaso esemthethweni, usikopishele endukwini ye-CD / DVD / USB, bese uqeda lapho. Lokhu kuzokuvumela ukuthi usebenzise i-Linux ngqo kwi-CD / DVD / USB ngaphandle kokusula iota yohlelo olifakile. Akunasidingo sokufaka abashayeli noma ususe noma yini. Kulula kanjalo nje.

Ukuphela kokufanele ukwenze: landa isithombe se-ISO sediski oyithanda kakhulu, usishise kwi-CD / DVD / USB usebenzisa isoftware ekhethekile, lungiselela i-BIOS ukuze ibhuqe kusuka kudivayisi ekhethiwe (CD / DVD noma i-USB) bese, ekugcineni, ukhethe inketho ethi "Test distro X" noma efanayo ezovela ekuqaleni.

Abasebenzisi abathuthukile kakhulu bangadala i- Ama-USB bukhoma ama-multiboot, evumela ukubhutha ama-distros amaningi kusuka ku-USB stick efanayo.

2. Umshini obonakalayo: Eyodwa umshini obonakalayo uhlelo lokusebenza olusivumela ukuthi sisebenzise uhlelo olulodwa lokusebenza ngaphakathi kolunye sengathi luhlelo oluhlukile. Lokhu kungenzeka ngokwakhiwa kwenguqulo ebonakalayo yesisetshenziswa sehadiwe; kulokhu, izinsiza eziningana: ikhompyutha ephelele.

Le ndlela isetshenziswa kakhulu ukuhlola ezinye izinhlelo zokusebenza. Isibonelo uma uku-Windows futhi ufuna ukuzama iLinux distro noma okuphambene nalokho. Kuyasiza futhi lapho sidinga ukusebenzisa uhlelo oluthile olutholakala kuphela kolunye uhlelo esingalusebenzisi njalo. Isibonelo, uma usebenzisa iLinux futhi udinga ukusebenzisa uhlelo olukhona kuphela kwiWindows.

Kunezinhlelo eziningi zale nhloso, phakathi kwazo okukhona Ibhokisi elibonakalayo , I-VMWare y QEMU.

3. I-Dual-bootLapho uthatha isinqumo sokufaka i-Linux, ungakhohlwa ukuthi kungenzeka ukuyifaka kanye nohlelo lwakho lwamanje, ukuze kuthi lapho uqala umshini ikubuze ukuthi ufuna ukuqala ngaluphi uhlelo. Le nqubo ibizwa ngokuthi i-dual-boot.

Ngemininingwane engaphezulu mayelana nokusatshalaliswa kweLinux, ngincoma ukufunda lezi zihloko:

Ukucaciswa kwangaphambilini ngaphambi kokubona amanye ama-distros.

{Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} = Sesha okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nale distro usebenzisa injini yokusesha yebhulogi.
{Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro} = Iya ekhasini elisemthethweni le-distro.

Kususelwa ku-Debian

  • Debian. {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro}: ibonakala ngokuvikeleka nokuqina kwayo. Kungashiwo ukuthi ingenye yama-distros abaluleke kakhulu, noma namuhla ayithandwa njengamanye ama-derivatives ayo (Ubuntu, isibonelo). Uma ufuna ukusebenzisa izinhlobo zakamuva kakhulu zazo zonke izinhlelo zakho, lokhu akuyona i-distro yakho. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, uma ukwazisa ukuzinza, akukho kungabaza: I-Debian ingeyakho.
  • Mepis. {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro}: kuhloswe ukuthuthukisa nokwenza lula ukwakheka kwe-Debian. Ungasho ukuthi lo mbono ufana kakhulu no-Ubuntu, kepha ngaphandle "kokuphambuka" kakhulu ekuzinzeni nasekuphepheni okunikezwa nguDebian.
  • I-Knoppix. {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro}: i-knoppix yathandwa kakhulu njengoba yayingenye ye-distros yokuqala yokuvumela ukusakazwa ngqo kusuka ku-cd ebukhoma. Lokhu kusho ukukwazi ukusebenzisa uhlelo lokusebenza ngaphandle kokulufaka. Namuhla, lokhu kusebenza kutholakala cishe kuwo wonke ama-Linux distros amakhulu. IKnoppix iyaqhubeka nokuba ngenye indlela ethokozisayo njenge-CD yokutakula kunoma yikuphi okwenzekayo.
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Kususelwa ku-Ubuntu

  • Ubuntu. {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro}: Yi-distro ethandwa kakhulu okwamanje. Ithole udumo ngoba, esikhashaneni esedlule bebekuthumelela i-CD yamahhala endlini yakho nohlelo lokuthi uzame. Iphinde yaduma kakhulu ngoba ifilosofi yayo ibisuselwa ekwenzeni "i-Linux yabantu", izama ukusondeza i-Linux kumsebenzisi ojwayelekile wedeskithophu hhayi kubahleli bama- "geeks". Kuyindawo enhle kulabo abasanda kuqala.
  • I-Linux Mint. {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro}: ngenxa yezinkinga ezihlobene namalungelo obunikazi nefilosofi yesoftware uqobo, Ubuntu abuzi ngokuzenzakalela namanye ama-codec nezinhlelo ezifakiwe. Zingafakwa kalula, kepha kufanele zifakwe futhi zilungiselelwe. Ngaleso sizathu, iLinux Mint yazalwa, esivele iza nakho konke lokho "okuvela efektri". I-distro enconyelwe kakhulu kulabo abasanda kuqala ku-Linux.
  • Kubuntu. {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro}: Kuyinto ehlukile Ubuntu kodwa enedeskithophu ye-KDE. Le desktop ibukeka njenge-Win 7, ngakho-ke uma uyithanda, uzothanda uKubuntu.
  • Xubuntu. {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro}: Kuyinto eyehlukile Ubuntu kodwa enedeskithophu ye-XFCE. Le desktop idume ngokudla izinsiza ezingaphansi kakhulu kune-GNOME (okuzenzakalelayo ku-Ubuntu) ne-KDE (okuzenzakalelayo ku-Kubuntu). Yize lokhu bekuyiqiniso ekuqaleni, akusenjalo.
  • Edubuntu. {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro}: Ukwahluka Ubuntu okuqondiswe emkhakheni wezemfundo.
  • I-Backtrack. {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro}: i-distro eqondiswe kwezokuphepha, amanethiwekhi nezinhlelo zokusindisa
  • gNewSense. {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro}: ingenye yama-distros "mahhala ngokuphelele", ngokusho kwe- FSF.
  • Ubuntu Studio. {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro}: i-distro eqondiswe ekuhlelweni kwe-multimedia ngobuchwepheshe komsindo, ividiyo nehluzo. Uma ungumculi, le yi-distro enhle. Okuhle kakhulu, noma kunjalo, IMusix.
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Kususelwa kuRed Hat

  • I-Red Hat. {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro}: Lena inguqulo yezentengiso esuselwa kuFedora. Ngenkathi izinhlobo ezintsha zeFedora ziphuma njalo ezinyangeni eziyi-6 noma kunjalo, izinhlobo ze-RHEL zivame ukuphuma njalo ezinyangeni eziyi-18 kuye kwezingu-24. I-RHEL inoxhaxha lwezinsizakalo ezenezela inani lapho isekela khona ibhizinisi layo (ukwesekwa, ukuqeqeshwa, ukubonisana, isitifiketi, njll.).
  • Fedora. {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro}: Ekuqaleni kwayo kususelwa kuRed Hat, isimo sayo samanje sishintshile futhi empeleni namuhla iRed Hat ibuyiselwa emuva noma isuselwa kakhulu noma ngaphezulu kuneRad Hat's Fedora. Ingelinye lama-distros athandwa kakhulu, yize muva nje lilahlekelwa ngabalandeli abaningi ezandleni ze-Ubuntu nezinto ezitholakala kuzo. Kodwa-ke, kuyaziwa futhi ukuthi abathuthukisi beFedora benze iminikelo eminingi ekuthuthukiseni isoftware ngokubanzi kunabathuthukisi be-Ubuntu (abagxile kakhulu ezindabeni zokubuka, ukuklama nobuhle).
  • CentOS. {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro}: Leli yi-clone esezingeni kanambambili yokusatshalaliswa kweRed Hat Enterprise Linux RHEL Linux, ehlanganiswe amavolontiya avela kukhodi yomthombo ekhishwe yiRed Hat.
  • I-Linux Yesayensi. {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro}: i-distro egxile ocwaningweni lwesayensi. Igcinwa ngamalabhorethri eCERN neFermilab Physics.
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Kususelwa kuSlackware

  • Slackware. {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro}: Ukusatshalaliswa kwe-Linux okudala kakhulu okuvumelekile. Yenzelwe imigomo emibili engqondweni: ukusetshenziswa kalula nokuzinza. Kuyintandokazi yama "geeks" amaningi, yize namuhla ingathandwa kakhulu.
  • IZenwalk Linux. {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro}: iyi-distro elula kakhulu, enconyelwe ikhompuyutha endala futhi igxile kumathuluzi we-inthanethi, i-multimedia, kanye nohlelo.
  • I-Linux Vector. {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro}: Le yi-distro ethola ukuthandwa. Kususelwa ku-slackware, okuyenza iphephe futhi izinze, futhi ifaka amathuluzi wokuthengisa athokozisayo.
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Isuselwe eMandriva

  • Mandriva. {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro}: Ekuqaleni kususelwa kuRed Hat. Umgomo wayo ufana kakhulu noBuntu: ukuheha abasebenzisi abasha emhlabeni weLinux ngokunikeza uhlelo olusebenziseka kalula nolunembile. Ngeshwa, ezinye izinkinga zezezimali zenkampani ngemuva kwale distro zidale ukuthi ilahlekelwe ukuthandwa kakhulu.
  • Mageia. {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro}: Ngo-2010, iqembu lababeyizisebenzi zaseMandriva, ngokuxhaswa ngamalungu omphakathi, lamemezela ukuthi lenze imfoloko yeMandriva Linux. Ukusatshalaliswa okusha okuholwa umphakathi okubizwa ngeMageia kudaliwe.
  • I-PCLinuxOS. {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro}: ngokususelwa kuMandriva, kepha kulezi zinsuku ukude kakhulu nayo. Kuya ngokuthandwa kakhulu. Ifaka amathuluzi amaningi (isifaki, njll.).
  • I-Tinyme. {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro}: Lokhu kungukusatshalaliswa okuncane kwe-Linux okususelwa ku-PCLinuxOS, okuqondiswe kwi-hardware endala.
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Ezimele

  • Vula i-OpenSUSE. {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro}: Lena inguqulo yamahhala ye-SUSE Linux Enterprise, enikezwa yi-Novell. Ingenye yama-distros athandwa kakhulu, yize ilahlekelwa ngumhlabathi.
  • I-Puppy Linux. {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro} - Ingu-50 MB kuphela ngosayizi, kepha isanikeza ngohlelo olusebenza ngokuphelele. Kunconyelwe ngokuphelele ikhompiyutha yakudala.
  • I-Arch Linux. {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro}: Ifilosofi yakhe ukuhlela nokulungisa konke ngesandla. Umqondo ukwakha uhlelo lwakho "kusuka ekuqaleni", okusho ukuthi ukufakwa kuyinkimbinkimbi ngokwengeziwe. Kodwa-ke, uma ihlomile uhlelo olusheshayo, oluzinzile noluphephile. Ngaphezu kwalokho, yi- "rolling release" distro okusho ukuthi izibuyekezo zihlala unomphela futhi akudingekile ukuthi usuke kolunye uhlobo olukhulu uye kolunye njengaku-Ubuntu nakwamanye ama-distros. Kunconyelwe ama-geek nabantu abafuna ukufunda ukuthi i-Linux isebenza kanjani.
  • I-Gentoo. {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro}: kuhloswe kubasebenzisi abanolwazi oluthile kulezi zinhlelo zokusebenza.
  • Sabayon (kusekelwe kuGentoo) {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro}: ISabayon Linux yehlukile kweGentoo Linux ngoba ungafakelwa okuphelele kohlelo lokusebenza ngaphandle kokuhlanganisa wonke amaphakheji ukuze ube nalo. Ukufakwa kokuqala kwenziwa kusetshenziswa amaphakheji kanambambili asungulwe ngaphambilini.
  • Tiny Core Linux. {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro}: i-distro enhle kakhulu yekhompiyutha endala.
  • ama-watts. {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro}: "green" distro ehlose ukonga amandla.
  • Slitaz. {Thola okuthunyelwe okuhlobene nenjini yokusesha} {Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni ye-distro}: "ukukhanya" distro. Kuyathakazelisa kakhulu ikhompiyutha yakudala.
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Ukubona konke okuthunyelwe kuxhunyaniswe ne-distros \ {Ukucinga Injini Yokusesha okuthunyelwe okuhlobene}